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Full text of "History of the church of the United brethren in Christ, Virginia conference, [microform]"

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AUTHOR: 







HOUSER, ABRAM 







TITLE: 







TORY OF THE 

CHOP THE 




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DAYTON, VA.] 



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Funl-diousor, Abran Paul, 1853- 

Hi3tory of the church of the United brethren in 
ChriGt, Virginia conference # by ••• A« ?• Funk- 
houser ••• ccnp. by Oron F. Ilorton ••• .Dayton, 
Va., RuobuGh-r.ieffcr, lOBlj 

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Abram Paul Funkhouser 






HISTORY OF THE CHURCH 



OF THE 



UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST 

VIRGINIA CONFERENCE 



BY 

REV. A. P. FUNKHOUSER A. M., D. D. 

[SEE NOTE) 

COMPILED BY 
OREN F. MORTON, B. Lit. 

"^"oMhel S "'■"AV?°*I^"rT?*'!'" "Winning or Losing?" "Land 
oi ine ijaiirel, A Practical History of Music" "Tlip Sfnr^f nf 
Daniel Boone," "A History of Preston Count'y, W Va " 4 
H.Story of Pendleton County. W. Va.,""! History 'of 
Highland County, W. Va.." "A History of Rock- 
bridge County," "Annals of 
Bath County, Va.'' 



» 



Dr. Funkhouser died before the work was completed. The 

material gathered and the language used by the Author 

have been carefully preserved by the Compiler. 



The Virginia Conference ordered the publication of this 
H«tory and appointed Drs. A. S. Hammock, W. F. Gruver, 
J. H Brunk, Rev. J N. Fries, Mr. W. I. Good and J. K. 
Kuebush as a committee on publication. 

We present to the Church this HUtory which we re- 
gard as of the greatest value to the church, not only of 
to-day but of the future. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER 

I Apostolic Christianity J)efore Otterbeiii 
II William Otterbein and the German Reformed 
Church 
Martin Boehm and the Mennonites 
German Immigration in the Eighteentli Centuiy 



III 

IV 

V 



The Evangelical Movement among }}:l German 
Immigrants 

VI Early Years of the Church 

VII Planting the Church in Virginia 

VIII Extracts from Newcomer's Journal 

IX The Early Preachers 

X Reminiscences of Some of the Early Preachers 

XI The Transition from German to English 

XII The Church in the War of 1861 

XIII The Church in Recent Times 

\TV Movements toward Union wdth Other Churches 

. XV Concerning Slavery and Intoxicants 

XVI Concerning Secret Societies 

XVII List of Preachers: Chronological 

XVIII List of Preachers: Alphabetical 

XIX Bishops, Missionaries, and Others 

XX Biographical Sketches of Ministers 

XXI Early Deaths among Ministers 

XXII Church Dedications 

XXIII Sketch of A. P. Funkhouser 

XXIV The Church and Education 
XXV The Virginia Conference School 

XXVI A Digest of the Conference Minutes 



11 



iiij 



EDITOR'S FOREWORD 



fcj 



Tlie late A. P. Funkhouser projected a book which, in 
treating of the Virginia Conference of the United Rrethren 
Church, should "include the origin, growth, and develop- 
ment of the Church within its bounds, and its distinctive 
features, together with portraits and brief biographies of 
many of its ministers." For this purpose he gathered a 
large and valuable store of material, but did not prepare 
a manuscript copy of the projected work. In early May 
of the present year, the undersigned was asked by the 
owner and custodians of the collection to sui)ply this lack. 
In carrying out the commission to compile a manuscript, 
the editor has adhered as closely as practicable to the 
topical plan found among the papers mentioned. He has 
also sought to put himself in the place of the expectant 
author. Hut iu constructing several of the chapters made 
necessary by the topical plan aforesaid, the collection 
afforded little aid. Dr. Funkhouser could undoubtedly 
have written these chapters without feeling much need for 
documents and other authorities. On the other hand, the 
e(Htor had never met Dr. Funkhouser, is not himself of the 
United Hrethren, and was not previously familiar with the 
rise and develoi)ment of the United Brethren Church. He 
was therefore com|)elled to make large use of source 
material not found in the collection. This is why chapters 
I to VII inclusive, IX, XI to XVI inclusive, and XXIV and 
XXV are, in the main, of his own authorship. In the quoted 
paragraphs, without reference as to source, that occur in 
some of these chapters, he has followed the phraseology 
of Dr. Funkhouser. It is hardly necessary to add that no 
writer can take up an outline formulated by another crafts- 
man, and pursue it with the same freedom as is possible to 
the projector. Rut since the undertaking had to be finished 



t 



by some one else, it is hoped that the present vohinie will, 
in at least a fair measure, fulfill the promise implied in the 
title. The books and pamphlets not found in the collection, 
and consulted by the editor, are these: "History of the 
Church of the United Brethren in Christ," by John Law- 
rence; "Our Bishops," by H. A. Thompson; "Our Heroes; 
or United Brethren Home Missionaries," by W. M. Weekley 
and H. H. Font; "Landmark History of the United Brethren 
Church," by 13. Eberly, I. H. Albright, and C. L B. Brane; 
"The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial Pennsyl- 
vania," by Oscar Kuhns; "The German Element in the 
Shenandoah Valley," by J. W. Wayland; "History of Bock- 
ingham County, Virginia," by J. W. Wayland; "Origin, 
Doctrine, Constitution, and Discipline of the United Breth- 
ren in Christ (1841);" "Life of J. J. Glossbrenner," bv A. 
W. Drury; "Life of William Otterbein," by A. W. Drury; 
"Life of David Edwards," by Lewis Davis; "Life and Career 
of James W. Hott," by M. B. Drury; "Life and Journal of 
Christian Newcomer," edited by John Hildt; "Michael 
Schlatter Memorial Addresses," by J. E. Boiler and others; 
"Autobiography of Peter Cartwright," edited by W. P. 
Strickland; "History of the Bise and Progress of the Bap- 
tists in Virginia," by B. B. Semple; "Life of Jacob P^achtel," 
by Z. Warner; the published Minutes of the Conference, 
1800-1818, and 1880-1920. 

The editor is much indebted to Mr. Joseph K. Buebush 
for the helpful interest shown in the undertaking, partic- 
ularly in furnishing authorities to supplement the data 
gathered by Dr. Funkhouser; also to the Bev. J. E. Hott 
for varied and valuable oral information. 

OBEN F. MOBTOX. 
Dayton, Virginia, August 29, 1919. 



CHAPTER I 
APOSTOLIC CHBISTIANITY BEFORE OTTERBEIN 

The Apostolic Church was the Christian organization 
that existed from the days of the apostles to the so-called 
conversion of the Boman emperor Constantine, a period 
of more than three centuries. There is excellent reason 
for the belief that it was made up only of converted men 
and women, and that its government and worship were 
very simple. There was no liturgy, neither were there any 
stately formalities, or any high-sounding ecclesiastical 
titles. Whoever believed the Gospel with the heart and 
made public confession w^as baptized and received into 
the church. He was then one of the brethren, and this 
term was applied without any discrimination as to wealth 
or rank. The worship consisted in reading from the 
Scriptures, in sermons and exhortations, in the singing of 
spiritual songs, in the relations of Christian experience, 
and in a simple celebration of the ordinances estabhshed 
bv Christ. 

During these three centuries the primitive Christian 
Church was a positive power and irresistible force. It 
endured persistent and bloody persecution, and yet it made 
no compromse with evil. The Christian religion was 
preached almost everywhere, and was rapidly advancing 
to a general conquest of the world, although this was tak- 
ing place without recourse to physical might. 

In the fourth century of the Christian era, the Boman 
empire was still by far the most dominant political power 
on earth. The emperor Constantine accepted Christianity 
as a state religon. This alleged conversion is one of the 
greatest frauds in all human history. Political expediency 
was undoubtedly the commanding motive of this monarch. 
The Christian Church now became popular and soon was 
growing wealthy. So long as paganism was in control, 



\ 



♦ 



A, 



UNITED BRETHREN 



the grandees sneered at the Christians. They now created 
high positions in the Church for the gratification of their 
pride and power. Preaching ceased, new and strange 
doctrines came into vogue, while a petrified ceremonial, 
elaborate yet empty, took the place of the primitive wor- 
ship. The Church, as it was now constituted, was made 
superior to the Bible, and to the mass of the people the 
latter became an unknown book. This church of the 
Middle Ages was a veneered paganism. It made itself a 
supreme political power, and as such it was nothing less 
than the Roman empire in a new form. Yet even with 
the help of popes and kings, this political church ceased 
to expand and began to retreat. For some time it was in 
great danger of being overthrown by Mohammedanism. 

This dark age in the history of the Christian Churcli 
lasted many centuries. Yet all this while, there were bands 
of Christians, sometimes numerous, who maintained the 
doctrine, discipline, and spirit of the Apostolic Church. 
Their Christianity was a living i)rotest against the cor- 
ruption of the papal system, which was willing to tolerate 
no other type than its own. These ai)ostolic Christians 
consequently drew upon themselves the wratli of the 
papacy, which was even worse than that of paganism. 

The best known of the early Protestants are tlie 
Waldensees of the southeast of France. They have liad 
a continuous history for fifteen centuries, and have con- 
gregations in America. 

Peter Waldo, a merchant of France, translatekl the 
Gospels into French, this being the first translation of any 
part of the Bible into a modern tongue. Until now, and 
indeed for several more centuries, the papal church used 
only a Latin version, which could be understood onlv by 
scholars. It resisted any effort to place the Bible in' the 
hands of the people generally. 

About the year 1400 it is believed there were no fewer 
than 800,000 of the Waldensees. They were most numer- 
ous in the south of France and the north of Italy, but had 
large congregations in what was until a year ago the 



CHURCH HISTORY 



3 



:J 



Austrian Empire. Their consistency was such as to force 
these words of praise from a papal officer: "They are 
orderly and modest in their behavior. They avoid all 
appearance of pride in dress. They neither indulge in 
finery of attire, nor are they remarkable for being mean 
and ragged. They get their living by manual industry. 
They are not anxious about amassing riches, but content 
themselves with the necessaries of life. Even when they 
work thev either learn or teach." 

Peter Waldo died in Bohemia in 1180. That country 
became a stronghold of the early Protestants, and in 1350 
it contained 200 of their churches. In the fourteenth cen- 
tury their greatest religious teacher was John Hus, who 
by means of the basest treachery was burned at the stake 
by a pai)al council. This deed of infamy led to civil war 
in Bohemia, but the Hussite commander-in-chief defeated 
every army sent against him. After his death, however, 
the papal party succeeded by intrigue and persistent mas- 
sacre in very nearly uprooting the Hussite church. But 
in 1457 the scattered remnants organized a society, giving 
it the name of Unitas Fratrum, this Latin expression mean- 
ing a Unity of Brothers, or United Brethren. This name 
has ever since been retained. But up to the time of the 
movement led by Martin Luther, these Christians were 
harried by almost constant persecution. Nevertheless, it 
was they who in 1470 published the first printed translation 
of the Bible into any European language. 

In 1474 a delegation of the Brethren was sent out to 
see if there were anywhere in Christendom any "congre- 
gations free from popish errors, and lived conformably 
to the rule of Christ and his apostles, that they might 
form a union with them." These men went as far as 
Constantinople and Egypt, but could not find what they 
were looking for. A deputation traveling in France and 
Italy twelve years later found some "upright souls, who 
secretly sighed over the prevailing abominatons." A synod 
of 1489 unanimously resolved that "If it should please 
God, in any country, to raise up sincere teachers and re- 



4 UNITED BRETHREN 

formers in the church, they would make common cause with 
them." In conformity therewith, the Brethren sent dele- 
gates to Martin Luther, who received them kindly. They 
urged the necessity of strict discipline. Luther admitted 
that during the time he was a papist his "zeal for religion 
made him hate the Brethren and the writing of Hus," 
but could now say that "since the day of the apostle's, 
there has existed no church, which, in her doctrine and 
rites, has more nearly approximated to the spirit of that 
age than the Bohemian Brethren. They far excel us in 
the observance of regular discipline, and in this respect 
are more deserving of praise than w^e. Our German people 
will not bend under the yoke of discipline." 

But the religious wars that followed the death of Luther 
were ver\' demoralizing. The Brethren were persecuted 
by the Lutherans and the Reformed Church as well as by 
the Catholics. They were driven from Prussia to Poland, 
where in 1627 a new organization was effected under the 
title of the Church of the United Brethren. But in the 
same year all their property in what is now Czecho- 
slovakia was confiscated, and all their churches and schools 
closed. The membership was scattered in all directions. 

These United Brethren agreed in doctrine with the 
Waldensees. They had superintendents, but recognized 
only one order of ministers as of divine appointment. They 
laid greater stress on piety, moral conduct, and knowledge 
of the Bible, in persons holding the pastoral office, than 
on human learning. The head of every family was 
required to send his children regularly to church, to 
instruct them at home, and to hold family devotions. Their 
churches were unadorned, and the sexes sat apart. There 
was vocal but no. instrumental music, and there was no 
prescribed form of prayer. 

In the opinion of the Brethren the Protestant Reforma- 
tion accompMshed only a part of its mission. They could 
not see that the churches that arose from it were moulded 
according to the apostolic pattern. One formal religion 
had been exchanged for another. Few of those who em- 



CHURCH HISTORY 5 

braced the Protestant faith were inwardly enhghtened. 
There was little discipline. All who conformed to certain 
very easy conditions were recognized as members of the 
church for life, although they mi^t be notorious for 
impiety and immorality. All grades of unbehevers came 
to the communion table. Church and state were united. 
Men loved their creeds more than they loved God. They 
were orthodox, but only in an intellectual sense. 

In 1722, Christian David led a band of United Brethren 
refugees to the estate of Count Zinzendorf, a Lutheran 
nobleman of Saxony. David had some time before met 
some imprisoned Brethren and their influence led to his 
conversion. He decided to join the Lutherans, but finding 
among them that any person seeking the salvation of his 
soul was exposed to jeers and taunts, he enlisted as a 
soldier. After his discharge he preached to such of the 
Brethren as he could find. On the Zinzendorf lands the 
refugees built the village of Herrnhut in a forest. Since 
this time they have been commonly known as Moravians. 
Count Zinzendorf was born in 1700. Losing his father 
in childhood he was reared by a grandmother, who had a 
daily prayer meeting in her home. Such a thing w^as then 
regarded as fanatical. The count was religiously inclined 
from his childhood, and Herrnhut grew into a flourishing 
village. Its people organized themselves into a religious 
society in 1727, in which year there was a great revival, 
thousands of people assembling to attend the meetings. 
Thus arose the Moravian Church, which has been greatly 
distinguished by self-sacrifice and by missionary zeal and 
success. As early as 1723 some of their missionaries 
visited England and w ere the inspiration of the remarkable 
Wesleyan revival of after years. Much of the spirit of 
the Moravians was carried into the Methodist movement, 
both Wesley and Whitefield having a very warm feehng 
for these people. 

In 1735 Moravian missionaries reached America, Count 
Zinzendorf himself following in 1742. In 1741 Bishop 
Spangenburg and others issued a call for any Christians of 






6 



UNITED BRETHREN 



whatsoever name to meet in a convention at Germantown^ 
"to see how near all could come together on fundamental 
points." Representatives of all the German sects, and 
perhaps others, were present at the meeting on New Year's 
day, 1742. The spirit of it was exactly similar to the move- 
ment afterward led by Otterbein. The doctrinal spirit of 
those taking part in it was Arminian and not Calvinistic. 
It was pre-eminently a missionary body. 

Yet this movement, begun in so promising a way, was 
wrecked by the bitter opposition of the Lutheran and 
Reformed pastors, who were opposed to the idea of a 
church composed only of converted persons. Wherever 
the Moravian missionaries went, they found the seeds of 
prejudice sown in advance, to embarrass and in some 
degree to frustrate their efii'orts. * 

This opening chapter of our book may not at a first 
glance seem to have a direct bearing on the history of the 
United Brethren in Christ. Yet it will show that the older 
bodies bearing almost precisely the same name were pre- 
cisely the same in spirit, and also that they had brought 
down to our modern era the spirit of the Apostolic Church. 

"The number of enlightened Christians, who, before the 
rise of Luther, adhered unswervingly to the doctrine and 
discipline of the Church which Christ had established, was 
very great; and the unblenching testimony they bore 
against popery, the evangelical light they dispersed by their 
preaching and their circulation of the Scriptures, and the 
remarkable heroism displayed b^^ so many thousands, 
while suffering a cruel death, did far more to make the 
papal power odious, and to prepare the public mind to 
respond to the voice of the reformers, than i^ generally 
supposed." 

To the above quotation from Lawrence, it may be added 
that the very existence of the pre-Reformation Protestants 
is an irresistible argument for the correctness of their 
views concerning the Apostolic Church. The church as 
reorganized by Constantine and his successors has a long 
history of bigoted intolerance and savage presecution, and 



<p 



CHURCH HISTORY 7 

is mainly responsible for the religious wars that for several 
centuries drenched Europe in blood. Yet it is no more 
than fair to state that if the church of the Middle Ages 
appears in the light of history as an apostate church, the 
Catholic Church of to-day is the product of a counter- 
reformation within that church, just as the various Pro- 
testant churches are the product of the Protestant 
Reformation. 



J . 



CHAPTER II 

WILLIAM OTTERBEIN AND THE GERMAN 
REFORMED CHURCH 

The Protestant Reformation began two centuries before 
the high tide of German emigration to America. In Ger- 
many the reformers spht at the very outset into two wings, 
the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, the latter bear- 
ing much the same relation to the former as the Pres- 
byterian Church bears to the Church of England. The 
stronghold of the Reformed Church was in Switzerland 
and the valley of the Rhine, whence it spread into France 
and Holland. In the remainder of Germany, except where 
the Catholics retained their hold. Protestantism was repre- 
sented almost exclusively by the Lutherans. In each of 
the petty monarchies of Germany there was a state church, 
and it was either Catholic, Lutheran, or Reformed. No\ 
one of the three looked with any favor on small sects that 
made no claims to being supported by the state. 

Despite the general opinion to the contrary, the Refor- 
mation was to a great extent superficial. It had to do 
with the intellect rather than the heart. Where the 
Cathohcs lost power, another formal religion was set up 
in its place. Consequently the Reformation soon began 
to lose its original force and at length stagnated. 

But as before the Reformation, so it was afterward. 
There was still an apostolic element, and it was no longer 
confined to the Moravians or the Mennonites. 

Philip James Spener was an Alsatian and Lutheran 
and died in 1705. It is estimated that 40,000 persons were 
converted as a result of his extensive preaching. The 
"collegia pietatis" that he established were Bible ""classes, 
prayer meetings, and class meetings, all in one. Spencer 
said he brough treligion from the head to the heart. He 
insisted that no one but a pious man had any business 
in the pulpit. He also condemned all forms of question- 






t ■ 



CHURCH HISTORY 9 

able amusements. That the clergy, as well as the laity, 
of the established churches were enraged at such obvious 
truths indicates a very low degree of spirituality. Pietism, 
which was the name given to the teachings of Spener, 
was the immediate application of Christian teaching to 
the heart as well as to the head. Spener and Pietism were 
to Germany what Wesley and early Methodism were to 
England, and W^esley was greatly influenced by his Ger- 
man forerunner. 

Pietism, by whomsoever professed, was an emotional 
form of religion. But by the year 1800 emotionalism had 
died out in Germany, although it lived on in America, 
especially among the Americans of German descent. It is 
also worthy of remark that Spener made no effort to 
establish a new^ sect. All he sought was to infuse a more 
apostolic life into the established churches. 

Philip William Otterbein, otherwise known simply as 
William Otterbein, was born June 3, 1726,* at Dillenberg, 
a town of about 3,000 inhabitants in the valley of the 
Rhine. His father, a minister of the German Reformed 
Church, w^as also principal of the Latin school in his home 
town. He died in the prime of life, the oldest of his seven 
children being only eighteen years of age. The widow 
was left with slender means, but like her husband she 
had character, piety, and learning. She had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing all her six sons complete a collegiate course 
of study. As rapidly as the older ones became qualified 
to teach, they assumed a leading share in the support of 
the household and helped to educate the younger brothers. 
All the sons lived to a ripe age. Three of them became 
authors. All of them, like their father, their father's father, 
and their own sister's husband, became ministers. We are 
sometimes told that the sons of preachers are always bad. 
Occasionally they are wayward, like some of the boys 

*01d Style, and equivalent to June 15 at the present day. The 
change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar took place in 
England in 1752. The former was then eleven days behind the 
carrect time. In Germany the change to New Style had previously 
taken place. 



10 



UNITED BRETHREN 



from other homes, and when this is the esse the fact fe 
trumpeted about. Far more usually they become men of 
substantial qualities. 

Herborn Academy, the school in which the OtterbeinS' 
were educated, arose while the Protestant Reformation was 
in full vigor, and it was under strong religious ioftuences. 
It could almost be classed as a university. In its theological 
•department the tenets of Calvinism were less rigidly upheld 
than was the usual custom in Protestant lands. It is due 
;to this circumstance that William Otterbein became the 
primary founder of a church that is Arminian in its 
theology. 

' It was a German custom for the graduate, if a candidate 
for the ministr>% to demonstrate his fitness to teach before 
he could receive ordination. He was expected to serve 
this apprenticeship by being a "house-teacher" in some 
well-to-do family. In accordance with this custom William 
Otterbein took up the work of tutoring, but when not quite 
twenty-two years of age was made an instructor in the 
very school where he had been educated. One year later, — 
June 13, 1749, — he was ordained to the ministry in the 
Reformed church of Dillenburg, which was the only house 
to worship in the town. He had already been ai)pointed 
vicar, — assistant preacher;, — in a small village near by. 
But although now a minister he did not cease to teach. 
His ministerial duties required him to preach every Sun- 
day, and occasionally on other days, and to hold a prayer 
meeting once each week. The prayer meeting was then 
rare in Germany. It is still rare, although we hear of the 
"Bible hour" among groups of South Germans in whom 
the religious feeling is particularly strong. During the 
four years of pastoral work in his mother country, Otter- 
bein laid great stress on a pure life and an active religious 
spirit. This aroused some opposition among the worldly- 
minded church-goers, and there was an unsuccessful 
attempt to muzzle his speech. His mother said the home 
town was too narrow for one like him and that he would 
have to become a missionary. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



11 



The Dutch Reformed and the German Reformed de- 
nominations are sister churches. Aside from the more 
riaid Calvinism of the former, and the fact that the one 
arose in Holland and the other in Germany, there is no 
well marked distinction between them. The Dutch 
Reformed Church was the first to appear in America for 
the simple reason that New York was at first a Dutch 
colony and sent emigrants across the Atlantic before any 
came from Germany. Holland was then wealthy, while 
Germany was poor. The smaller country was therefore 
the better able to contribute to the missionary work so 
greatly needed at this time in America. In addition to 
their direct contributions, the people of Holland created 
a fund of $60,000,— fully equal to $500,000 at the date of 
this book, — the income from which was applied to mis- 
sionary activities beyond the Atlantic. It is much to the 
credit of the Hollanders in that intolerant age that they 
were willing to come to the relief of the sister church. 

In 1746 Michael Schlatter, a native of Switzerland and 
a young man of zeal and enthusiasm, arrived in America. 
He came to visit the various settlements, and there organize 
societies, secure pastors when possible, baptize children, 
administer the Lord's Supper, and prepare church records. 
In efl'ect, he was a bishop. After five years he returned 
to Holland to make a personal report and ask further 
assistance, both in missionaries and money. In carrying 
out this errand he came to Herborn, the home of the Otter- 
beins, and there secured five helpers, one of whom was 
William. The mother did not withhold her consent, even 
in the face of the strong probability that she would never 
see him again in this life. So he went away with her bless- 
ing and arrived at New York July 28, 1752. However, a 
bronchial ailment had something to do with his leaving 
Germany. It was thought the American climate would 
prove beneficial. This seems to have been the result, for 
William Otterbein reached a greater age than any of his 
brothers, although there was at times a recurrence of the 
trouble. 



12 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



13 



About one month after reaching America Otterbein was 
installed as pastor of the German Reformed Church at 
Lancaster, then a thrifty Pennsylvania town of 2,000 
inhabitants. In importance this congregation ranked 
second among the Reformed churches in the colonies. But 
discipline and spirituahty were at a low ebb. In 1757 he 
asked to be relieved but consented to remain another year 
on condition that the rules of order which he drew up 
should be adopted. These rules were signed by eighty of 
the male members of the church, and were so salutary 
that they remained in force till about 1830. That Otterbein 
did not toil at Lancaster in vain is further evident in the 
fact that this city remains a stronghold of the Reformed 
Church and is the seat of one of its foremost collegiate 
institutions. Furthermore, the small wooden house of 
worship was superseded during his ministry by a massive 
stone building, used as such for almost a century. 

It was during this pastorate that there was a turning- 
point in the character and effect of Otterbein's preaching. 

In the state-supported churches of that age, religion 
was viewed as a form of intellectual education. If an 
adult had learned the catechism, had been confirmed, and 
partook at stated times of the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, and, if furthermore, his general deportment pre- 
sented no loophole for well-aimed criticism, he was con- 
sidered to be a model Christian. But such educational 
religion, had no spirituality, because it was not founded 
on the new birth. The appeal was to the head and not to 
the heart. It was all very well, so far as it went, but it 
did not go far enough. 

One morning Otterbein preached with more than his 
usual fervor and several of his liearers were deeply moved. 
At the close of the sermon one of them came forward to 
ask counsel. Yet the minister could only replv that 
"advice was scarce with him to-day." He awoke*^to the 
discovery that he had been preaching truths he had studied 
m a formal manner, but had not adequately experienced. 
Almost at once he went to his closest to pray until he 



I! 



possessed a more perfect consciousness of personal salva- 
tion. This does not necessarily mean that up to this point 
he was an unconverted man. It does mean that he was 
not satisfied with the ground on which he had been stand- 
ing. This explains the answer he gave, many years after- 
ward, to a question by Bishop Asbury: "By degrees was 
I brought to a knowledge of the truth, while I was at Lan- 
caster." From this time forward, Otterbein insisted on a 
true spiritual experience as both the privilege and the duty 
of every member of any Christian church. It was the be- 
ginning of a new and more effective epoch in his ministry. 
Hitherto he had used manuscript in his pulpit. Hence- 
forward he discarded the practice and preached extempore. 
Leaving Lancaster in 1758, Otterbein preached two 
years on Tulpehocken Creek, near Reading. He now intro- 
duced the week-day evening prayer meeting. To see the 
preacher and his flock kneeling at such a time was a novelty 
to the people and some of them thought it improper. Even 
the pastors of that age sometimes persecuted those who 
attended such meetings. 

The next pastorate was at Frederick, Maryland, and 
continued five years. It was very successful, although the 
formalists in the congregation chafed un)der his denial 
that an observance of conventional worship has power in 
itself to save the unconverted man. At one time a majority 
decided upon his abrupt dismissal. Finding the church 
door locked, the minister went into the burial ground and 
preached from a tombstone. Another service was an- 
nounced for the same place the following Sunday. But 
this time the door was opened. At Frederick, as at Lan- 
caster, one result of his efforts was a substantial house of 
worship built of stone. 

The fourth American pastorate was at York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and lasted from 1765 to 1774, excepting an absence 
of about one year, during which he visited the old home 
in Germany. He sailed for Europe in April, 1770, having 
now been eighteen years in America. His mother and all 
his brothers were still living. 



14 



UNITED BRETHREN 



The fifth pastorate, which was not only the last but 
the longest, took Otterbein to Baltimore, then a city of 
6,000 people. His congregation was small, and did not 
acknowledge the authority of the German Reformed 
organization. This independent attitude had much to do 
with the formation of the United Brethren Church, as will 
be explained in a later chapter. 

Otterbein came to America as a missionary, and carried 
the missionary- spirit with him during all his pastorates, 
making long journeys in order to reach people who were 
without the gospel. His travehng work began while he 
was on the Tulpehocken. He visited all the German coun- 
ties of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and went up the Valley 
of Virginia as far as Strasburg. He was entirely evange- 
lical, cared little for creeds, and less for church names. 
In early youth he was deeply impressed by the teachings 
of the Pietists, who were to Germany what the Wesleyan 
societies were to England. To him and those agreeing with 
him religion was almost wholly an inner work, personal 
and individual, within the soul, and was effective and of 
value only when the personal experience was conscious 
of the mystic union of the divine spirit with the human, 
witnessing the conscious forgiveness of sins, and produc- 
ing a peace of mind which the world could not give. Right 
living was to follow as a matter of course, but was a neces- 
sary product of a right heart. 

Bisliop Otterbein was recognized as one of the scholars 
of his age. He was familiar with the Greek and Hebrew 
languages, and was so much at home in the Latin that he 
sometimes wrote the original draft of his sermons in that 
tongue. Asbury speaks of him as "one of the best scholars 
and the greatest divines in America." But in the hne of 
authorship he left no evidence of his learning except what 
may be gleaned from a few personal letters and the records 
of his church work. His industry found expression in 
other Imes. As a preacher he was argumentative and 
eloquent, and an exceptionally clear expounder of the 
Scriptures. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



15 



Throui^hout his long life Otterbein enjoyed the affec- 
tionate esteem of great numbers of people, both in his own 
and other churches. In his last years he was too infirm 
to attend the annual conferences. But as "Father Otter- 
bein," he continued to be held in deep veneration. His 
personal appearance is thus described by Henry Boehm, 
a son of his co-laborer: "In person he was tall, being six 
feet high, with a noble frame and a commanding appear- 
ance. He had a thoughtful, open countenance, full of 
benignity, and a dark-bluish eye that was very expressive. 
In reading the lessons he used spectacles, which he would 
take off and hold in his left hand while speaking. He had 
a high forehead, a double chin, with a beautiful dimple in 
the center. His locks were gray, his dress parsonic." 
Stevens in his "History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," 
makes these observations: "Otterbein was large, and very 
commanding in his personal appearance, with a prominent 
forehead, upon which the seal of the Lord seemed to be 
plainly impressed. His Christian kindness and benevolence 
knew no bounds, and all he received, like Wesley, he gave 
way in charities." 

Otterbein's parsonage at Baltimore contained only four 
rooms. He was at this time a widower without family. 
Anyone who lived with him was required to attend church. 
The bishop was sociable and charitable, very regular and 
systematic in his habits, and very precise in his costume. 
After coming to Baltimore, he gave up wearing a clerical 
gown in the pulpit and preached in the attire of a citizen. 
He was opposed to church organs, and he did not believe 
a Freemason could be a Christian. 

Wiham Otterbein died at Baltimore, November 17, 1813, 
at the ar^e of eicfhty-seven years, having spent sixty-five 
years in the Christian ministry. That the funeral exercises 
for the venerable bishop w^ere conducted by ministers of 
the Lutheran, Methodist, and Episcopal churches is a 
significant witness to the breadth of his sympathies. 

For several years Otterbein had been too infirm to 
travel outside of Baltimore. Only six weeks before his 



16 



UNITED BRETHREN 



death he was assisted from his bed to an easy chair that 
he might ordain Christian Newcomer, Joseph Hoffman, 
and Frederic Schaeffer, two of whom became bishops! 
The certificates of ordination were written in Enghsh as 
well as in German. 



CHAPTER HI 

MARTIN BOEHM AND THE MENNONITES 

The Mennonite Church was founded in Switzerland in 
1522, and very soon it spread into Germany, Holland, and 
France. Persecution was prompt to appear, and it is 
claimed that in nearly every instance the Mennonite can 
trace his ancestry to some forbear who was burned at the 
state or tortured. Protestantism was represented in 
Switzerland by the Reformed Church, and the churchly 
pride which this denomination had inherited from the 
mother church, the Roman Catholic, led it to look upon 
the Mennonites as contemptible. It persecuted the new 
sect as cheerfully as did the Lutherans or the Catholics. 
One of the ways of contending with what was deemed a 
heresy was to drown the Mennonite offender. This was 
looked upon as baptizing him in his own way. 

Menno Simon, a Catholic priest, espoused the cause of 
the harassed people, gave them his name, and added the 
principle of non-resistance to their creed. Between 1670 
and 1710 large numbers were driven to Austria and Russia 
by the Protestants of their home-lands because they re- 
fused to have their children baptized. The first to appear 
in America were a little party who came in the fall of 
1683 at the sohcitation of William Penn. Their first meet- 
ina-house was built at Germantown in his colony in 1708. 
When the war for American independence rose, the Amer- 
ican Mennonites had 13 congregations and 15 bishops. 
There are now about 60,000 members in the United States. 

The Mennonite Church came into existence as an effort 
to bring back to life the primitive Christian Church, accord- 
ing to Menno's conception of it. There are points of re- 
semblance between the German Mennonites and the English 
Quakers, and this is why William Penn showed them so 
much hospitality. Both sects practice simplicity in per- 
sonal attire, have no paid ministers, and refuse to make 



18 



UNITED BRETHHEX 



formal oaths or to perform military service. It was their 
opposition to war that made them particularly abnoxious 
to the Swiss. The government of Switzerland ruled that 
those of its people who were unwilling to bear arms in 
the defense of the state were undeserving of its protec- 
tion. They had no theology. "Beheve and let believe," 
Avas their motto. The Mennonites go so far in the direc- 
tion of pacifism as to forbid their members from engaging 
in personal combat. They are much opposed to the baptism 
ol infants. They do not countenance secret societies, 
neither do they accept civil office or exercise the right of 
sufirage. Among their religious practices are the anointing 
witli oil, the kiss of charity, and the washing of feet. What- 
ever may be thought of their views on non-resistance and 
on non-participation in civic life, the Mennonites have 
always been noted for temperance, pure living, strict 
honesty, and conscientious devotion to the observances of 
their creed. Hut the Mennonites of colonial America 
allowed the spiritual side of religion to fall into very great 
neglect. They drifted into a hidebound formalism, which 
made them extremely exact in matters of costume, and to 
insist on a precise morafity in the affairs of everyday 
conduct. 

Mennonites were among the very earliest settlers in the 
Valley of Virginia, yet it was almost a century before they 
built any special house of worship. The first was Frissel's, 
near Baker's mill, three miles west of Broadway. It is 
now called the Brush church and was built in 1822. 
Meyer's meeting house, on the Valley Pike, was built about 
three years later. 

From the settlement north of Woodstock the younger 
generation pushed up the Valley and occupied the region 
about Timberville, Broadway, and Turleytown. From the 
thirty families around Coote's store, numbers moved south 
nnd west from Harrisonburg. Here was a district of wood- 
land so late as 1780. The previous sparse population of 
English and Scotch-Irish cabin-dwellers, each controlling 
from 600 to 1,000 acres, lived mainly by hutning and 



CHURCH HISTORY 



11> 



fishing. 

About 1825 there was a schism among the Mennonites 
of Rockingham county. It came about through the asso- 
ciation of Frederick Rhodes, one of their preachers, with 
the United Brethren of the congregation at Whitesel's. 
Abount one-half the Mennonite body took offense at the 
loud and earnest preaching of Rhodes, and not because ot 
the doctrines he set forth or of taking an active part in 
the meetings of the Brethren. Peter Eby and three other 
ministers came from Pennsylvania and restored harmony. 
They ruled that Rhodes had not transgressed the gospel. 

Martin Boehm, son of a Swiss immigrant, was born in 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, November 30, 1725. His 
father, reared as a member of the Reformed Church, fell 
under the infiuence of the Pietists. For this lapse into what 
was deemed a heresy, he was denounced by his parents as 
well as his pastor, and was sentenced to jail. But he 
escaped to France, and in 1715 made his way to America, 
where he became a Mennonite, his wife being of the same 
faith. 

The alert intellectuality of the son atoned in a great 
degree for his meager educational opportunities. He had 
a clear and ready grasp of ideas, and was a fluent speaker 
in German, learning also to express himself in English. 
His gift of expression caused him to be selected as a 
preacher when thirty-three years old. Even then, how- 
ever, he was difiident and tongue-tied in his first attempts 
to exhort. Like Otterbein he now realized that he had no 
gospel message for the people until he had been made 
a new man by the power of the Holy Spirit. This radical 
change came as an answer to long continued prayer for 
light and guidance. Thenceforward he was elequent and 
effective. The necessity of the new birth was the keynote 
of his preaching. Some of his Mennonite brethren accej)ted 
the doctrine, while others thought him a fanatic. Never- 
theless, he was advanced to the rank of bishop in the 
Mennonite Church in 1759. 

But Otterbein and Boehm were not alone. Certam 



20 



UNITED BRETHREN 



"New Light" preachers from tlie Valley of Virsrinia were 
presenting the same gospel message to the German-speak- 
ing people. The New Lights were the followers of George 
^^ hiteheld. an English evangelist who traveled extensivelv 
in America. The Mennonite settlers of the Valley listened 
to these disciples with interest. They had no ministers 
of their own, neither were they yet organized into societies 
1 hoy now sent for a minister and Boehm responded to the 
call His missionary labors in Virginia were very helpful 
to himself as well as the people. After his return to 
Pennsylvania he thought it was no longer his duty to con- 
hne his efforts to his own neighborhood. He preached 
wherever he felt impelled to go. As before, some of the 
Mennonites listened to his teachings with approval and 
some with astonishment. The voice of opposition proved 
itself the stronger force. Articles of indictment were drawn 
up and Boehm was expelled from the Mennonite com- 
munion, ^et his Christian character was not questioned, 
and he could no^^• preach with more freedom than ever 

7l llTu -^T'*"^ "'*''■ "'^^ ^'^'■'^ «f '»« farm to his son 
so that he might now give his whole time to evangelistic 
work. After 1789 his ministerial career is a part of the 
history of the United Brethren Church. 

..J^T^?'"''^"' '"'''' ^'-"""^ ^-' ^81-'' '" the advanced 
age of eighty-six years. He was hale and stronu almost to 
the very last, and could ride a horse until his final and very 
brief Illness. His longevity was ineherited bv his son 
Heno-, who preached a sermon in the city of New York 

MnrMn T i"'"'''!'' f "'''^-^- ^°'^*-- ^rury speaks of 
Martin Boehm as "a short, stout man, with a vigorous 
constitution an intellectual countenance, and a fine tlow^ 

appea'rance ' Bo'h ''" '" '.'^ '^'^" ^'^^^'"^ ^ >-«-''-ha1 
appearance. Boehm was always plain and simple in 

costume, and seems never to have discarded the severeh 

plain a,„,f,„, Mennonites. His estimable peZ^a, 

qualities an<l h.s sincere Christian character made Wm 

deeply revered in the church he helped to found and very 

much respected by other denominations ^ 



I 



CHAPTER IV 

GERMAN IMMIGRATION IN THE EIGHTEENTH 

CENTURY 

The well informed American knows that the United 
States is a nation of 48 states and more than 100,000,000 
people. In some particular respects it is outranked, here 
by one countrv and there by another. Yet the substantial 
fact remains that in a massing of the fundamental features 
of national greatness, the American Republic stands first 
in what was styled, until 1914, the sisterhood of nations. 
In 1783 it was neither populous nor rich. To-day it is the 
wealthiest country on the face of the globe, the richest in 
natural resources, and the strongest in physical might. 

It requires no far-reaching examination of the census 
returns to learn that among the Protestant bodies the 
Methodists and Baptists are easily in the lead. Next, but 
at some distance, follow the Presbyterians, Lutherans, 
Episcopalians, Christians, and Congregationalists. The de- 
nominations that are still smaller are more numerous, and 
it is among these that the one known as the United Breth- 
ren in Chnst is classified. Yet it must be remembered that 
the larger communions, and many of the smaller as well, 
are made up of aggregations independent of one another. 
The census of 1890 enumerates 141 distinct religious 
organizations. Yet not one of the number is supported by 
the General government or by the government of any state. 
A rapid survey of the America of 1752 will be of much 
interest. It was in that year that William Ottebein came to 
America after spending nearly four months in crossing 
the Atlantic on a sailing vessel. 

There was not yet any political bond between the thir- 
teen colonies that were to become the first members of 
the Federal Union. They were still a part of the British 
realm and prospectively the most important part. The 
million and a half of inhabitants,— less than the present 



90 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



23 



I)opulation of the little state of Maryland,— were scattered 
a thousand miles along the Atlantic coast. There were 
very few indeed who lived more than seventy miles inland 
from the very shore itself. Only a few thousands were in 
the recently settled country west of the Blue Rid'^e. Phila- 
delphia, Boston, and New York were the largest cities, and 
not one of the three was much more populous than Staun- 
ton. Va., is now. America was mainly an agricultural land. 
There was an active commerce by sea, but no industrial 
establishnients which now would be considered worthy of 
any mention. There were only fixe colleges, and excei)t 
m the New England section there were no free schools. In 
the other colonies schooling was looked upon as a private 
interest, to be purchased and paid for like a suit of clothes. 
America was a new country and in a general sense it was 
crude. Yet it was a prosperous land. Furthermore, the 
Americans already regarded themselves as a people' dis- 
tinct from any other. They had a higher level of intelligence 
than was true of England, and they had a higher sense of 
civic spirit than the inhabitants of the British Isles. They 
were proud of their local institutions, jealous of theiV 
political rights, and were convinced that the future held 
much in store for them. 

Buj there was no multiplicity of religious denominations 
in 1752. Religion was free only in Rhode Island and 
Pennsylvania. The first of these colonies was founded by 
Baptists and the second by Quakers. Elsewhere the Euro- 
pean practice prevailed and there was a state church, 
supported by pubhc taxation. To a certain extent all adults 
were expected to attend its services. In two of the four 
New England colonies the state church was the Congrega- 
tional, which under the name of Independent, ranked 
as the establishment in England during Cromwell's rule. 
In nine of the colonies the Church of England was in 
power, the same as in England itself. When the Hollanders 
founded New York they introduced their own national 
church, the Dutch Reformed, and it is in New York that 
this denomination has its chief foothold in America to-day. 



a| 



11 



t i 



*-> 



The Presbyterian was the state church of Scotland, and 
the very heavy Scotch-Irish immigration, beginning in 
earnest about 1725, gave that sect a very strong following, 
particularly all along the inland frontier. The half-century, 
1725-1775, witnessed a very large German inflow. In this 
way the Lutheran, the state church of the Protestant Ger- 
man monarchies, appeared in the Middle Colonies and in 
Maryland and Virginia. Nearly all this German element 
w as from the upper valley of the Rhine, especially Switzer- 
land and the Palatinate. And since the German Reformed 
Church was well represented in this very region, that de- 
nomination also came to America. Still other Germans 
were Moravians or were Mennonites of various branches. 
The denominations we have named are substantially 
all that were represented in America of 1752. They origi- 
nated in Europe, and with the exception of the Baptists, 
Quakers, Mennonites, and Moravians, they began there 
as state churches. 

Several organizations very strong in America to-day 
were then quite unknown. This is conspicuously true of the 
Methodist Church, which began as a society within the 
Church of England, and did not become an independent 
body in America until 1784. It was unknown in 1752 and 
had little more than a thousand members in 1774. Alexan- 
der Campbell was not yet born, and consequently the 
church founded by him was still in the future. 

It is in place to say something more about established 
churches. Two centuries before the birth of Otterbein it 
was strictly true that there was but one church in all West- 
ern Europe. This church was the Roman Catholic. There 
was a small wave of dissent, but it was the customary prac- 
tice to hunt down the objector as though he were a wild 
beast. If emphatic persuasion would not silence his voice 
he was put out of the way as though a positive danger 
to society. Toward the middle of the sixteenth century, 
Henry VIII broke with Rome and within the borders of 
England he took the place of the pope as the head of the 
church. For a while there was no other conspicuous point 



24 



UNITED BRETHREN 



of diflerence between the Church of Rome and the Church 
of England. But within the latter body an influence sprang 
up which conformed its theology to the Protestant standard, 
while making httle alteration in its ritual and its forms 
of worship, so far as outward appearance was CD-cerned. 
Somewhat the same thing happened in Germany. U: der 
the lead of Martin Luther a large portion of Northern 
Europe threw off all allegiance to Rome, and adopted {he 
creed on which the Protestant Reformation had rested its 
cause. Yet the externals of worship in tlic Liillieran 
Church, as in the Church of England, were nulth the same 
as in the mother church. This is an illustration of the 
fact that mankind is far more prone to cff'ect a change 
by stei)s and not by jumps. A large section of the Prot- 
estant world did not consider the change radical enough, 
and the Calvinistic creed was the result. Thus arose the 
Calvinistic churches; the Presbyterian in Scotland, the 
Independent in England, the Dutch Reformed in Holland, 
the German Reformed in Switzerland and the south of Ger- 
many, and the Huguenot, or French Protestant Church, in 
France. 

Before the coming of the Reformation and for many 
years afterward, it was generally believed that no country 
should permit more than one church organization v/ithin 
its confines. The church and the civil authority were 
viewed as the twin pillars that supported the state. ^ It was 
plain that no state could endure if it were to tolerate any 
rival political organization inside of its borders. How, 
then, it was argued, could there safely be more than one 
standard of religious belief within a state? Religious dis- 
sent was viewed with anger and horror, just as anarchy 
and bolshevism are viewed in the political world to-day. 
But the spirit of that age was more than intolerant. It 
was cruel. The religious remonstrant was bovcotted, both 
socially and religiously. This policy alone ^ w as severe 
enough in its practical effect. But if relatively mild 
measures did not effect the desired result, the heretic was 
burned at the stake, or was skinned and disemboweled in 



CHURCH HISTORY 



25 



the hideous belief that his torture in this world meant the 
salvation of his soul for the next. 

The Church of Rome tried to stamp out Protestantism, 
root and branch. It nearly succeeded in France and more 
fully succeeded in some other regions. In Germany it was 
obliged to come to terms. An agreement was reached 
whereby each of the petty states into which Germany was 
then divided should choose between Catholicism and 
Protestantism. 

Religious toleration was not by any means a first fruit 
of the Reformation. The early Protestants were them- 
selves intolerant. Freedom of conscience was not recog- 
nized until torrents of blood had flowed on the battlefields 
of Europe. When brave, stubborn men fought other men 
as brave and stubborn as themselves, each party found at 
length that the only w^ay out of the difficulty was to agree 
to live and let live. It was next found out that unity in 
political government and unity in church organization do 
not rest on the same base. It was gradually discovered 
that the assumed peril to the state in permitting more than 
one sect within its borders was a mere creature of the 
imagination. Nevertheless, toleration was resisted in 
Europe, inch by inch, year by year, and had not become 
generally accepted at the time when Otterbein sailed for 
America. And even after intolerance had lost the support 
of the civil arm of the state, its spirit survived in the form 
of animosity between sect and sect. Instead of presenting 
a united front against the manifold forces of evil, the 
Protestant churches scattered their energies by persistently 
firing into each other's ranks. This spirit has been waning 
a long while, yet it is a matter of common observation that 
it is still a force to be reckoned with. 

Religious toleration grew out of the Reformation, al- 
though the non-Catholic churches persecuted freely and 
even severely, burning some of the more prominent offen- 
ders at the stake. The Church of Rome went further and 
resorted to wholesale massacre. The Huguenots of France 
were either murdered or had to get out of their native land 



26 



UNITED BRETHREN 



the easiest way possible. The government of England 
worried the Protestant non-comformists as well as the 
Catholics. 

Grime perpetrated in the name of religion was the lead- 
ing cause in the peopling of America. Thus wore driven 
the Puritans to New England, the Quakers to Pennsylvania, 
the Cathohcs to Maryland, and the Presbyterians to tlie 
Middle Colonies. 

The tragedy of the Thirty Years War, occurrina i*^ the 
first half of the seven teeth century, shook Germany to its 
foundations. Three-fourths of its population perished, 
and the country was set back one hundred and fifty years 
in its civilization. In this long drawn out contest religious 
and political ambitions were interwoven. But war con- 
linued to follow war at short intervals, and the Germans 
had a surfeit of strife that lasted until the full development 
of militarism since 1860. 

On the left bank of the Rhine and adjacent to the 
frontier of France is the fine region known as the Pala- 
tinate. It is one-half the size of New Jersey and is justly 
called the garden spot of Germany. The Palatines, as the 
inhabitants are called, possess the steadiness, thorough- 
ness, and industry that are characteristic of the German 
nation. They are good gardeners and are fond of flowers. 
John Fiske has remarked that in going from Strasburg 
to Rotterdam by way of the Palatinate, "one is perpetually 
struck witli the general difl'usion of intelligence, refine- 
ment, strength of character, and personal dignity." 

One of the later episodes of the intermittent warfare 
of which we have just spoken was the devastation of this 
fertile province. Three times was it laid waste within 
twenty years, the last time,— in 1693,— with a ferocity 
which recalls the far more horrible doings of the German 
armies in Belgium and France in 191 1-18. Dwellings were 
burned, orchards were cut down, wells were filled up, and 
cemeteries were violated. This havoc is justly regarded 
as one of the darkest pages in the history of Europe, 
although it has been cast into the background by the 



CHURCH HISTORY 



27 



diabolic infamies perpetrated during the recent war by the 
express command of the German government. 

The Palatines were almost wholly Protestant at this 
time, and they suffered because they were not Catholics. 
But although their oppressors had the power to make them 
homeless and destitute, they could not make them recant. 
William Penn visited the Rhine and addressed the refugees 
in their own tongue. He invited them to go to his colony 
of Pennsylvania. A few of them migrated as early as 1683, 
and founded German town, then six miles from Philadel- 
phia, but now a part of that city. One of the emigrants 
wrote back that, ''what pleases me here is thiil G::e can be 
l^easant, scholar, priest, and nobleman at the same time." 
Favorable reports like this were certain to induce further 
emigration. After 1702, and particular after 1726, the 
German emigration became heavy. It was the Palatinate 
that supplied the greater share of the comers from the 
valley of the Rhine, in the period, 1725-1775. A smaller 
share came from Switzerland. This little country did not 
suftVr ill the Thirty Year's war and remained prosperous. 
Bu* Swilzcrlar.d was feudalistic at that time and there was 
little real freedom for the mass of the inhabitants. Tlie 
Swir:i emigrated to better their condition, the Palatines to 
escape the tyranny and corruption of their new government. 

The remaining portion of the German immigration to 
America was chieily from Wurtemburg. Thus it will be 
seen that this German influx was almost exclusivelv from 
the upper part of the valley of the Rhine. Except for the 
few Moravians from Saxon v, the north of German v Jiad 
no hand in the movement. The South Germans differ from 
the Prussians, who are not true Germans, but Germanized 
Slavs. Yet neither are the people of the upper Rhine typical 
Germans. The black hair and dark complexion thev so 
frequently exhibit are due to a very extensive blend with 
an earlier and brunette population. This helps to explain 
why the Alsatians, though speaking a dialect of German, 
are so thoroughly French in sentiment. 

When the Palatines began coming, the only settled por- 



28 



UNITED BRETHREN 



tion of Pennsylvania was the southeast corner. Here were 
the EngHsh Quakers, a sprinkling of Swedes, and the clus- 
ter of earlier comers at Germantown. The Scotch-Irish 
were also pouring in. When it came to a "showdown," 
there was no very cordial welcome for the deluge of 
strangers that bade fair to submerge the population al- 
ready on the ground. The Scot ch-lrish spoke English but 
were not meek nor easy to get along with. The Germans 
did not speak English and some of their customs were un- 
familiar. (Nevertheless, they were from the industrial 
classes of Germany.) They were intelligent, moral, self- 
sacrificing, and most of them were religiously inclined. 
"No people in America were so subject to religious excite- 
ment as the Germans of the eighteenth century." They 
became so numerous in the colony that Benjamin Franklin 
began the publication of a German newspaper in 1734. 
Certain restrictive laws were enacted by the provincial 
government. One of these required all German immigrants 
to swear allegiance to the British government as a condi- 
tion of their admission to the province. The records kept 
as a result of this act give the name of the ship, the port 
from which it sailed, the date of its arrival, and the names 
of its passengers. These records are therefore of much 
genealogic interest. 

Entire counties of Pennsylvania, such as Lancaster, 
York, Berks, Bucks, and Montgomery, were occupied al- 
most wholly by these German immigrants. The wave 
overflowed into the counties of Frederick and Washington 
in Maryland. 

In 1727 began the peopling of "New Virginia," which 
name was then applied to the section of Virginia between 
the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies. Along and near the 
Potomac this district was settled mainly by English and 
Scotch-Irish pioneers. But southward from Winchester, 
nearly to the hue between Rockingham and Augusta, the 
German element was much in the lead. Augusta w^as 
founded by the Scotch-Irish and had at first almost no Ger- 
mans at all. Of the two classes the Scotch-Irish were the 



CHURCH HISTORY 



29 



more venturesome, although the Germans liked plenty of 
elbow room on behalf of their descendants. So the former 
exhibited a strong propensity to sell out and get nearer, 
ever nearer, to the inland frontier. Their places were 
often taken by the Germans. By the operation of this 
tendency, the German blood in varying but generally large 
proportions, is now^ found throughout the great length of 
the Valley of Virginia. 

Nearly all the German settlers arrived by way of 
Pennsylvania. A small number came across the Blue Ridge 
from the colony on the upper Rapidan founded by Gover- 
nor Spottswood about 1710. 

In 1775, one-third of the 300,000 inhabitants of Pennsyl- 
vania were of German birth or parentage. So far as they 
adhered to any church, they were of the German Reformed, 
Lutheran, and Mennonite faiths, the strength of the three 
bodies being in the order of their mention. As with all 
the border communities of that day there was much lapsing 
with respect to religious conduct. Many of the settlements 
were without pastors, houses of worship, or organized 
societies. There was much laxity in manners and morals, 
and consequently a great need of missionary effort. The 
German pastors were so few that they could seldom visit 
a frontier neighborhood oftener than once or twice a year. 

In the early spring of 1748, Gottschalk, a Moravian mis- 
sionary, speaks thus of the Massanutten settlement, situ- 
ated on the South Branch of Shenandoah river just above 
the Luray valley: "Many Germans live there. Most of them 
are Mennisten (Mennonites), who are in a bad condition. 
Nearly all religious earnestness and zeal is extinguished 
among them. Besides them, a few church people live 
there, partly Lutheran, partly Reformed." Gottschalk was 
much hindered in his efforts by the opposition of the resi- 
dent Lutheran pastor, and the prejudice aroused by stories 
circulated against the Moravians. In the fall of the same 
year two missionaries of this sect were journeying up the 
valley of the South Fork in what is now Pendleton county. 
They appointed a preaching service in the house of a Ger- 



30 



UNITED BRETHREN 



man living a few miles above where Brandywine now 
stands. The congregation was made up almost wholly of 
women and children. The men of the settlement were 
hunting bear in Shenandoah Mountain. The valley had 
been settled only about three years, and the style of living 
is described in the journal of these missionaries as primitive 
in the extreme. They did not hesitate to call it a near 
approach to savagery. By a much more recent writer it 
is thus described: 

"The food, clothing, furniture and mode of life among 
the early German settlers were very plain and simple. They 
drank nothing but water and milk (sometimes garden tea), 
except Sunday morning, when they always had coffee. 
Meat was seldom eaten, and in their time it was considered 
something quite extra to have meat on the table. At din- 
ner time only, did they have meat, and then the father 
would cut it in small pieces, give to each one of the famih' 
his allotted share, and with that thev had to be satisfied. 
During the greater part of the year they had hot mush and 
cold milk for supper, and cold mush and warm milk for 
breakfast. It would have been considered extravagant to 
have the mush fried in fat. Soup, of different kinds, was 
much used. The plates from which they ate were made 
of pewter, and the cups from which they drank were 
earthen mugs. They used no table cloths. The father sat 
at one end of the table; the mother at the other. The chil- 
dren stood, sometimes sat, along each side of the table and 
ate their meal in silence: there was little talking at the 
table. Each one ate what was placed before him without 
murmuring. A blessing was asked before every meal by 
the father or mother. As soon as the children were old 
enough to understand the meaning, they were taught short 
prayers which they would pray in regular order, each one 
his particular and distinct prayer, commencing with the 
oldest and ending with the youngest. No carpets graced 
the floor but every Saturday it was scoured clean and white 
with sand and water. The furniture was as simple as the 
fare. On each side of the hearth a square block was made 



CHURCH HISTORY 



31 



stationary for a seat. Benches and home-made chairs with 
seats plaited with split hickory were used. Several beds 
and a few chests made up the principal part of the furni- 
ture. They lived in this plain and simple way but they 
were comfortable, and what is better still, they were con- 
tented." 

By what has been set forth in the above paragraphs 
it is possible to gain a close idea of social and religious 
conditions in 1752 in the region now covered by the Vir- 
ginia Conference of the United Brethren Church. It was 
a very new country. It was the American West of 1752 
in just as real a sense as the line of the middle Missouri 
was the American West of 1860. In each instance there 
was much recklessness among the frontiersmen, and there 
was a falling away from the standard of active religious 
life in the homeland. 

In closing this chapter our attention is called to the 
circumstance that, with the one exception of the Quakers, 
all the religious pacifists in colonial America were Ger- 
mans. Was not the growth of these German sects pro- 
foundly aided by the social turmoil growing out of the 
religious wars of the seventeenth century? And did not 
this \^v\ turmoil engender among those who suffered from 
it a deep-seated antipathy to warfare? Perhaps the tenet 
of non-resistance, adopted by several of the German sects, 
was primarily a protest against efforts to advance the cause 
of religion by the use of military power. It was but a step 
further to object to political as well as religious wars. 



ir 



CHAPTER V 

THE EVANGELICAL MOVEMENT AMONG THE 

GERMAN IMMIGRANTS 

In our last chapter we spoke of a lack of religious 
teaching among the German settlers along the inland 
frontier. A similar fact was true of the Scotch-Irish, who 
were the dominant element on the same border. In the 
older communities, on and near the Atlantic seaboard, the 
religious privileges were as good as were known anywhere 
in that century. But there was a state church in eleven 
of the thirteen colonies, its houses of worship and its par- 
sonages were paid for out of public taxation, and its minis- 
ters were, either in part or altogether, supported in the 
same manner. Where the Church of England prevailed, 
the rector was provided with a farm, and this was called 
a glebe. The rectors were selected by the higher authorities 
of the church, and not by the congregations to whom they 
ministered. 

There was an unfortunate side of the influence of a 
church supported by the civil government and by public 
taxation. There was an almost irresistible drift to an 
accepted standard of merely formal piety, such as is spoken 
of in our sketch of William Otterbein. It was often the 
case that the minister was as worldly-minded as the aver- 
age man of the community. If under such circumstances,, 
there was any spiritual life in a congregation, it was in 
spite of the system and not as a consequence of it. The 
ministers of the Presbyterian, Congregational, and Re- 
formed churches, all which were kindred denominations, 
had a very real interest in the well-being of the people 
under their care. But in their preaching there was too 
little of the reformatory and too much of the dogmatic 
and argumentative. And the prevalence in these com- 
munions of very long pastorates, even of fifty and sixty 
years, led to routine methods, spiritual sluggishness, and 



CHURCH HISTORY 



33 



11 



churchly dry-rot. In a word, formahsm in religion was 
everywhere the rule and not the exception. The times 
were very much in need of a loosening up of the parched 
surface. In Germany, something was being dene in this 
direction by the Moravians and the Pietists; in England, 
by the Wesleys, whose methods were substantially the same 
as those of Spener, the founder of the Pietists; in America, 
by Wesleyan missionaries, by the New Lights, and at a 
later period by the founders of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. 

In a political sense the American Revolution was a good, 
but from another point of view it was an eveil. It inter- 
rupted the peaceful trend of the evangelistic movement. 
Partly through the influence of foreigners, the free thought 
then so rampant in Europe was scattered broadcast on the 
American soil. Rehgion was discredited by the formalism 
so often seen among the church people. In the popular 
estimation it was looked upon as a lifeless garment w^hich 
might as w^ell be thrown aside. Thus was prepared a con- 
genial field for the nurture of infidelity and near-infidehty. 
Experimental religion w^as deemed weak and silly. Family 
worship was thought to be aff'ectation, and many of the 
ministers themselves gloried in letting it alone. Among 
the students at Yale College in 1795 were only about five 
members of any church. William and Mary, which was 
the only college in Virginia, was a hotbed of unbelief. 
Bishop Meade of the Episcopal Church said in 1810 that 
nearly every educated young Virginian was a skeptic. The 
same fact was generally true of the professional men in all 
the states. In short, the Christian religion was held in 
scorn and it was the common opinion that it was outworn 
and would soon pass out of existence. Gross drunkenness 
was not only an everyday occurrence, but it was almost as 
common among ministers and other church members as 
among people in general. 

The portrait of the times that has been drawn in the 
last paragraph is startling. And yet its accuracy is attested 
by the best of evidence. After 1825 there was a marked 



34 



UNITED BRETHHEX 



^: 



improvement with respect to religion and temperance, but 
this only emphasizes the fact that during the long period 
between 1750 and 1825, — the lifetime of an elderly per- 
son, — America was sadly in need of evangelical instruction. 
As in the instances of Otterbein and Boehm, there were 
a few evangelistic reformers in all the churches. Finding 
themselves lonesome in the stifling atmosphere of their 
own denominations, they leaped over sectarian lines and 
sought each other's society in religious gatherings. These 
gatherings developed into the "big meetings" held in barns 
and groves, owing to the lack of church buildings of suf- 
ficient size. 

Our narrative now brings us to the memorable meeting 
between Otterbein and Boehm. It took place in the large 
barn of Isaac Long in Lancaster county in Pennsylvania. 
There were more people present than could get into the 
huge structure. Those who crowded into the barn w^ere 
addressed by Boehm. An overflov. meeting in the orchard 
was conducted by one or more of tiie ''Virginia preachers" 
who were present. The New Light followers of White- 
field in the Valley of Virginia were known as the "Virginia 
preachers." The meeting took place on Whitsunday, and 
the year is believed to have been 1768. Otterbein had left 
the city of Lancaster and was preaching on the Tulpe- 
hocken. Boehm had not yet been disfellowshiped by the 
Mennonites. The crowd at Long's was made up of Ger- 
mans and the preaching was in the German language. 
Perhaps all the distinctively German sects then known in 
America were represented at this meeting. In what way 
Otterbein came to be here is not known. There was little 
in common between the Reformed and the Mennonite 
churches, and there was a great lack of cordiality in the 
relations between them. But Otterbein sat on the plat- 
form near Boehm and listened to that minister with warm- 
hearted appreciation. At the close of the sermon he clasped 
Boehm in his arms with the significant exclamation: "We 
are brethren." From this time forward, these two men, 
dissimilar in training and education, were united in the 



CHURCH HISTORY 



35 



Ji 



i 



firm bonds of religious fellowship. Early tradition has it 
that at the close of this meeting Otterbein, Boehm, and 
the Virginia preachers entered into a form of union on 
some simple yet definite conditions. Even the official name 
of the United Brethren in Christ is believed to date from 
the exclamation by Otterbein. 

In fellowship with the leaders of such meetings as this, 
Otterbein found what he desired. The leaders were at 
first regular authorized ministers of various Protestant 
sects. But in evangelical spirit they stood on common 
ground. Thus came into being the ministerial intimacy 
between the scholarly Otterbein and the comparatively 
unlettered farmer-preachers, Boehm and Newcomer. An- 
other associate was Guething, a Reformed minister, yet 
with only enough education to teach a country school. 

However, Otterbein was not without other congenial 
spirits in his own church. Hendel, Wagner, Hautz, Henop, 
and Weimer were brother ministers who agreed with him 
as to methods. Adopting the system of Spener, they formed 
in the spring of 1774 the society known as "The United 
Ministers." Thev formed classes within their own con- 
gregations and congregations that w^ere without pastors. 
General meetings were held twice a year, "that those thus 
united may encourage one another, pray and sing in unison, 
and watch over one another's conduct. All those who are 
thus united are to take heed that no disturbances occur 
among them, and that the affairs of the congregations be 
conducted and managed in an orderly manner." But the 
war for American Independence seems to have worked a 
suspension of these efforts. 

We have remarked that it was an independent congre- 
gation of the Reformed Church to which Otterbein was 
called in 1774. It had had a pastor whose ministrations 
were very formal and whose life was inconsistent. The 
evangelical minority seceded in 1771, called Benedict Swope 
as their pastor, bought a lot, and built a frame house, suc- 
ceeded in 1786 by the historic brick church now standing 
on the spot. The title to the property was not vested in 



36 



UNITED BRETHREN 



the Reformed Church at all, but in chosen members of 
the congregation. After a long drawn out law suit the 
validity of the title was upheld. The authorities of the 
Reformed Church tried without success to bring about a 
reconciliation. In 1774 Otterbein, who was already no 
stranger in Baltimore, was called. This independent body 
styled itself an "Evangelical Reformed" church, and was 
not definitely received into the United Brethren fold until 
1817. It did not acknowledge the authority of the Re- 
formed synod, nor was it disowned by that body. But in 
theology Otterbein's church was Arminian, while the 
Reformed Church upheld Calvinism. The class-meeting 
adopted as a feature of the Baltimore church, was unknown 
to the Reformed Church. The congregation adopted its 
own rules of government. 

In substance these rules were as follows: Each member 
w^as to attend faithfully at all times of worship, and to per- 
form no business or needless travel on Sunday; family 
worship was enjoined on all members, and offenses between 
member and member were to be dealt with as in the eigh- 
teenth chapter of Matthew; the slanderer was first to be 
admonished privately, then, if necessary, openly rebuked 
in class-meeting; members of other churches were ad- 
mitted to communion, and persons who were not members 
were admitted by consent of the vestry if no objection were 
made. Still other rules were these: There was to be a 
class-meeting each week, an evening session for the men, 
a day-time session for the women. No person was to be 
admifted to such meeting unless resolved to seek his salva- 
tion and obey the disciplinary rules. The meetings were 
to begin and end with singing and prayer. Persistent 
absence without cause was to work expulsion. No preacher 
was to be retained who upheld predestination or the per- 
severance of the saints, or who was out of harmony with 
the disciplinary rules and the modes of worship, and on an 
accusation of immorality he might at once be suspended. 
One of the highest duties was to watch over the rising 
youth. There was to be one day of fasting in the spring and 



CHURCH HISTORY 



37 



one in the fall. A parochial school with instruction in the 
German tongue was to be established. The pastor, the 
three elders, and the three trustees were to constitute the 
vestry, wliich was the custodian of all deeds and other 
papers of importance. A highly significant rule was that 
the pastor was to care for the various churches in Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, and Virginia that were supervised by 
Otterbein and "in unity with us," and to give all possible 
encouragement to lay preachers and exhorters. Thus 
Otterbein's church in Baliimore was a mother church to 
various congregations scattered over several counties of 
the three states, and may be regarded as the primary organi- 
zation of the sect with which it was to unite. 

The men who founded the Church of the United Breth- 
ren in Christ did not wish to come out from the churches 
with which they had been associated. Their aim was to 
promote spirituality within the parent body. Spiritual 
inertia and a rising tide of opposition extinguished Otter- 
bein's hope of working w^holly within the Reformed 
Church. Nevertheless, he never actually withdrew from it, 
and until the very last his name was carried on its minis- 
terial roll. And this was in face of the fact that he was 
criticized and persecuted by some of the Reformed minis- 
ters. Boehm, as we have seen, was cast out from the 
Mennonite sect. His followers were also excluded "until 
in true sorrow^ and penitence they should return and 
acknowledge their errors, both to God and the Church." 

Both Otterbein and Boehm felt impelled to extend their 
usefulness by going beyond their own immediate boun- 
daries. Each of these men preached with greatly enlarged 
j)ower, because endowed with, a special baptism of the 
Holy Spirit. But each labored chiefly among the people of 
his own denomination and such other persons as came 
within his sphere of influence. 

For some years the adherents of the new^ movement 
came most largely from the Reformed Church. After the 
fathers of the United Brethren died, a revival spirit within 
the Reformed Church curtailed the number of accessions. 



38 



UNITED BRETHREN 



from that quarter. But for forty years semi-independent 
Mennonite circles continued to push their way into the 
newly founded church. Otterbein and Boehm and their 
co-laborers had no choice. The duty was upon them to 
l^rovide an ecclesiastical home for their followers. These 
followers were ostracized and even persecuted in the 
churches from which they had come, and they were derided 
by worldly people. They must have some place to go. It 
was the logic of circumstances that founded the United 
Brethren. 

In the gradual development of the work by Otterbein 
and Boehm, congregations were formed, and these were 
I)resided over by local preachers, who were at the same 
time lay preachers, since they had to derive their liveli- 
hood from secular pursuits. Some of these men were 
class-leaders at first. Others felt more distinctly the call 
to an active ministry. As a rule they were men of little 
education yet of warm spirituality. For a long while these 
local i)reachers worked under the general direction of 
Otterbein and Boehm, who were therefore self-constituted 
bishops. The great meetings afforded much opportunity 
for counsel. But it was increasingly felt that a more 
definite and systematc procedure should be adopted. 

The first actual conference in the history of the United 
Brethren Church met in Baltimore in 1789, and in the 
parsonage of William Otterbein. Besides the two leaders 
there were present George A. Guething, Christian New- 
comer, Henry Weidner, Adam Lehman, and John Ernst 
Seven others were absent. Of the fourteen preachers 
recognized as belonging to the conference, nine had come 
from the Reformed Church, four from the Mennonites, and 
one from the Moravians. It had been twenty-two years 
since the first meeting between Otterbein and Boehm at 
Long's barn, and more than ten years since Boehm had 
been cast out of the Mennonite Church. Both men were 
past their prime and were more than sixty years of aae 
This marshaling of figures shows in an impressive manner 
how gradual and informal had been the rise of the United 



CHURCH HISTORY 



39 






Brethren movement. And even this first conference did 
not go so far as to effect a complete and well-rounded 
organization. It is not certain that it adopted the actual 
name by which the church is officially known. Yet it did 
adopt a comprehensive Confession of Faith and Rules ot 
Discipline. Doubtless this little group of men reahzed 
that the hour had not quite arrived for the precise details 
of a thoroughgoing organization. The church they were 
founding was a growth, an evolution. It was not a thing 
made to order. 

The final clause of the Confession of Faith then adoi)ted 
is significant of the concessions made by the two leading 
elements which combined to form the United Brethren. 
In tradition and tendency the German Reformed and Men- 
nonite churches were far apart. The former baptized in- 
fants, while the latter did not. The latter made the wash- 
ing of feet a sacrament, while the former regarded it merely 
as an example. Neither party could be expected to come 
at once and unreservedly to the viewpoint of the other side. 
But each party could be charitable with regard to a differ- 
ence of opinion, and this is what took place. The 
clause in question is a compromise and is tolerant and 
broad. In the United Brethren Church, three modes of 
baptism are recognized, and it is the privilege of the can- 
didate to choose between sprinking, i)ouring, and immer- 
sion. The washing of feet is not held to be an ordinance. 

The second conference was held in 1791 at the home of 
John Spangler, eight miles from the city of York. Nine 
members were present and thirteen were absent. But the 
large number of absentees does not indicate indifference. 
At that time the highways were abominable. There were 
no railroads, automobiles, or telephones. The mails were 
slow, and letter postage was high. And as there was not 
yet an organized itinerancy, it was not the business of the 
conference to decide where the several preachers were to 
work. This was a matter they decided for themselves. 



CHAPTER VI 



EARLY YEARS OF THE CHURCH 

In the early conferences of the United Brethren, busi- 
ness was a very subordinate matter. There were no com- 
mittees. Everything done was done by the body as a 
whole. Circuits were laid out by the preachers themselves 
and not by the conference. The preachers met for mutual 
encouragement and spent nearly all the session in religious 
services. It is therefore easy to account for the brevity 
of the minutes of these conferences. 

The conferences of 1789 and 1791 were in the nature of 
informal, advisory meetings between two de facto bishops 
and the small band of local preachers working under their 
direction. Otterbein and Boehm acted as bishops, but there 
was no definite organization to elect them to the office. The 
primar>- object of these two assemblages was mutual 
advice and consultation. This fact helps to bring out the 
progressive nature of what began as a movement and 
gradually developed into a compact organization. 

The United Brethren movement was one of the results 
of the revival period of 1750-1825. It was very hard to 
reform the old German congregations and bring them to 
the New Testament standard of law and order. Otter- 
bein's flock at Lancaster was disorderly, and like some 
others it had been in the hands of incompetent pastors. 
The fathers of the United Brethren denomination were 
committed to the idea of a spiritual church. They were 
not designedly "come-outers." Yet they could not stay in 
the church homes that had reared them, because of the 
narrow and vituperative conservatism which could not 
brook any change in the old order of things. 

The followers of the new movement had not been 
known by any general name. Such terms as "the Breth- 
ren," "the Unsectarian," and "the Liberty People" were 
applied to them. Still other designations were the "New 



CHURCH HISTORY 



41 



Reformed" and the "New Mennonites." Sometimes the 
names of the leaders would be used, and they would be 
styled "Otterbein's People," or "Boehm's People." There 
were also semi-independent groups of Mennonites, such as 
"Light's People," who w^ere drifting toward the new church. 
In 1820 Peter Cartwright speaks of a tavern-keeper at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, whom he calls an "Otterbein Metho- 
dist." 

As a distinct church the United Brethren sect begins 
with the meeting held in September, 1800, at the house of 
Peter Kemp, two miles west of Frederick, Maryland. 
Fourteen preachers appeared. Their two-day meeting did 
not call itself a general conference, although it exercised 
the functions of one. It chose a name for the new denomi- 
nation and it elected bishops. 

It seems to have been easy for these men to agree on 
the name bv which the church has ever since been known. 
It was not enough to use the simpler form of "United 
Brethren," because this was already the official name of 
the Moravian body. To avoid uncertainty, especially in 
matters that might involve questions in law, the words 
"in Christ" were added. 

William Otterbein and Martin Boehm, who were already 
bishops in effect, were now elected as such. Otterbein was 
now seventy-four years of age and Boehm was seventy-five. 

The first printed Discipline says this of the first con- 
ference: "The preachers were obliged to appoint an annual 
conference in order to unite themselves more closely, and 
to labor more successfully in the vineyard of the Lord; 
for some had been Presbyterian, or German Beformed, 
some Lutherans, and others Menonists." 

In 1801 came the beginning of an itinerant system, ten 
men consenting to travel as directed b)^ the bishops, in- 
stead of laying out circuits for themselves. Stil! more 
method was introduced into the system by the conference 
of 1802. One or two of the preachers would agree to serve 
as presiding elders. The action taken in this matter was 
generally informal and usually unanimous. 



42 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Ever since the meeting at Kemp's, there has been a 
regular and uninterrupted succession of general confer- 
ences. Until 1810 there was but one annual conference for 
the entire church. The first new conference was the Miami, 
set oft' in that year. In 1829 the Eastern, or original. Con- 
ference was divided into the Hagerstown and Harrisburg 
conferences, the former including the Virginia territory, 
and the latter becoming the Pennsylvania Conference. 
The first conference to be definitely known as a general 
conference was held in June, 1815, in a log schoolhouse 
of Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania. It adopted a Con- 
fession of Faith, substantially the same as that of 1789, 
and Rules of Discipline, based on those of Otterbein's 
church in Baltimore. The Discipline was ordered to be 
printed, but only in German. However, the next general 
conference, that of 1817, ordered that 100 copies of the 
Revised Discipline be i)rinted in English. This book in- 
cludes forms for the ceremony of marriage and the ordina- 
tion of bishops and ministers. The Confessiona of Faith 
"rests on the Apostles' Creed and the New Testament, and 
adds only those necessary specifications in regard to the 
application and mission of the gospel that even the simplest 
of the later creeds have been compelled to include. The 
creed might be called a working creed for a revival peo- 
ple."* 

In 1841 the Confession of Faith was revised and a Con- 
stitution adopted. These remained in force until 1889. 

It had now been half a century since the meeting of 
Otterbein and Boehm in Long's barn. The early fathers 
of the United Brethren had passed away. Thirteen years 
more and the ministrv had ceased to be exclusivelv local. 
The pioneer period in the history of the church may there- 
fore be considered to close in 1830. 

Of the three leading fathers of the church, Otterbein 
was the skilled theologian. He was eloquent and argu- 
mentative, and his elucidation of Scriptural truth was ex- 
ceptionally clear. Boehm was essentially an exhorter, and 



CHURCH HISTORY 



43 



H 



his appeal was to the feelings. Geeting was regarded by 
Henry Boehm as the greatest orator among the United 
Brethren. 

It is well for us to speak further of George Adam Geet- 
ing, whose name in German tongue is spelled Guethmg. 
He came to America in his youth, and settled about 1759 
on Antietam Creek near the present town of Keedysville. 
In winter he taught school and in the warm weather he 
quarried rock and dug wells. He seems to have been con- 
verted through the preaching of Otterbein and he at once 
became an earnest Christian. For a while he read printed 
sermons to his congregation. Discerning that Geeting Avas 
capable of doing better than this, Otterbein had a friend 
come up behind the young preacher and take the book out 
of his hand. Geeting was thus thrown back on his own 
resources, yet dehvered an impressive discourse. In 1783 
he was ordained as a minister of the Reformed Church. 
The Geeting meeting house, a small log building dating 
from a little before the beginning of the Revolution, is 
belic\cd to have been the first house of worship built by 
Otterbien's followers of the revival movement. Otterbein 
was too heavy a man to be cast out of the Reformed 
Church, yet Geeting was expelled for "wildly fanatical" 
preachip.g that was at variance with "decency and order." 
Thenceforward, his home was with the new church, of 
which he has been called the St. John, and also the Apollos. 
He was the traveling companion and adviser of Otterbein. 
His house was a favorite stopping place for Newcomer 
and other early preachers. His meeting house was an 
Antioch to the young church and many revivals took place 
here. Geeting died in 1812 at the age of seventy-three years. 
Otterbein, Boehm, and Geeting were the "clover leaf" of 
the early church, and their departure occurred at nearly 
the same time. This coincidence, coming as it did in the 
formative period of the church, had a depressing effect. 
Much depended on the new leadership that became neces- 
sary. 



•Drury. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



45 



CHAPTER VH 

PLANTING THE CHURCH IN VIRGINIA 

The German im migration to America made its earliest 
home in the southeast of Pennsylvania. The county ol 
Lancaster, in that state, is, more than any other, the first 
seat of United Brethrenism. 

Like all other immigrants, the German wanted plenty 
of elbow room. To be nearer than half a mile to a neigh- 
bor was considering crowding. A mile was thought near 
enough to be comfortable. And there seemed to be plenty 
of elbow room, for the continent appeared to stretch in- 
terminably westward. 

So, as their numbers increased, the German families 
flocked over the colonial boundary into Maryland, and 
thence into that i)art of the Valley of Virginia lying between 
Winchester and the vicinity of Harrisonburg. The district 
next the Potomac, on the Virginia side, was rather avoided 
because of the litigation between Lord Fairfax and Joist 
Hite, and the consequent dilTiculty of getting good titles. 
The country south of Harrisonburg was at fh'st peopled only 
bv the Scotch-Irish, but it was not long until German set- 
tiers moved onward as the more restless Scotch-Irish 
pressed still farther to the south and west. 

The German settlers were partial to good lands, such as 
the limestone belts in the Valley of Virginia. Also, they 
were unwilling to make a home unless it could be near 
a good spring. Furthermore, they were conservative. 
They did not want change. They wanted to do as they 
had been used to doing, and they lield to the old even at 
the cost of becoming unprogressive. And so far as they 
adhered tenaciously to their mother tongue they remained 
foreigners in feeling. 

Among the Germans coming to the Shenandoali coun- 
irv were families who had taken ])art in the great meet- 
im^s in Pennsvlvania and Marvland. Some of them were 



M 



related to Geeting, Newcomer, and others of the early 
preachers. So the preachers they had known north of the 
Potomac followed them and held great meetings in the 
Valley, particularly near Mount Jackson. 

The site of Keedysville, near Antietam Creek in Mary- 
land, was the home of George Geeting, Otterbein's chief 
adviser. His home was also a headquarters for Boehm, 
Newcomer, and other preachers. At Beaver Creek, a dozen 
miles eastward across the mountains, was where New- 
comer lived. Farther east were the Kemps and others. 
A few miles farther north were the Draksels, Mayers, 
Baers, Browns, Hersheys, Russells, and others, while on 
the Virginia side of the Potomac and within a day's ride 
were Ambrose, Strickler, Senseny, the Niswanders, — Isaac 
and Abraham, and the three Duckwalds, — Ludwig, Henry, 
and Frederick. Still others were the twin brothers, — Henry 
and Christian Crum. Thus there were gathered at Antie- 
tam, as a central point, those who were fired with a com- 
mon spirit. The great religious experiences they had 
enjoyed were told in a wonderful way to the throngs 
attracted bv interest and noveltv. 

Strong congregations were soon formed around Win- 
chester, at Sleepy Creek, and east of the Blue Ridge in 
Loudoun county. The last named locality was often visited 
by Bishop Newcomer. But by reason of emigration this 
floik passed out of existence more than a centuiy ago. 

Before 1815 there was quite an exodus of these people 
across the Alleghanies into Ohio and the west of Pennsyl- 
vania. It came thus that the Miami, the first daughter 
conference, was organized largely by the preachers who 
had come from the East, for up to this time, the whole 
work was embraced in the Eastern, or original, confer- 
ence. The families who settled in the west of Pennsyl- 
vania, especially in Westmoreland county, were active and 
loyal, and laid the foundations for the present prosperous 
United Brethren Church in that favored region. 

Almost the only record we have of the earh^ work of 
these circuit riders is found in Newcomer's Journal, pub- 



4Q 



UNITED BRETHREN 



lished in 1835. It was not intended for publication, and 
its brevity is often disappointing to those who would like 
more complete information. The Journal, after its pub- 
lication, was evidently sold by the itinerants.* 

When eighty-one years old, Newcomer attempted a trip 
into Virginia. Sunday, March 1, 1830, he rode to the home 
of Michael Thomas at Boonsboro, nine miles from his own 
house, and lodged there for the night. Next morning he 
was too ill to go on and he returned. Wednesday, he wrote 
thus: "This forenoon I tried to write in my journal, but 
alas! I find that I am not able to perform the task, so 1 
lay down my pen. The Lord alone knows whether I shall 
be able to resume it again. The Lord's will be done. Amen. 
Hallelujah." 

It is this record of Newcomer that gives early circuits 
in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Ohio. It is not 
by any means a complete record, as it gives only the tours 
by himself and his companions, for he seldom traveled 
alone. 

Just before the first annual conference at Kemp's, in 
Stepember, 1800, Newx'omer made a tour of the Virginia 
circuit. This time he was accompanied by Martin Boehm 
and his son, Henry. Another preacher. Christian Crum, 
lived at Pleasant Valley, eight miles northeast of Winches- 
ter, on what has since been known as the Jacob Hott place. 
For years this was the first stopping place of the German 
preachers, and here these three men held their opening 
service on the Virginia circuit. They arrived Monday night, 
September 1, and the elder Boehm preached. He preached 
again at Dr. Senseny's in Winchester, and a Methodist 
preacher followed with an exhortation. Wednesday, they 
held a meeting at Abraham Niswander's, near Middletown, 
and then rode to the house of A. Boehm, a relative to the 
bishop, where Newcomer preached and was followed by 
Henry Boehm. Thursday forenoon they preached at Jacob 
Funkhouser's west of Fisher's Hill, riding thence to Wood- 

*The copy owned by A. P. Funkhouser was purchased bv his 
paternal grandfather in 18.37, as witnessed by his autoaraph signa- 
ture and the date. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



47 



stock and lodging with one Zehrung, who, by the way, 
gave a lot for a church in Woodstock. This gift was made 
more than a hundred years ago. The bishop preached in 
a church at Woodstock Friday morning, and then they 
rode to Jacob Rhinehart's, where Newcomer preached. 
Saturday and Sunday there w^as a meeting at the widow 
Kagey's on Smith's Creek. Bishop Boehm preached in 
German and was followed by his son Henry in English. 
Then they rode to a Mr. Bender's, where Newcomer 
preached. After they had retired. Bender's wife began 
moaning aloud. They arose and prayed with her. 

The i)reachers turned out very early Monday morning, 
September 8, and rode to the house of John Peters near 
New^ Market, where Newcomer and Boehm preached in 
German and Henry Boehm in English. After dismissing 
the people, the crowd continued to stand around in groups, 
crying and moaning, so another meeting was held. Ben- 
der's wife had followed them to this place, was converted, 
and made shoutingly happy. The preachers then rode to 
Homan's in Brock's Gap. In the afternoon they accom- 
panied Strickler to his home sixteen miles away, arriving 
late at night. Their next stopping place w^as at Peter Bibey's 
in Augusta county. Passing through Staunton, they called 
on the Methodist pastor and went on to the house of Chris- 
tian Hess. 

On Saturday the 13th, a great meeting began at Henry 
Menger's on the side of the mountain, southwest of 
Swoope's Depot. In the afternoon they rode to a Mr. 
Harris's. Next day, returning through Staunton, they 
dined with tlu' Methodist pastor, and then rode seventeen 
miles to Widorc's. Tuesday morning Newcomer preached 
at Zimmerman N in Keezeltown, and then the party rode 
sixteen miles to John Peters' near New^ Market, where the 
bishop was again the preacher. Next day they crossed 
the mountain into Page, spending the night with Christian 
Fori, near the South Fork. Thursday, Bishop Boehm con- 
ducted a funeral service at Woodstock, and the night was 
spent with John Funkhouser west of Fisher's Hill. Satur- 



48 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



49 



day a sacramental meeting began at Niswander's near 
Middletown. 

Continuing their return journed the party reached New- 
comer's home, Tuesday the 23d, just two days before the 
opening of conference. The Boehms must have gone on 
to Kemp's, for there was not time to reach their own homes 
and be at conference on the first day, this being the time 
when Newcomer found them there. 

The next visit to Virginia was two years later, in June, 
and it occupied eight days. Otterbein, Newcomer, Crum, 
and S trickier were the preachers and they traveled to- 
gether. Their first point was a sacramental meeting at 
Jacob Funkhouser's west of Fisher's Hill. The services 
Sunday night were at Christian Funkhouser's. The place 
was appropriately called Funkhouser Hollow, since there 
were seven families of this name, all wdth farms adjoining. 
They all spoke the German language, built their houses 
alike, each one over a spring, professed the same religion, 
and yet each family had its own burial ground on a hill- 
side. Their relationship has never been traced by any one 
of the present time. On this journey Otterbein preached 
nearly every night. Services were held at Crum's, at 
Geeting's, at Newtown, at Niswander's in Middletown, and 
at Winchester. 

In October of the same year Newcomer and Geeting 
traveled the Virginia circuit, one or the other preaching 
every day for nineteen days and always in German. Their 
preaching places were much as before, Stoverstown (Stras- 
burg) being one of the appointments. At Mengen's, their 
most southern point, was the great meeting for which they 
set out. To attend the two-day services the people came in 
some instances thirty to fifty miles. 

"Year after year for almost thirty years Newcomer 
made visits to Virginia, continuing them almost to the 
time when Glossbrenner began his work as circuit rider. 
"The meeting places were changed to suit local' con- 
ditions. From Hoffman's the meetings were changed to 
Peter Myer's near the present Pike Mennonite church. 



George Hoffman moved to Augusta, taking liis religion 
with him, and Mount Zion became an early preachin^:; place. 
Peter Myers built a dwelling house ^^ith a large room 
in it for meetings, which were held regularly here for 
many vears. 

"In the spring 1809 Newcomer made a unique visit 
to Harrisonburg. He came as a committee to confer v.ith 
Bishop Asbiiry and the Baltimore Conference of the Metho- 
dist Church on the subject of church union. This confer- 
ence was held in the log church on the hill where the old 
burial ground still remains. Two bishops, Asbury and 
George, and sixty preachers were present. The day after 
it closed Newcomer, delighted with his cordial entertain- 
ment, rode down the Valley witli Asbury and other preach- 
ers, among whom was Henry Boehm, son of the bishop. 

"The last visit by Newcomer was in 1828, when he was 
seventy-nine years old. That summer he held eight camp 
meetings, three of them in Virginia. In company with 
William Brown, afterward bishop, and William B. Bhine- 
hart, a sw^eet singer and later the first editor of the Beligious 
Telescope, he made the usual stops until he came to a 
camp meeting on Mill Creek, two miles west of Mount 
Jackson. Such meetings were held here from 1825 to 
1830 inclusive, on the farm of the great grandfather of 
A. P. Funkhouser. The camp spring is yet pointed out in 
the middle of Mill Creek. After the close of the meeting, 
the preachers went on to Bockingham and spent the night 
with Jacob Whitesell, who had married Brown's sister in 
Pennsylvania, and who had now an old mill on Dry Biver, 
a mile or two below Bawley Springs. Whitesell and his 
family later moved to Vigo county, Indiana, where his 
descendants are among the pillars of the strong church 
now in that section. The preachers then went to the camp 
meeting on Beaver Creek just opposite the home of the 
late John Whitmore. Mrs. Maria Paul attended this meet- 
ing, being then a girl, and remembered the bishop as tall, 
spare, and clean-shaven. During one of his discourses a 
large, fat man walked into the congregation and stood 



50 



UNITED BRETHREN 



leaning against a tree. His name was Koogler, and he 
was a paper-shaver with a reputation not very savory. 
Newcomer pointed him out, remarking, 'Oh me, if that 
man would become converted, how much rehgion he could 
hold.' 

"At the close of the camp meeting, Newcomer and his 
companions rode to Peter Whitesell's, where Brown 
preached in German and Newcomer in English. Simon, 
father of J. D. Whitesell of Harrisonburg, was then but 
eight years old, yet preserved to the end of his life a clear 
recollection of the visit. Whitesell's church had been built 
here the year previous. It was the first United Brethren 
church built in Virginia, and a most influential center for 
many years. This house of worship grew out of the meet- 
ings at Hoffman's and Peter Myers' : Passing through Har- 
risonburg to the head of Brock's Gap, the party took dinner 
with Henrv Tutwiler, a brother-in-law to Whitesell, and a 
tanner of buckskin. He was postmaster at Harrisonburg 
thirty-one years. Tutwiler w^as a zealous class leader of 
the Methodists, and was the father of one of the first gradu- 
ates of the University of Virginia. Years afterward, he 
died shoutingly happy after a sudden illness, the day after 
holding a watch meeting on New Year's eve. 

"The next day found Newcomer at a camp meeting on 
the land of Jacob Lentz, at the head of Brock's Gap four 
miles above Dovesville. Lentz had come from Loudoun 
county years before, bringing his United Brethrenism with 
him, and though he was more than thirty miles from the 
county seat, he was not too far away for his old friends 
to find him. Near him at Dovesville, was another United 
Brethren, Frederick Doub (Dove), who had come from 
Frederick county, Maryland. The postofllce was named 
after him. The descendants of the Lentzs and Doves, and 
the intermarried families now form a large element of 
the population here. The present Keplinger chapel, 
recently remodeled, was dedicated November 27, 1858, by 
Jacob Markwood, then a presiding elder." 

The compiler of this volume fmds among the papers 



CHURCH HISTORY 



51 



given him the statement that the first United Brethren con- 
ference, — presumably of Virginia, — was held June 3, 1794, 
in the stone house that was used as a law office of the late 
General John E. Roller. But as this meeting is not men- 
tioned in the general histories of the church, it must have 
been a gathering of the Virginia preachers of that decade 
and perhaps a few from the other side of the Potomac. 
The first official conference in Virginia was held in the 
same town, March 2, 1809. 

Mention has been made of the Whitesell church. As 
late as 1850 there were but two other church buildings of 
the United Brethren in Virginia. In 1860 the total mem- 
bership in both Virginia and Maryland w^as not over 3,000. 

There was for a long while a feeling that there should 
be no gathering of church statistics, and none were given 
out by the United Brethren Church until 1837. This pre- 
judice seems to have grown out of the relation of David's 
sin in numbering the people. 

A more complete account of Newcomer's travels in 
Virginia will be found in the next chapter. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



55 



CHAPTER VHI 
EXTRACTS FROM NEWCOMER'S JOURNAL 

Christian Newcomer was of Swiss descent and was born 
near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, January 21, 1749. His 
parents were Mennonites and the, son was reared in their 
faith. He learned the carpenter's trade from his father, 
but when he was about twenty years old the parent died. 
At the deathbed request of the latter, he took upon himself 
the care of the farm and thus provided a home for the 
mother and a sister. After a year the sister found a hus- 
band, and as the mother was a midwife and much awav 
from home. Christian was married in 1770 to Elizabeth 
Baer. Not long afterward he was converted at home as a 
result of personal seeking. Thinking he should become 
a preacher, he took counsel with one of the Mennonite 
preachers, a person who stood high in the young man's 
estimation. But this elder could not comprehend the 
experience his friend had undergone, and cast doubts upon 
it. However, when stretched on a bed of sickness, the older 
man became convinced that the younger man was in the 
right. Newcomer removed to Maryland, where he found 
that his neighbors, though well-meaning and friendly, 
were unacquainted with experimentaal religion. He had 
long continued misgivings with respect to becoming a 
preacher. It was not until he had overcome this reluctance, 
through recourse to earnest prayer, that Newcomer found 
restoration from what he regarded as a backslidden state. 

He had already listened to Otterbein and Geeting. Find- 
ing that he and they were in entire harmony in the matter 
of experimental religion, he joined a society of what were 
then called Otterbein's people, and in 1777 became a 
preacher among what were derisively called the "Dutch 
Methodists." Newcomer continued to preach ver\^ nearly 
to the end of his long life. In 1813 he was made a bishop 
and thenceforward he led a particularly active career. He 



V 



crossed the Alleghanies thirty-eight times and rode on 
horseback six thousand miles a year. . When nearly eighty 
years of age he thus traveled to Ohio and Indiana, held sev- 
eral conference, and returned in his usual health. A little 
later he made a similar trip to Virginia, where he held a 
great meeting near Swoope's. These trips were kept up 

Till 1828. 

There is a striking parallelism between Christian New- 
comer of the United Brethren Church and Francis Asbury 
of the Melbodist Church. The former has ver>^ justly been 
called the Asburv of the United Brethren. Both men were 
bishops in the pioneer period of their respective organiza- 
tions Each was an empire-builder in the ecclesiastical 
sense. Each was an indefatigable worker. Each was a 
prodigious traveler, spending so much time on horseback 
that it is small stretching of the fact to say that he lived 
in the saddle. Each of these early bishops kept a journal 
and each journal has been published. 

Newcomer was tall, commanding in figure, and robust 
in physique. No portrait is in existence. In 1828 he held 
a camp meeting near Crider's store in Brock's Gap, at a 
spring still known as the "camp spring." Seventy years 
later Mrs Maria Paul remembered seeing him there. Her 
description of him as a tall, slim, smoothly shaven man of 
serious appearance taUies with other accounts. 

The bishop was not a great preacher except in earnest- 
ness of purpose. He had a slight impediment in his speech 
and his voice was but moderately strong. Yet he was a 
successful evangelist, and as a superintendent he was 
fearless as well as diligent. He was a firm believer in the 
itinerant system, perceiving that it is peculiarly adapted to 
new and sparselv settled districts. 

Newcomer's journal, written in German and trans- 
lated by John Hildt, was published at Hagerstown in 18.S4 
It is prefaced with an autobiography, this dealing almost 
wholly with his reUgious experiences. The Joy^^^^^^^^^f 
October 27, 1795, and continues until March 4, 1830, only 
eight days before his death. To many persons it has been 



54 



UNITED BRETHREN 



a matter of regret that most of the entries are so brief 
and fragmentary. This brevity impairs the historic vahie. 
But it is highly probable that the bishop never thought his 
manuscript would ever appear in book form. Perhaps 
his notes were regarded by himself as little more than an 
aid to his memory. 

With a view of allowing the journal to throw all the 
light possible on the histor>^ of the Virginia Conference 
l)rior to 1830, we now present the following extracts. 

1795 
Preached at Vinimbach's in Virginia from John 2:14. 

1796 
Preached at Henry Crum's Thursday, October 13. (Note: Henry 
and Christian Crum were twin brothers who went to Winchester 
from near Frederick, Md. They strongly resembled one another. 
Both were very useful preachers.) Preached Friday at Millers- 
town. Next day a sacramental meeting began at Stony Creek 
1 gave the first discourse,— from Psalm XL. On Mondav,^ the hist 
day, many sinners were converted. Tuesdav, preached at Snider's 
near Linville Creek, and in the evening came to the home of a 
Mennonite uncle, a preacher, where I spoke from Psalm XXIV 15 
Wednesday, though afflicted with a severe toothache, I preached 
twice at J. P.'s near Smith Creek. Thursday rode to Massanutten 
and preached there Friday at Mr. Hiestand's but found the people 
of that neighborhood rather hardened. Saturday, rode to the 
forks of the Shenandoah and lodged with Jacob Weaver, a very 
sick man. Sunday morning, preached at the house of J Fa— 
from "It IS time that judgment should begin at the house of God" 
and in the afternoon the Lion roared wonderfully. A meeting 
Monday at the home of a widow whose husband had lately died 
but the people seemed cold and lifeless. Tuesdav spoke in New' 
town from Hebrews XII, 15, and found the Lord present. In 
he evening preached in Winchester to a large congregation. Next 
nf H. '/h'''\?' !"^ ^^'"^' ^^'^^^^ '^^'^ criminals under sentence 

on the Sther "' *"" "'"^'^ '^"'' impression on one but none 

1797 

the^^even!n/'v "f '^ Newtown, September 20, and preached in 
the evening. Next evening (Thursday) preached at Woodstock 
f om Revelations III, 19, 20. Friday there was a meeting in N^^^^ 

i a?M^Steff ' "^'1 r^ ^''"^^"^ "^^^ ^^^--^ P— A mee" 
in. at Mr. Steffy s and lodged with him. Spoke first Saturday 



CHURCH HISTORY 



55 



7 



morning at eleven in a three days meeting beginning at Peter 
Mever's^n Rockingham. Sunday morning Geeting preached with 
remarkable power from, ^Whosoever will be my disciple let him 
take up his cross and follow Me." Exhorted after him and then 
followed the Lord's Supper. Candle-light meeting at Mr. K ein s 
several young people prayed for salvation. At the close of the 
meeting (on Monday) there was a glorious time, and the people 
were so much affected that most of them cried aloud. |uf^f^>j 
an appointment with Henry Geeting, son of George, and lodged 
with Mr. Rrunk. Wednesday morning preached to a large assembly 
in a schoolhouse near Shenandoah River, and then rode to the 
home of a relative who entertained me in a very friendly way 
but cared verv little about religion. Thursday, preached at a 
widow's to a svmpathetic congregation that included two Cxerman 
Baptist preachers. Friday, visited Mr. Zehrung in Woodstock 
and then rode to John Funkhouser's, staying there all night. Next 
day a sacramental meeting began in Frederick county. The people 
were uncommonlv affected. An aged man came forward with tears 
trickling down his cheeks. Monday evening preached from Psalm 1. 

1798 
August 10, an uncommonly warm day with a torrential rain 
after crossing the Potomac. Lost my path in the woods and 
had no other light than the occasional flashes from another thun- 
derstorm. Got off mv horse and prayed for protection. On rising 
from my knees, I saw the path only a few yards away, and soon 
reached the house of Mr. Ambrose, where I dried my clothes and 
had a comfortable rest. The next day was Saturday and a sacra- 
mental meeting began here. Christian Crum and Dr. Senseny 
preaching with power. Among the seekers was a native of Ger- 
many, who praised God he had come to America, and to a people 
from whom he had learned the way of salvation. The people 
around here generallv poor but concerned for the salvation of their 
souls. Sundav a great many people were present. Monday, rode 
to Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs) and crossed to Hancock, Md. 
Wednesday, September 26, stayed with my daughter, Mrs. Jacob 
Hess near Martinsburg. Next morning preached at Bucklestown 
and at night at Winchester. Friday evening preached at Millers- 
town to a little flock. Saturday, spoke first in a sacramental meet- 
ing with warmth and feeling. Preached at eleven, and after the 
sacrament exhorted in English. Monday, visited an uncle and 
aunt on Linville, and rode on lodging with Henry Huber. Tues- 
day morning preached at the widow Brunk's and lodged at Mr. 
Grove's. Wednesday evening, spoke in a schoolhouse, and at night 
at the widow Kegis's on Smith Creek. Thursday, preached at Mr. 
Meiles's, a few miles from Millerstown, and the next day came 
to John Funkhouser's. Saturday, October 6, a sacramental meet- 



r. 



of) 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



57 



ing at Abraham Niswander's near Middletown. Felt so stripped 
of all grace that I did not know what to say, but at night there 
was a glorious time. Sunday I spoke after Geeting. and next day 
preached at Henry Crum's. At this meeting a Quaker sister was 
moved by the Spirit and gave an exhortation and prayer with 
astonishing power. 

1799 

Wednesday, May 1, the first appointment at Henry Crum's. 
Next day attempted to speak after Geeting at Jacob's church m 
Frederick county, but because of a leg bruised by a falling crow- 
bar, I had to desist, and Friday I had to stay at Crum's starting 
home Saturday. 

Thursday, July 25, preached in Winchester, and Friday canity 
unexpectedly upon a meeting held by Henry Crum, after whom I 
spoke to an attentive audience. Then rode with Oum to Stovers- 
town (Strasburg), visiting old Mr. StaufTer, a man of ^3. Preached 
next morning at Jacob Funkhouser's. Sunchiy, preached to a I'ttle 
flock in the old church at Woodstock, and at night held a class- 
meeting at Zehrung's. Monday, reached Henry Geeting's. His 
house was struck by lightning a few days ago, but no one injured 
although the whole family were inside. Next morning preached 
at Andrew Kautfman's, and in the afternoon at the house of Mr. 
Renker, a justice of the peace. Wednesday morning preached at 
Stony Creek, and in the evening at Niswander's, where there was 
a small but attentive congregation. Thiu'sday, preached at Jacob 
Funkhouser's on ]Mill Creek and lodged at S. Peter's in Rocking- 
ham. Friday morning preached here to as many people as the 
room would hold, and put up with Mr. Rrunk in Brock's Gap. 
Saturday, arrived at George Homan's where a great nmltitude 
were assembled for a sacramental meeting. ISunday afternoon I 
spoke from Hebrews TI : 3. Geeting and Strickler were here on the 
whole we had a blessed time. Tuesday preached at Christian 
KautTman's. Wednesday I lodged with Mr. Weber and next day 
reached Niswander's, whence I rode with Geeting to Winchester 
and was the guest of Mr. Kurtz. Friday morning I went into a 
drugstore to purchase some medicine. The druggist then took 
me into an adjoining room, called the family together, and re- 
quested me to hold family worship, which I did. Among those 
present was an intelligent young man, a son of the Rev. Mr. Hinkle. 
After breakfast I went with (ieeting to visit Dr. Senseny, who 
had been taken very ill. Nine miles beyond we held a meeting 
at Mr. Sweyer's and then went to Ambrose's, where a two-day 
meeting had been appointed. Saturday the assemblage was so 
large that I could not see how so many people could live in such 
a mountainous region. Sunday, a Methodist brother preached 
in English. 



V 



Also 
Fri- 



1800 

Thursday, August 7, Geeting and myself had an appointment 

at Shepherdstown. Friday I lodged with Mr. Duckwalt, and 

Saturday began a meeting on Sleepy Creek, which lasted through 

Sunday. Monday I preached at Berkeley Springs and stayed with 

Mr. Grammer. 

Mondav, September 1, came to Christian Crum's where a great 
congregation assembled the following day. Father Boehm preached 
first, and at night with great power at Dr. Senseny's in Winchester. 
A Methodist followed him in English. Thursday there was a 
meeting at Niswander's, the people being very atetntive. 
preached at A. Boehm's and was followed by Henry Boehm. 
day a meeting at Jacob Funkhouser's, and visited old Mr. Yager 
at Woodstock. Father Boehm preached here in the church. I rode 
on to Rhinehart's and preached there, speaking Saturday at the 
widow Kegis's. Sunday, Father Boehm preached in German, and 
his son Henry followed in English. The grace of God seemed 
visible in almost every countenance. The people were so reluctant 
to go aw^ay that we prayed once more for them. I rode with Henry 
Boehm to Mr. Bender's, where we preached but to all appearance 
without any effect. Monday morning we came to the home of 
John Peters, where a houseful of people were already gathered. 
Myself and the Boehms preached. At the close the people would 
not leave, so we began again and prayed with them. Rode thence 
to Homan's, where many young people had collected, and whom 
Father Boehm exhorted. Tuesday morning a great many people 
gathered within a short time. I spoke after Father Boehm. The 
whole, congregation shed tears and we had to break away to go 
to the next appointment, leaving them praying. Mr. Strickler had 
come as a guide to his home, 16 miles distant. Passing into Rock- 
ingham we visited Mr. Welch, a Methodist preacher and most 
excellent man. There was a great crowd Wednesday. Father 
Boehm, following me, had not spoken long until several persons 
rose to their feet, striking their hands and shouting in an estasy 
of joy. The evening meeting lasted till midnight and the house 
could not hold all who were present. Thursday we rode to Peter 
Biber's in Augusta, where I preached and was followed by Father 
Boehm, but the word seemed to make little or no impression. Fri- 
day we came into Staunton, where we called on Mr. King, a 
sincere and affectionate Methodist preacher, took some refresh- 
ments, and then rode on to Christian Hess's, where we lodged. A 
great meeting began Saturday at Henry Mengen's. I addressed a 
large audience and was followed by King and Henry Boehm. 
After Boehm had spoken a few words, the power of God seemed 
to pervade the whole congregation. There was prayer and class 
meeting at night. Parents shouted for joy to see their children 



58 



UNITED BRETHREN 



converted to God. Father Boehm was followed by King Sunday 
morning. After a sacramental service we rode to Mr. Harr's, 
where T was followed by King in English, but nothing would 
touch these people. Monday we returned to Staunton, dined 
with King, and rode on 17 miles to one Widore's, w^here Father 
Boehm spoke with wonderful power to a great manv people. 
Tuesday morning, Henry Boehm and myself preached at Zimmer- 
man's in Keezeltown. We went on 16 miles to John Peters's, 
where Father Boehm spoke to a numerous congregation. Wed- 
nesday we preached at Mr. Harshbarger's, and lodged with Ch is- 
tian Fori at Massanutten. He does not seem concerned nV>9ut 
religion. Thursday morning Henry Boehm preach^nl r^ Knglish 
in an old church near by. Many accompanied us after the meet- 
ing and we had to tear ourselves away. Some rode with us across 
Three Top Mountain. We passed the night at Mt. Stover's, and 
reached Woodstock next day, where Father Boehm preached the 
funeral sermon for a Mr. Grove, using this text: "Set thy house 
in order, for thou shalt die and not live." At John Funkhouser's 
I preached from Romans VHI, 17. Saturday a sacramental meet- 
ing began at Niswander's in the open air. I was followed by Crum. 
At night I preached at Senseny's and met the class. Sunday, Sep- 
tember 21, I delivered an opening discourse to a vast nmltitude, 
but the word had not the desired effect. I preached in the after- 
noon, and was followed by Henry Boehm, who made some im- 
pression. We had to leave them to meet an appointment at the 
Methodist church in Winchester. Father Boehm spoke first and 
in German. Henry Boehm and myself followed in English. There 
■was a blessed time. Lodged with Mr. Lauck. Monday I passed 
through Shepherdstown on my way home, lodging with ,John 
Mumma. 

1801 

Sunday, August 2, I heard Enoch George, a powerful speaker, 
preach in Shepherdstown. (George was a Methodist bishop.) 
August 26 I was told by Bishop Whatcoat (Methodist) in Hagerstown 
that at different places in America powerful revivals had taken 
place. Next day I reached Berkeley Springs, lodging with Mr. 
Kremer. The second day (Friday) a blessed meeting at Duck- 
wait's began. Saturday it was protracted till late. Sunday I 
spoke in both languages and went home with a Mr. Frosh. Monday 
crossed North Mountain to Martinsburg, stopping for a lunch at 
Mr. Winter's on Back Creek. 

1802 

A sacramental meeting begins Saturday, June 12, at Jacob 
Funkhouser's in Shenandoah, Otterbein delivering the first sermon. 
Eight were converted at night at Christian Funkhouser's. Sunday 
there was a great congregation, Otterbein speaking first,— from 



CHURCH HISTORY 



59 



Daniel VH : 13, 14. I cannot but be always astonished and lost in 
amazement at the power and energy with which this old servant 
of God declares the counsel of his Master. The people w^ere very 
attentive. We rode on to Niswander's and tarried. Otterbein 
preached at Newtown on Monday. At night I spoke in the Metho- 
dist meeting house and lodged with Mr. Bush. Tuesday Otter- 
bein preached in the Reformed church at Winchester. At night 
w^e heard Enoch George and Quinn, the Methodist brethren. Wed- 
nesday Otterbein preached again and I followed him. 

Thursday, August 26, I came to John Miller's in Berkeley, and 
at the Springs next day met the English brethren (Methodists), 
Mitchell and Pitts. Saturday, Geeting, Crum, Geisinger, and Sen- 
seny arrived before me at a sacramental meeting at J. M.'s, many 
bringing their children for baptism. I baptised a child '- Icng'ir* to 
an English lady, using the English language. (Newcomer only 
means that he used the English language). Lodged at J. Funk's. 

Wednesday, October 13, preached at Christian Crum's, next 
morning at Dr. Senseny's in Winchester, and at night to a large 
congregation in the Methodist church at Newtown. Friday, Geet- 
ing spoke in Stoverstown, and at night there was a meeting at 
John Funkhouser's. Saturday the preaching by Geeting and my- 
self at a great meeting at Andrew Kauffman's did not appear to 
make much impression. Monday there was a meeting at John 
Funkhouser's on Mill Creek. Tuesday, Geeting and myself had 
a very good meeting at Henry Huber's. Wednesday, a quarterly 
meeting began in Hoffman's barn in Rockingham. Never have I 
witnessed the power of God in so great a degree among so many 
people. The meeting was protracted till late at night and many 
found peace. I was entertained by the Meyers, a godly pair. 
Next day the crowd was still greater. Lutherans, Presbyterians, 
Mennonites, Baptists, and Methodists all drew near the Lord's 
table. Many were not able to avoid shouting. With difiiculty we 
parted from the people to meet an appointment at Mr. Hivener's 
10 miles away. Friday morning there was a meeting at J. Domer's 
and at night at Lewis Shuey's, 10 miles beyond. Saturday, a sacra- 
mental meeting begins at Mengen's, some coming more than 50 
miles. Parents and children were together on their knees. I went 
home with Mr. Brobeck. Sunday many came to the Lord's table 
with streaming eyes. Preached at night at Staunton and lodged 
with Mr. Falker. Monday I rode 42 miles, preaching to a small 
assembly at Mr. Mertz's in Rockingham. Tuesday morning I 
preached three miles from Mertz's, then rode 23 miles to Wood- 
stock, where the people had been some time waiting for us. Wed- 
nesday I preached in Stoverstown, and had a meeting Thursday 
in Middletown at the house of Senseny, a tanner. Preached at 
night on the same day in the Methodist church at W'inchester. 



60 



UNITED BRETHREN 



1803 
Preached in both German and English at a sacramental meeting 
at Sleepy Creek, beginning Saturday, August 27 Tuesday, spoke 
to a large congregation in Newtown. Wednesday, James Sm dt 
exhorted in English at Niswander's. Thursday I spoke at Kauff 
man's and Friday at Funkhouser's on Stony Cr^e^^ A quarterly 
meeting began Saturday at Homan's. Wednesday September 6, 
Tpoke at Hoffman's and rode 12 miles to Mr. Dider's. Wednesday, 
I preached at Heffner's, and Thursday to a large congregation in 
a mill. The people entreated us to stay, but we had to leave to 
hold a class-meeting at Lewis Shuey's 12 miles distant. Many peo- 
ple here next day. A quarterly meeting began Saturday at Bro- 
beck's in Augusta, a great multitude being present next day. Sun- 
day night I preached in a schoolhouse, where a great number 
were in distress and the meeting lasted till daybreak. Many were 
converted. Monday I preached at Strickler's Tuesday at Zimmer- 
man's and a point 15 miles beyond, and Wednesday in New 
Market, where four preachers were in the large audience. The 
people desired another visit. But at Woodstock, the following 
day while preaching in the Reformed church, one of two ministers 
hastily withdrew. Saturday a two-day meeting began at Senseny's 
in Middletown. Sunday night I preached in Winchester. 

1804 
A quarterly meeting began at J. Funkhouser's, Saturday, May 
26 Sunday, Otterbein preached again from Matthew III, 12, and 
was followed bv myself and Strickler. Monday I rode through 
New Market to the house of Mr. Huff, who would not let me go 
any farther. Next dny I lodged with Mr. Kreiner beyond Keezel- 
town. Thursday, I dined at Harrisonburg with Mr. Sala, a book- 
binder Friday I preached at New Market, Sunday in an old 
chapel at Massanutten. I had colored as well as white hearers 
and they were well satisfied. Having preached in both languages, 
my strength was all gone, and a lady closed with prayer. Monday 
I preached at Woodstock in the English (Methodist) meeting 
house. A minister sitting just in front of me suddenly fell, but 
I did not know why. Tuesday I preached in German and English 
at Senseny's near Middletown. Thursday, June 7, Henry Smith 
and myself addressed the people at Henry's Crum's. 

Saturday, August 11, 1 arrived at a camp meeting held in a 
beautiful grove in Berkeley county. I could hear the people sing- 
ing some distance away. In a circle around a large, open space, 
a number of tents were pitched, inclosing the area where were 
the stand for the preachers and the seats for the people. In and 
around the tents and all over the ground were men, women, and 
children in swarms, busily preparing for the occasion. My heart 
was filled with gratitude that I live in a land where every indivi- 



GHURCH HISTORY 



61 



•dual is permitted to worship God according ta the dictates of his 
own conscience and no one dare disturb him. The brethren in the 
preachers' tent gave me a cordial welcome. In the large circle 
encompassed by the tents were board seats under the shade of the 
trees, where many hundreds of people could be accommodated. 
An audience was assembled by blowing a horn. After dark it was 
a beautiful sight to see the whole circle, and especially the preach- 
ers' stand, illuminated with lamps. All around, before the tents 
and on the trees, lights were in contrast with the starry firmament 
above. The concourse on Sunday was estimated at 4,000, aboui 
300 partaking of the Lord's supper. Monday morning at daybreak 
I could hear the people in every tent singing and praying, and 
offering up family worship. In a short while the people assembled 
for a general prayer meeting. Preaching was at 10 A. M., 3 P. M., 
and candle-light. The meeting lasted the whole week, and daily 
more people assembled. The second Sunday 6,000 were present. 
Toward evening the people were dismissed, but many remained 
till morning. Daniel Hildt, McDonald, Roszel, Jefferson, Welsh, 
Swift, Pannel, and some other preachers were present. It was 
a harvest time. 

September 8, I learned of the death of Dr. Senseny at Win- 
chester. 

December 22, I paid 25 cents at Berlin (now Brunswick, Md.) 
to have my horse led across the Potomac on the ice, myself 
following. That night I preached at J. A.'s, and next day twice in 
Loudoun county. 

1805 

Preached at Harper's Ferry, January 13. 

' 1806 

Sacramental meeting eight miles from Berkeley Springs, August 
30. Strawbridge, a Methodist, following Hershey. At night a 
man fell to the ground and lay a considerable time without the 
least sign of life. When he came to himself, he praised God say- 
ing he never in all his life felt so well. 

Though unwell, I preached at Christian Crum's, Tuesday, Sep- 
temper 23. The perspiration brought out by the exercise of speak- 
ing was beneficial. Wednesday there was a meeting at J. Senseny's, 
and Thursday I preached 10 miles beyond. Friday I preached 
at Crangdorf's, but was too unwell to meet the next appointment, 
12 miles beyond. A quarterly meeting began Saturday at Gotlieh 
Homan's. Monday night I had a severe fever, but rode 33 miles 
the next day. 

Preached in Loudoun, Sunday, December 8. 

1807 

Tuesday, June 3, there was a meeting at Senseny's, near Mid- 
dletown, where Eberhardt and Holmes, an English brother, spoke. 



62 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Wednesday we preached to a large congregation at Funkhouser's, • 
10 miles away. Thursday, I rode 40 miles to Homan's findini^ the 
house full of people. Saturday, I opened a quarterly meeting at 
Peter Meyer's, and at night preached at Kauffman's in English. 
Many people were present Sunday. Rode 15 miles to Jacob Brunk's. 
Monday there was a meeting at Mr. Shauter's Tuesday one at 
Rhinehart's, Wednesday one at Woodstock. Saturday and Sunday 
there was a quarterly meeting at Niswander's and at night I 
preached in Winchester. 

Thursday, August 27, I reached a camp meeting near Crum's. 
Saturday and Sunday there was a quarterly meeting on Sleepy 
Creek. Monday, at the camp ground, we had the most powerful 
time I ever beheld. September 2, I lodged with .loseph Crisop 
beyond Frankford. A thunderstorm at night was so severe that 
the family got out of bed and spent some time singing and praying. 
Preached at Mr. Roth's and at Christian Funkhouser's, Wed- 
nesday, September 30, and next day at A. Kauffman's. Friday 
I heard the celebrated Lorenzo Dow in Woodstock, and rode 2^^ 
miles with him to a camp meeting, where he preached at candle- 
light and at sunrise next morning. A quarterly meeting at Homan's, 
Saturday and Sunday. Return to the camp ground, where the 
singing, praying, and shouting continue all night. Preaching at 
Shangpeter's Tuesday, at Peter Meyer's Wednesday, and at Dider's 
Thursday. Quarterly meeting begins at John Shuey's Saturday, 
October 10. Lambert, a Methodist, preaches Sunday. At night 
I preach in Middlebrook and lodge with Bernard Lauman. Sacra- 
mental meeting at Senseny's, near Middletown, Sunday, October 
18, and same night I preached in Newtown. 

1808 
Monday, May 23, I lodge at Shepherdstown on my way to con- 
ference, and see an elephant for the first time. I am 59 years old. 
Conference began Wednesday and closed Friday. The brethren 
were assembled at Senseny's. A quarterly meeting on Sleepy 
Creek, Sunday, September 18. Ride home with Henry Reiner. 

Preached in German and English at Henry Frey's in Loudoun, 
December 31. The meeting (a w^atch-night) continued till after 
midnight. On New Year's day, preached at Philip Frey's. 

1809 
Arrived at Harrisonburg. Sunday, March 5, where a thousand 
people were attending the Methodist conference. Henry Boehm 
preached in German after Bishop Asbury, and was followed by 
Jacob Gruber and myself. Next day a committee was appointed 
to consult with me to see whether any union could be effected 
between the two churches, and it met the day following. We dis- 
cussed many and difYerent subjects, but had nothing else in view 
than the furtherance of the cause of our Master. In the afternoon 



CHURCH HISTORY 



63 



I was invited to attend the conference, and received a resolution 
in writing which I was to deliver to William Otterbein. Sunday, 
March 12, I preached at Middletown in both languages, and rode 
to Winchester, where Roberts and Henry Boehm preached at night. 

Preached in Loudoun at Frey's and Philip Eberhardt's, March 
24-26. 

Sacramental meeting in same county, July 29-30. 

Camp meeting at Smithiield, August 25-29, about 6,000 being 
pres^ent. Spoke at Winchester last day of meeting, then go to 
Harrisonburg, where there is a large congregation, Sunday, Sep- 
tember 3. After the Lord's supper an old Methodist named Greaves 
spoke in a most wonderful strain. Monday, a meeting at Shuey's, 
where one person fell to the ground with the jerks and shook in 
every limb in a very remarkable manner. Tuesday, a meeting at 
John Peters', and Friday one at David Funkhouser's, where I 
spoke in English. Quarterly meeting at Stony Creek Sunday. 
Preaching in Woodstock Tuesday, September 12, and W^ednesday 
at Huddle's schoolhouse and Christian Funkhouser's. Sacramental 
meeting at John Senseny's Thursday and Friday. Saturday, 
preached at Winchester in the German Presbyterian (German 
Reformed) church. A very large congregation here Sunday, Hinkle, 
a Methodist, closing the sacramental service. A two-day meeting 
began at Duckwalt's on Sleepy Creek, October 14, Hinkle preaching 
Sunday. 

1810 

Preached at Frey's in Loudoun, September 22. 

Preached at Mr. Evans's near Shepherdstown, December 3. 

1811 

Meeting in Shepherdstown, March 3, at John Funkhouser's, 
March 10. 

April 22, my wife dies and I break up housekeeping, moving 
to my son Andrew's where I have my. own room and my board 
when I am at home with him. 

Preached in Shepherdstown, Tuesday, June 4, and at John 
Senseny's Friday. Quarterly meeting began at Jacob Funkhouser's 
Saturday. Preached at Woodstock Sunday night, and at Michael 
Homan's Monday. A two-day meeting began at Peter Meyers's 
Tuesday, June 11. Preached at Peter Rider's Thursday. Sacra- 
mental meeting began at Lewis Shuey's Saturday, Christian Smidt 
being present. Preached at Altdorfer's Monday, at Henry Huff's 
Tuesday, at John Peters's Wednesday, at George Funkhouser's 
Thursday, at Henry Geeting's Friday, and Sunday at Abraham 
Funkhouser's and Niswander's. At Shepherdstown, Wednesday, 
June 26, I exhorted after Enoch George. A young woman was 
converted and next morning we learned that her father cow- 
hided her for going to a Methodist meeting. 



g2 UNITED BRETHREN 

Wednesday we preached to a large congregation at Funkhouser's, • 
5o miles alav. Thursday, 1 rode 40 miles to Homan s llndm. the 
house Tun of people. Saturday. T opened a quarterly meeting at 
Pe er Meyer's and at night preached at KaufTman s in EngUsh 
Many people ^yere present Sunday. Rode 15 miles to Jacob Brunk s 
Moniarthere ^vas a meeting at Mr. Shauter's Tuesday one at 
Rhinehart's. Wednesday one at Woodstock. Saturday and Sun. a> 
there yyas a quarterly meeting at NisNyanders and at night 1 
nreached in Winchester. ^ 

^Thursday, August 27, I reached a camp n.eeting near Crum s. 
Saturday and Sunday there ^vas a quarterly nieeting on SleeD> 
Creek Monday, at the camp ground, ^ve had the most powerful 
time 1 ever beheld. September 2, I lodged with .loseph (.nsop 
beyond Frankford. A thunderstorm at night was so severe that 
the family got out of bed and spent some time singing and V^^y^f 
Preached at Mr. Roth's and at Christian Funkhousers, Wed- 
nesday, September 30, and next day at A. KaufTman s Friday 
I heard the celebrated Lorenzo Dow in Woodstock, and rode 2o 
miles with him to a camp meeting, where he preached at candle- 
light and at sunrise next morning. A quarterly meeting at Homan s, 
Saturday and Sunday. Return to the camp ground^ where the 
singing,' praying, and shouting continue all night. Preaching at 
Shanc^^eter's Tuesday, at Peter Meyer's Wednesday, and at Dider s 
Thursday. Quarterly meeting begins at John Shuey's Saturday 
October 10. Lambert, a Methodist, preaches Sunday. At night 
I preach in Middlebrook and lodge with Bernard Laumnn. Sacra- 
mental meeting at Senseny's, near Middletown, Sunday, October 
18 and same night I preached in Newtown. 

1808 
Monday, May 23, 1 lodge at Shepherdstown on my way to con- 
ference, and see an elephant for the first time. I am 59 years old. 
Conference began Wednesday and closed Friday. The brethren 
^^'ere assembled at Senseny's. A quarterly meeting cm Sleepy 
C-eek Sunday, Septemt)er 18. Ride home with Henry Reiner. 
" Preached in German and English at Henry Frey's in Loudoun, 
December 31. The meeting (a watch-night) continued till after 
midnight. On New Year's day, preached at Philip Frey's. 

1809 
\rrived at Harrisonburg. Sunday. March 5, where a thousand 
people were attending the Methodist conference. Henry Boehm 
preached in German after Bishop Asbury, and was followed by 
,lacob Cruber and myself. Next day a committee was appointed 
to consult with me to see wliether any union could be etlec ed 
between the two churches, and it met the day following. We dis- 
cussed manv and diflerent subjects, but had nothing else in view 
than the furtherance of the cause of our Master. In the afternoon 



CHURCH HISTORY 



63 



I was invited to attend the conference, and received a resolution 
in wTiting which I was to deliver to William Otterbein. Sunday, 
?tlarch 12, I preached at Middletown in both languages, and rode 
to Winchester, w^here Roberts and Henry Boehm preached at night. 
Preached in Loudoun at Frey's and Philip Eberhardt's, March 
24-26. 

Sacramental meeting in same county, July 29-30. 
Camp meeting at Smithfield, August 25-29, about 6,000 being 
present. Spoke at Winchester last day of meeting, then go to 
Harrisonburg, w^here there is a large congregation, Sunday, Sep- 
tember 3. After the Lord's supper an old Methodist named Greaves 
spoke in a most wonderful strain. Monday, a meeting at Shuey's, 
where one person fell to the ground with the jerks and shook in 
every limb in a very remarkable manner. Tuesday, a meeting at 
John Peters', and Friday one at David Funkhouser's, where 1 
spoke in English. Quarterly meeting at Stony Creek Sunday. 
Preaching in Woodstock Tuesday, September 12, and Wednesday 
iit Huddle's schoolhouse and Christian Funkhouser's. Sacramental 
meeting at John Senseny's Thursday and Friday. Saturday, 
preached at Winchester in the German Presbyterian (German 
Reformed) church. A very large congregation here Sunday, Hinkle, 
a Methodist, closing the sacramental service. A two-day meeting 
began at Duckwalt's on Sleepy Creek, October 14, Hinkle preaching 
Sunday. 

1810 
Preached at Frey's in Loudoun, September 22. 
Preached at Mr. Evans's near Shepherdstown, December 3. 

1811 
Meeting in Shepherdstown, March 3, at John Funkhouser's, 
March 10.^ 

April 22, my wife dies and I break up housekeeping, moving 
to my son Andrew's where I have my own room and my board 
when I am at home with him. 

Preached in Shepherdstown, Tuesday, June 4, and at Jolin 
Senseny's Friday. Quarterly meeting began at Jacob Funkhouser's 
Saturday. Preached at Woodstock Sunday night, and at Michael 
Homan's Monday. A two-day meeting began at Peter Meyers's 
Tuesday, June 11. Preached at Peter Rider's Thursday. Sacra- 
mental meeting began at Lewis Shuey's Saturday, Christian Smidt 
being present. Preached at Altdorfer's Monday, at Henry Huff's 
Tuesday, at John Peters's Wednesday, at George Funkhouser's 
Thursday, at Henry Geeting's Friday, and Sunday at Abraham 
Funkhouser's and Niswander's. At Shepherdstown, Wednesday, 
June 26, I exhorted after Enoch George. A young woman was 
converted and next morning we learned that her father cow- 
hided her for going to a Methodist meeting. 



64 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



65 



Saturday. August 3, a two-day meeting began at Philip Frey'* 

'" 'Ctst "l reached a quarterly meeting on Sleepy Creek Crum, 
Du^k V and Reiser being present. Next day. Strawbr.dge. a 
Method : preached with great etTect. so.ne conung forward wth 
streaming eyes, while others stood giggling and laughing. 

181 2 

Preached at Henry Frey's March 22. 

1814 

Preiched at Henrv Frey's January 9. , , , ..r-,.- , 

o.tS;^\rs-rwi=\t=:^:^n.rr= 

E!;=;sSs-=fBisi;:i^^ 

''°ie': s^riental n.eting at Mt. Artz's in Shenandoah. The 
peop"e could not leave, but continued to sing and pray all mght^ 
T^rnmenfd meeting at Lewis Shuey's, June 11-12. James 
Sewd a in or, Methodist, assisting. Two-day meet ng began 
at Peter MeyeVs-s, June 14. Night preaching ,n English at Zun- 
nerman's near Keezeltown. Ro.le more than 40 nules an< preached 
at Nwters.own. June 17. Sunday. June 19. preached at the wulow 
Funkhouser's and at Niswander's. 

1815 
Preached at Henry Frey's. September 17. 

1816 
Quarterly meeting began at the widow Funkhouser's, Saturday,. 
April 13. Spoke at Mr. Hay's Monday. 

At a camp meeting August 22-26, where more than 120 tents 
were up and many thousan.l people present. Great good was 
Ine Pre.ched in Stoverstown, We.lnesday, August 27. Thursday 
at MelchoA' on Stony Creek. Friday morning at Yellow Springs 
fVida n°ght at the house of John Matthias in Hardy. Sacramental 
meet ng f Frederick Doubs. .August 30-31 at N.swander's Septem- 
ber 3, next day at Bear's. One at Swoope's, September 6-7. 

1818 

Praeched to a large congregation at John Senseny's, March 12. 

1819 

Preached at Christian Crum's, Wednesday, September 1. Sun- 
H.v preached at Mill Creek in both languages. September 8-14, 
a c;mp meeting in Rockingham.^one of the best I ever attended. 

Rode to Winchester, July 30, finding Christian Crum very near 
the end Preached the funeral discourse. 

Camp nieeting at George HofTman's in Rockmgham, August 



2-8. with delightful weather the whole week. Meeting in the 
schoolhouse near the widow Funkhouser's, August 8. 

1821 

Preached in Winchester, Sunday, August 12. A meeting Monday 
at Mr. Blind's, Camp meeting at George Hoffman, August 16-21. 
Many will remember it. Exhorted in Stoverstown, August 22. 

1822 

Sacramental meeting at William Smidt's in Newtown. 

1823 

I attended the dedication of our new meeting house at Littles- 
town, Pa. (This is the first dedication mentioned by Newcomer.) 

1828 

Attended a Sunday School with the children, June 22, and 
closed it with prayer. (This is Newcomer's first mention of a 
Sunday School.) 

Preached Saturday. August 30, at a camp meeting in Shenan- 
doah from Psalm XL, 3-5. Sunday, preached from John V. 0-8. 
Lodged at Jacob Weitzel's in Rockingham, September 4. 1 had 
married him to Peter Brown's daughter, September 5, 1820. Mon- 
day, came to a camp meeting in this neighborhood. It closed 
September 10, then rode to Mr. Weitzel's and preached there at 
night in English. Next day a meeting at Lauman's. September 12, 
came to a camp meeting at Jacob Lenlz's in Brock's Gap, the 
seventh I have attended this summer. Many people present, but 
most of them hard and unaffected. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE EARLY PREACHERS 

Let us pass i.. review the "great meetings" that were 
s<, prominent a feature of the United P.retliren movement 

in its early period. .. , • , ,..-,>„ 

Otterhein ^vas a city preacher. With a smgle exceptu.n 
Ins paslorates were in places large for a time when Amer- 
ican cities were few and small. And yet h.s greatest wo.k 
was doP.e in the countiy at those seasons of the vear w k^ 
meetings could he held in the open air or m large i.i less 
huildinus. His leading associates, Hoehm and Geetmg. 
preached only to congregations of country people 

The great meeting took i.lace once a year m a gne. 
locality, hut sonu-tinu.s twice. It hegan on ^"^- ">--; 
nsuallv lasted three days. It was announced ^^ ell m ad 
V ce'and much preparation was made for the occasion. 
T Igr at meeting was the event of the year because s.,me 
noted preachers came from a distance to hold it Even 
he best settled parts of America were comparatively a 
vide ns to the'end of the colonial age. Postotfcc. were 
exceedin-'lv few, and the rates of postage were well mgh 
; ■ Mhltive-. A letter was very often -f-'-l . « ;-- 
,nvate person wl,o could act as a '— Z/'^^''--^™' f\ 
he meeting were therefore spread orally. Most oi the 
.* ,, ants came on horseback or afo..t, because there was 
n el icle except the road wagon and not every trail 
uld be used by it. Nevertheless, great crowds gathered 
and the community was taxed to the utmost to teed and 

'"'fome'mes the meeting was in the open air. But the 

thrinv farmer of German birth or parentage was ,pi. te sure 

; e n immense barn, and such a building served quite 

well to accommodate the throng. Newcomer once men- 

^'"'Ti;;sriSiV:^e looked forward to with satisfac- 



CHURCH HISTOID 



()7 



tion by the evaiii^elists themselves. Finding themselves 
lonesome in their own formal denominations, they sought 
each other's society in religious gatherings. A leader m 
the great meeting found sweet fellowship in his associates. 
Other ministers were often i)resent, and if they had the 
evangelical spirit they would take part. 

The preaching was positive and dogmatic. 'Thus saith 
the Lord;* settled all cpiestions. Great stress was laid on 
the new birth. The contrast was drawn between ruin and 
death bv sin and salvation and eternal life through faith in 
Jesus Christ. Preacher and follower were alike spiritual 
and emotional. It was the common thing for pinitents 
and converts to make their appearance at every service. 
"The great tenet of this new preaching was a mystical 
union with God through Christ Jesus, causing a spiritual 
regeneration, which changed the heart so radicaPy as to 
produce a new man in ideals and desires, and, thc^refore, 
in ethical conduct. Form and ceremony were nothing; 
everything was continued in spirit and life. From the 
natuVe of the case, the position assumed by these reform- 
ers on (luestions of morals and conduct was radical. Their 
religion was individual, their scriptural interpretation 
literal, and their ethical standards high. Hence they had 
little tolerance for what they deemed unscriptural.'' 

During the intervals between two great meetings the 
people were left mainly to their class and prayer meetings. 
There was an occasional sermon if a preacher could be 
found These praver and experience meetings were held 
in private homes, the experience consisting in the feelings 
or ideas with respect to the inner and spiritual life. There 
were not vet anv organized church activities, and all the 
people could talk of was what they thought or felt. Men 
and women accustomed themselves to oral prayer, and 
some of them could pray in public with great power and 
etiect These home meetings developed leaders, who were 
very instrumental in grounding in faith and hope the peo- 
ple who zealously followed them. 

We now pass on to the period 1800-1830. 



68 



UNITED BRETHREN 



The United Rrethrcn organization arose as a revival 
church. It took its adherents mainly from "Satan's side 
of tlie hne/' instead of from other folds or from people 
with a training in churchliness. *The early preachers were 
therefore heralds of salvation to lost men. When they had 
faithfully urged their hearers to flee the wrath to come', 
they considered their duty performed. After 'going over 
the circuit' and preaching gratuitously they went home. 
They built no houses of worship, gave no attention to the 
training of the young, set in motion no working activities^ 
and collected no money, unless for the benefit of the poor." 

So the preacher came, preached, and went home, and 
he paid his own way. He worked on his farm till well 
into Saturday, then rode a long distance, preached that 
night and two or three times Sunday, giving his religious 
experiences and his meditations on the Scriptures witli 
special reference to the future life. All the people had to do 
was to hear the preacher, feed him and his horse, and then 
wait till he came again. It was the general opinion that 
preaching could be done by men almost wholly engaged in 
other callings and without previous training. 

Otterbein and Boehm had licensed converts who felt it 
their duty to preach. This practice v.as continued and 
converts were often licensed immediately on their con- 
version. The preacher who could produce the greatest 
eff'ect was considered to be moved by divine power. The 
convert called was in most instances in possession of a 
wonderful religious experience, and his sermon would en- 
force that ex[)erience with a i)owerful appeal c^dculated to 
stir the emotions tremendously. 

It is not strange that with such a hasty method both 
ministers and members were often irregular and unreliable. 
Thousands of people know nothin'^ of Christianity except 
as it is illustrated in the lives^ of those who possess it. 
Being unacquainted with the Bible and far from God, they 
have no other standards of measurement. Backsliding was 
likely to have a wide reaching influence. But a close dis- 
cipline was put into practice in the new church. Hearing 



CHURCH HISTORY 



m 



complaints against ministers was a prominent feature in 
the proceedings of almost any conference. 

A well-developed itinerant system did not come in a 
day. The early preachers in the United Brethren move- 
ment had some outside employment, on which they de- 
pended for support. They were reaHy local preachers. 
Each formed a circuit about his own home, with the pre- 
sence and assistance at irregular intervals of the leading 
l)reachers. He left home when lie could do so with the 
least prejudice to his bread winning pursuit. It was ruled 
that those who preached (.nly where they lived were to 
have no compensation, ai d wh.al they did collect they 
were to turn over to the benefit of the traveling ])reacliers. 

A regular itinerancy beran in \^i)\ when ten preachers 
consented to travel as^ directed by their superior ollicers. 
Newcomer sought to improve the melhod thus begun. He 
considered the itinerancy an apostolic mode, and wa^ 
quick to see its adaptability to new and thinly peopled dis- 
tricts, like those into which his church was penetrating. 

The imperfect itinerancy of the pioneer epoch waJv 
criticized by Bishop Asbury. In his church the system was 
well organized and ran like clock-work. It was because 
of this e.niciency that the Methodist Church was making 
its wonderful growth. 

After 1830 there was better organization in the United 
Brethren Church, and a ministry that gave its whole time 
to the work, although its support was meager. The num- 
ber of local preachers on the roll of the Virginia Confer- 
ence has steadily diminished, and during the last quarter- 
century not one has been received. 

Until 1841 the circuit-rider had a maximum salary of 
$80 a year if a single man, and twice that allowance if he 
were married. The salaries were then raised to $100 and 
$200, respectively. No higher compensation was allowed 
the bishop than to the preacher working under him. 



CHAPTER X 

reminiscp:nces of somk early preachers 

In the present chapter we present some reminiscent 
ohservations of several of the United Brethren ministers 
who were in active service hetween 1800 and 1800. Lhiet 
amon^ those writini> their recollections, when on ^Ihe 
western slope of the rugged mountain of life;' was deoroe 
W. Station, who in 1900 was living in Colorado. 

The reminiscences below are by John W. Fulkerson. 
The Vir^nnia Conference of 1855, held at Mount Hebron, 
is spoken of as containing forty-three men, present and 
absent \11 were of good preaching ability, sound m doc- 
Irine, devotional, zealous, and bold as lions. They sensibly 
enjoyed the Christian religion themselves, and insisted 
that all other persons should have a realizing knowledge ot 
the divine power to salvation, if they desire to be sure ot 
heaven at the end of the present life. They felt called 
upon to take a stand for vital piety, to advocate a pure 
spiritualitv, to preach a religion that has in it the power 
of the Holv Spirit to such an extent that the proiessor may 
know he lias passed from death unto life. The fathers of 
the conference had a heavy conflict on their hands, tor the 
formal churches had brains, education, and influence, and 
thought the United Rrethren were fanatics, or fit subjects 
for r hospital for the insane. These formalists united to 
sciuelch the evangelical movement with all the powers they 
could command, and these were not insignificant. 

The aflairs of the conferences of the 50's were man- 
acted by three strong men: Henry Burtner, Jacob Mark- 
^^"ood. and Jacob Bachtel. The measures they originated 
and advocated were adopted, and what they opposed was 
sure to fail, no matter by whom it was supported. They 
were invulnerable, but the conferences were well managed. 
These men were intellectually ahead of the other members. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



71 



They were devotedly attached to one another and to the 
church. 

Burtner was the oldest of the three, and was at this 
thne a retired itinerant, his education being wholly in the 
German. In 1842 he came to Dayton from Cumberland 
county, Pennsylvania, and was now living on a fine farm. 
His preaching, which wiis mainly in German was of depth 
and power. He was above the medium height, of com- 
manding appearance, and possessed a fine countenance 
and a verv penetrating eye. Burtner was genial, benevol- 
ent, and hOspitable. His home was oi)en to all his brother 
ministers, from the highest to the lowest, and to the mem- 
bership of the church as well. He was admitted to con- 
ference in 1820, and died at Dayton in 1857. A powerful 
man, he was a factor not to be ignored in the councils of 
his church. His voice was heard with no uncertain sound 
in several of the general conferences. 

Jacob Markwood stood next in authority, but unlike 
what was true of Burtner his power and influence did not 
lie in his business ability. He was a close student, a good 
thinker, and a great orator. In fluency and m use ot 
beautiful language he was rarely excelled. In his best 
moments he would carry as by magic, and whithersoever 
he i)leased, the largest and most unruly audience. In his 
denunciations of the popular evils of the day, he was 
severe, sarcastic, and emphatic in the extreme, and witha 
so regardless of the possibile consequences to himself, that 
he would have his audience mad enough to want to hang 
him. Then, in a few momc nts and with cyclo.nic power, he 
would have his hearers weeping, as though with broken 
hearts, and some of them screaming for mercy as if the 
flunes of hell were consuming them. In another moment, 
and as with the speed of the lightning^s flash, the power 
of his elocfuence would be turned to the uplifting mfluence 
of the gospel, to the abundant blessings of Christianity, 
and for its supreme enjoyment in this life and the lite 
bevord The whole audience would soon be m a whirl ot 
olorv and loud hallelujahs would come from every part 



il 



UNITED BRETHREN 



of the house. At the dedication of Mount Zion church near 
the viUa^^^e of Mount Solon, he preached two and one-half 
hours from the text, "We have come unto Mount Zion/' 
But sometimes Mark wood failed and failed hudly. He 
was tender-hearted and often 4>ave his last dollar to the 
poor. It is told of him that while he was on the road to 
preside over a conference in Ohio, he overtook an old man, 
thinly clad, and to all appearance in ill health. Markwood 
at once oot out of his huggy, and walked with the man 
a short distance, meanwhile puttint> several questions to 
him. Then he took off' his double-cape overcoat and gave 
it to the stranger. News of the incident reached the con- 
ference, and another warm coat was provided for the 
bishop. 

Jacob Bachtel was in some particulars second to neither 
of the other men. In personal appearance he was of 
medium height, well-proportioned, and keen-eyed. His 
hair was bushy and stood straight up. His fine appearance 
and commanding address gave him much influence in the 
camp-meetings and other out-of-door gatherings. He was 
moral in every sense of the word and strictly conscientious. 
Hachtel was not a man to be trifled with, for he felt that 
ihe life and work of a minister of the gospel is a most im- 
portant and serious thing. In the i)uli)it he was i)lain and 
practical. He hated every form of sham and handled it 
without gloves. He was particularly severe on a.^iosticism, 
infidelity, and Romanism, and in this direction he was no 
mean antagonist. Although he stood unflinchingly for 
what he considered to be the right, he had in his private 
character the tenderness of a loving Christian mother. He 
would never go back on a persf nal friend. In the genera! 
conferences he was an influential factor, and as a presiding 
elder, to v/hich office he was rei)eatedly elected, he was 
always helpful to the preachers under his care. 

Jacob J. (Hossbrenner was a charier member of the 
Virginia Conference ar.d in muiy respects a great man. 
He was tall and slender, with a commanding forehead. 
His black eyes Hashed intelligence. His language was 



CHURCH HISTORY 



73 



chaste and correct. In the pulpit he called a spade a 
spade when dealing with the eternal destiny of immortal 
souls. Though not deep in his thought, he was popular as 
a preacher, and the pulpits of other churches were oi)en 
to him. His themes were of the most exalted character 
and always dwelt on the bright encouraging side of Chris- 
tianity and the happy results of Christian living. He ap- 
peared to have no taste for dwelling on the sins of wicked 
men or the corruption of the times. As a bishop he was 
careful and conservative, his management giving general 
satisfaction. By his family he was much loved. 

William R. Coursey was prominent in the early liistory 
of the church in the Shenandoah Valley. He was long an 
itinerant, and this meant preaching nearly every day, week 
days as well as Sundays, and on a meager salary. He had 
a wife and six or seven children. It seems now an impossi- 
bility to keep eight or nine persons on an income of $200 
a year, yet it was done, and Frederick circuit, which was 
large and wealthy, allowed it to be endured. There were 
twenty-six appointments in this circuit, and yet he had few 
presents, and his assistant, $90 salary and no presents. 
Neither did Coursey receive anything for his children, 
although it was left for the ([uarterly conference to make 
an additional allowance for the su])port of the minister's 
children. Coursey was modest, retiring, and a safe coun- 
selor. He was of a good family, a good student, a 
metliodical thinker, one of the most successful of teachers, 
and was considered a model preacher. He was devotedly 
pious and strictly religious. He was often a presiding 
eld'jr and was sent to the general conference. 

John Ruebush had but a limited education, yet was 
active and hard-working, and in many respects a most re- 
markable preacher. During his ministry, many j)ersons 
v/ere gathered into the church, ard many others were so 
drawn toward it that they were never able to break away 
from its influence, and years later came into the fo'd. The 
pathos in his voice when he was preaching or sinking was 
most afl'ectino. Tlie sermons of Ruebush could not be 



74 UNITED BHETHHEN 

considered learned, nor was his rhetoric according to the 
rules; yet he moved whole audiences as the tempest moves 
the trees of the forest. He was great as a revivalist. A 
pastoral charge in his care was a very poor i)lace for hack- 
sliding, and this happened to but few. He and 'is co- 
laborers depended entirely on the earnest preaching of 
the gospel, the power of spiritual song, the influence of the 
Holy Spirit, and the gracious assistance of si)iritual 
enthusiastic church members. Revivals then meant sc.ine- 
thing. They meant permanent societies. Ruebiish would 
have scorned the kinks, twists, and stratagems of th.e aver- 
age professional revivalist of to-day. To the old United 
Brethren minister or member, their methods would have 
been disgusting and \\ ould have been deemed a travesty 
on the Christian reliiion. Ruebush was the first regular 
preacher to be sent to the South Hranch of the Potomac, 
and was largely instrumental in establishing the Unitecf 
Brethren Church there. He was sent as a missionary to 
establish the church in Tennessee. Such an errand meant 
severe i)ersecution and even jeopardy of life, because of 
the anti-slavery record of our church. Yet at much finan- 
cial loss Ruebush faced the dangers and endured the hard- 
sliips until he had planted the church on that unfavorable 
soil, where it is still growing and prospering. 

l^)enjamin Stickley was unique. The Virginia Confer- 
ence never had but one '^Uncle Ben,'' and will never have 
another. Before conversion it was his special delight to 
annoy the religious gatherings of Christian people. He 
would not raise a disturbance himself, but would induce 
others to do so by bribing them with plenty of whiskey. 
The more fuss he could make the greater his fun, although 
he would keep himself out of sight. When he was con- 
verted at a camp meeting he had two bottles of whiskey 
in his pockets. His whiskey was a free treat to his row(!v 
comrades. He did not sell it to them as camj) meeting 
roughs have done in later years. When Stickley was con- 
verted, he was converted through and through. All his 
chums in wickedness were forsaken. His still was at once 



CHURCH HISTORY 



75 



given up. Although he could hardly read his text or his 
Scripture lesson, he began holding meetings every Sunday, 
sometimes riding forty miles to reach an appointment and 
get home. Stickley was j)()or, he had a large family to 
support, and as he received nothing from his preaching he 
had to work hard to keei) the wolf from the door. He thus 
worked several years before he ^^as received into the con- 
ference. He was always sent to the mountain circuits, 
which were large and v liose i)e()ple vrere poor. He had to 
travel and preach nearly every day in the year and got 
little for his work in a pecuniary way. Yet sMiging and 
j)raying he would go away from conference a^d l.oiiu. rjid 
at the end of the year would report more r,ouls gathered 
into the church than was true of any of his co-laborers. 
He had a powerful voic(^ and Bachtel said of one of his 
sermo'.s that it could almost be heard in hell. Stickley 
Avas tlu^ first missionary sent across the Alleghanies into 
the bounds of what is now the Parkersburg Conference. 
W?.al is now West Virginia was then in great part an un- 
inha})ited wilderness. The mission circuit covered three 
hi: dred mi.es, with preaching nearly every dav in the 
ye-r. But a good report was always sure to come, even 
if there were little money to mention. Stickley was a 
missiv nary here at the time the Methodist Episcopal Church 
split on the slavery (juestion. Excitement was up to the 
danger ])()int. One day while he was passing the office of 
a leading lawyer of the to\Mi of Weston, th.e lawyer ci^J.bd 
him ir,, saying: *T want to talk with you. Be seated," 
Stickley asked what was wanted. "There is great excite- 
ment on slavery between the North and the South," was the 
reply. "The great Methodist Church has split, the nation 
is also going to divide, and it is all important that every 
citizen take his stand and show his colors. We all want 
to know which way you are going." Stickley responded 
with one of his most ])leasant smiles, naming the ends of 
his mission field: *T go up here north as far as the town 
of Fetterman, and south, as far as Steer Creek. If you and 
your niggers doif t get religion, you will all go to hell to- 



76 



UNITED BRETHREN 



gether." The lawyer had nothing further to say. Stickley 
was known to be an uncompromising Union man. When 
the ci\il war broke out and the Southern feehng became 
intensely bitter, Stickley was thrown as a traitor into a 
filthy prison. He soon became broken-hearted and his 
glorious manhood was squelched. When liberated, he 
sacrificed his farm and other property, left the home and 
friends of a lifetime, and migrated to Iowa, where in no 
long time he died, never recovering his former spirit and 
ambition. After preaching a sermon at Washington, Iowa, 
and asking the people to sing a hymn, he died in the pulpit. 
In 1847 George Hoffman was still a local preacher, 
though still an elderly man. He was the senior member 
and had traveled a circuit before the old conference was 
divided. He did not now go home and do nothing, but 
regularly attended the quarterlies and the annual confer- 
ences, preaching whenever asked. For some years he was 
the conference book agent, serving without a salary and 
getting only a small commission on his sales. He thus 
made himself a most useful man and w^as much a factor 
in shaping the policies of the church. Hoffman had little 
education and was not a great preacher, yet he had great 
intluence, having the faculty of impressing himself and his 
opinions most powerfully on both ministers and laity. He 
had very decided convictions as to what was right in the 
att'airs of the church, and he had the backbone to stand 
up to his convictions. Splendid conmion sense and a great 
fund of practical knowledge were his, both in worldly 
matters and the affairs of the church. Hoffman was a 
very lielpful associate, and the ruling authorities of the 
cliurcli called him much into their councils. He was also 
nicest companionable, being a fine talker, full of anecdote 
and thrilling incident connected with his long and useful 
life, and he had the happy faculty of relating these things 
in an interesting way. Many was the time, when the 
writer of these reminiscences would go to Hoffman's house, 
luxl work hard all day, perhaps cutting and hauling in fire- 
wood, so that the old gentleman might go with him to his 



CHURCH HISTORY 



77 



quarterly meetings in and across the mountains. For 
Hoffman was acquainted with every path and every home, 
and was loved and respected by all the mountain people. 

The same writer gives a personal incident. At a con- 
ference session in March, 1850, the only daughter of Jacob 
Funkhouser, an interesting young lady, seventeen years of 
age, came into chui-ch in the afternoon, this being the first 
time she attended conference in day time. The pews faced 
the doors, and by looking straight ahead, one could see 
every ore coming into the church. The writer looked, saw, 
and was conquered. By the time she had reached her seat, 
he had decided she was the ideal of the woman he wanted. 
He had not been thinking of marrying for at least five 
years, and in his case there were good reasons why mar- 
riage should be delayed. But in looking at Miss Funk- 
houser, the matter was settled at once. She and her family 
were perfect strangers, yet he made up his mind to marry 
her very soon if it were all right with her. He had been 
traveling a circuit three years, had been over the whole 
conference district, and had become acquainted with hun- 
dreds of interesting young ladies, many of them suitable 
for becoming the wives of preachers. Yet not one of them 
had appealed to him as a wife. There was now the pur- 
pose to marry as soon as lie could. But it took months of 
the most assiduous courting before the wish was accom- 
plished. The Funkhousers were Lutherans. A vouna 
Lutheran minister wanted her as much as he did, and 
prosecuted his suit with all the power that was in him. 
Devotion, persevcrai.ce, and ardent love won a triumph, 
and the marriage was solemnized by Jacob Markwood. Yet 
the couple were permitted to walk together only fourteen 
months. 

About this time the narrator was assigned to Winches- 
ter circuit, which included twenty-nine appointments 
scattered over the counties of Frederick, Morgan, Berkc^lev, 
Clarke, and Warren. His colleague was John K. Perry, a 
most unpromising candidate, who had a hard time getting 
into conference, although it turned out there was no mis- 



78 



UNITED BHETHREX 



CHURCH HISTORY 



■J 



(r»ke in adniittini^ him. Each of the two men made a round 
every live weeks, meetin<> twice iii every round at llie liouse 
of Isaac Stanholtz, not far from the Morgan line. There 
they speid one nii;iit toijiether, the preachinij being alter- 
nately by the two men. The narrator's revival meeting at 
tlie Quaker meeting house near Anthony Funkhouser's 
resulted iii about eightv conversions and three new church 
bui-dings: United Hreth.ren, Lutheran, and Reformed. As 
])reacher-in-chari:e, he i>ave a sermon one Sundav mo'/nin.g 
at the meeting at Green Spring. The large building .was 
well filled, both iloor and gallery, with intelligent, well- 
to-do pe(n)le. The narrator was thought to be much the 
better preacher, and used for his text, ''Vanity of vanities, 
saiiii the preacher, all is vanity." But the sermon was a 
mc si wretched failure and very mortifying to the preacher 
as well as to all the friends of the church. Jacob Hott 
invited Iviu to dinner, as was his custom, his home being 
open to all the ])reachers. Hott was a most excellent judge 
of preaching and one of the grcnitest ''Scrip torians'' the 
w riter ever knew. ^Yhen about halfwav home he looked 
toward the preachers and said in a laughing manner^ 
"Brother Station, it was vanity of vanities all the way 
through and nothing but vanity. Why did you not take a 
text that had something in it? Then you could have 
preached a sermon that we would not be ashamed of." The 
good dinner was not enjoyed by a certain one of the guests. 
At nigh.t Perry preached to another crowded house a ser- 
mon thai was excellent, considering that at that time he 
was inexperienced, and uncouth and awkward in address. 
Tliis time he won the laurels and carried them away in 
glorious triumph. On this circuit Station's salary was 
$140, his colleague's $100. Yet they lived on what they 
received and were happy. Perry was a devout Christian, 
lived an h.onored life, and died in old age at Philadelphia. 
Before his conversion George B. Rimel was a hard- 
working farmer, and afterward he still labored with his 
liands a good deal. He was without human polish and 
destitute of the learning of the schools, and from a human 



viewpoint was a most unpromising candidate for the 
ministr}\ Yet he had a strong mind and was unquestion- 
ably called to preach the gospel. He was powerful in 
prayer and clear and pointed in his application of Bible 
truth to the conscience. Churches sometimes err in call- 
ing men into church work, but God never does. The work 
Rimel ])erformed could not have been done by anyone 
else. He was forceful and his style of preaching was much 
needed in the early history of the conference. He was its 
Boanerges. He gave sledgehammer blows at sin without 
fear of the consequences, for there was no fear in him. 
During a revival in Harbaugh's Valley, Maryland, his 
speech was so plain and hard that the people were greatly 
offended. Some half dozen men made an attack on him 
as he was going home from meeting. "Boys," said he, 
"let me alone. Don't touch me. If you do, I w ill straighten 
my arm on you that the Lord has given me with which to 
defend myself, and you will think a horse has kicked you. 
1 don't want to hurt you." There w^as no further trouble 
in that neighborhood. At another time, while on his way to 
Brock's Gap, Rimel lodged with Andrew^ Horn, a prominent 
member near Turleytown. There was a union church in 
his neighborhood, and it w as a moderately good building for 
those days. Horn w as asked why it was not used, and was 
told that every preacher had been run off by rowdies, this 
element having sworn there should be no more preaching 
in Turleytown. Rimel asked Horn to circulate an appoint- 
ment, an evening in the following week, and he would 
preach on his return from the Gap. Horn at length con- 
sented, and there was a large congregation. The services 
began in the regular way, and until the middle of the 
sermon the house was quiet. Then a disturbance arose in 
the farther end of the room. In a gentlemanly way Rimel 
asked the toughs to behave themselves. This only made 
matters worse. Then the preacher paused in his discourse, 
and asked if some person would give him the names of 
the disturbers. The rowdies bawled out their own names, 
and these were written down by Rimel. "To-morrow," 



80 



UNITED BI^ETilHEN 



said he, "I shall see the proper ollicers of the law, and have 
you arrested and presented for your unruly eonduet here 
to-night/' There was quiet during the remainder of the 
serviees and another appointment was made. In the morn- 
ing Rimel had to pass through the town, where a crowd 
of furious men were awaiting him. The leader of the 
gang caught the preacher's horse by the bridle and de- 
manded that (he paper containing the names be given up. 
Rimel refused and the bully then attempted to pull him 
off' the horse. **Hold on," said Rimel, "I can get off my- 
self.'' As he dismounted he slipped off his overcoat, and 
then made the following announcement: 'T am not afrai(i 
of all the people in Turleytown, and I can whip them all 
if they will fight fair. I can whip the whole pack of you. 
I shall only need to get in one or two licks on a man, and 
every man I hit will never know what hurt him." He then 
made a pass at the rovvdy captain, who at once showed the 
white feather and ran. Rimel remounted, but had gone 
only a little way when some one shouted for him to stop. 
The preaclier turned about. The spokesman said the men 
were sorry for what they had d(}ne, and if the matter were 
dropped, they would be his friends and protect him in his 
meetings, for they much admired a brave man. There 
were no more interruptions and Turleytown became a 
reformed place. 

The Virginia, Maryland, and Parkersburg conferences 
were all one in 1818, and included only seven circuits: 
Frederick, Hagerstown, Winchester, Woodstock, Rocking- 
ham, Augusta, and South Rranch. Frederick included all 
of Frederick (in Maryland), Carroll, parts of Raltimore 
and Montgomer>% and some territory in Virginia (Lou- 
doun?). It was a four weeks circuit. Now (1899) there 
are seven charges: Frederick station, Frederick circuit, 
Meyersville, Mechanicstown, Keys, Littletown, and Man- 
chester. Hagerstown circuit covered all Washington and 
parts of Alleghany and Rerkeley. In this territory are now 
Hagerstown station, Middleburg, Williamsport, Roons- 
boro, Keedysville, Berkeley, and Martinsburg station. Win- 



CHUHCH HISTORY 



81 



Chester circuit included all of Frederick and Morgan, and 
parts of W^irren, Rerkeley, and Jefferson. In 1849 it was 
a five weeks circuit with thirty-two appointments. Wood- 
stock circuit included all of Shenandoah and took in the 
Lost River country, the fathers preachi :g at many places 
not now occupied by the United Rrethren. Rockingham 
circuit took in all Rockingham, including the Rrock's Gap 
region. Augusta circuit was a trip of ene hundred miles, 
coverin.,^ all of Angusta and Rockbridge, the Pastures, and 
part of Highland. Rut the Presbyterian Church was too 
V ell planted in most of this territory for our denomina- 
tion to gain much foothold. The South Rranch circuit 
covered Hamj)shire, Hardy, Grant, Mineral, and a part of 
Pendleton. Traveling one of fl)ese circuits meant some- 
tlfing: self-denial, hardship, liviir^ from home all tlie year, 
the great danger from crossing swollen streams, and the 
machirations of men who thought it a great thing if they 
could get the better of a preacher of the United Rrethren 
and Methodist churches. 

In early days South Rranch circuit was called "the Col- 
lege." When a preacher found himself assigned to this 
field it went very hard to think of going there. Rut his 
comrades would come to his rescue, saying he must go 
to "the College" willingly or he could not be graduat(^d 
into the itinerancy as a permanent member. So he would 
always go, but with a wry face and thoughts very emphatic 
in their meaning. One of these men was Albert Day, him- 
self a nc:tive of the Norlh Fork valley, and there converted. 
His first year's salary was $50, yet many years afterward 
he wrote that it was his "firm conviction that no voimi<^ 
man is lit for the ministry who would refuse to work for 
?^'5() during his first year and the good that he cruU] accom- 
l)lish." 

Writing from Minnesota in 1900, John W. Fulkerson 
wonders if the walnuts and locusts in front of his child- 
hood home are now mammoth trees, the spring a lake, the 
hills mountains, the narrow valleys great plains, the sheep- 
nose and damson trees scattered to the winds. He was 



*S2 



UMTEI) BHETHHEN 



received into conference in 1843. The preachers of that 
period were sterhng men, competent, industrious, and 
economical. Ministerial support was meager and called 
for economy in the home. Fulkerson was first sent to ''the 
College," which he found ''marvelous in extent, hut the 
scenery suhlime, the air halmy and bracing." The twenty- 
four appointments paid $64.40, but Selim, the dapi)le rid- 
mg horse, made the salary go far enough. The moral 
atmosphere for producing ministerial life was strong in 
Pendleton and Frederick. In his soliloquy on what "some 
of our college-j)added preachers of to-day would do with 
such a charge," Mr. Fulkerson observes that "simplicity 
of dress with both men and women has always been an 
admonition with me. If the greedy, unnecessary expenses 
of the Christian Church in dress, living, and house furnish- 
mg were wisely applied to the building of church houses 
and missionary ett'ort, the world would soon be brought 
to God." United Brethren services were then being trans- 
ferred from the German to the English. The Mrginia Con- 
ference was having four stubborn diiliculties to deal with. 
The German speech was giving way to the English. The 
church could hold the parents, but the children were pass- 
ing out of its control. George Hildt, a strong representa- 
tive preacher, had four sons preaching in other denomina- 
tions. Another was too long a delay in opening church 
schools. A third was slavery. Many good, honest slave- 
holders attending the services of the church approved its 
doctrines and methods. Yet they did not see their way to 
become members because they sometimes became owners 
of slaves not from choice, but by legacy or marriage. The 
last cases of slavery in the United Brethren Church were 
disposed of in 1851. A fourth cause was secrecy, which 
turned awav hundreds. Fulkerson, however, mentions a 
fifth, when he remarks that a false attitude on church sup- 
port is hard to correct. He preached one full year where 
one member of his flock was vSaid to be worth $80,()()(). xVt 
the end of the year this man handed him a dollar. The 
preacher looked at the munificeni gift with astonishment. 



CHURCH HISTOIIY 



U.J 



"Do not be startled," remarkckl the money-grubber, "I 
have heard better preaching than you gave, — (referring 
to the fathers), and it did not cost me a cent." 

Before any of the Station family joined the United 
Brethren, they called the sect fanatical, because they had 
been reared in the blue-stocking idea that all rehgious 
meetings must be conducted in decency and order. When 
Rimel was presiding elder the Brethren had a camp-meet- 
ing at Gulp's old ground. J. F. Station attended, more 
through curiosity than anything else. He was then a young 
man of twenty-four and had taught several years in his 
home neighborhood. At the Sunday night service Rimel 
preached in German, giving sinners such sledgehammer 
blows that Station was pounded into unconsciousness. 
When he came to himself he found himself at the 
mourner's bench, a place he had despised above any other, 
not excepting the saloon. Before the altar service closed. 
Station was most powerfully converted, and he never got 
over the shouting proclivity he then acquired. The Statton 
family had a lender recollection of the names of George 
B. Rimel, John Ruebush, and John Fulkerson. It was the 
devout prayer of J. F. Statton that the outpouring of 
the Holy Spirit in Pentecostal showers might return to the 
church in all her revivals. "Some of the old fellows are 
aetlina awfully tired of the machinery revivals of the i)ro- 
fessional evangelist." 

Andrew J. Haney entered the conference in 1831. He 
opened the mission between Knobby Hills and the South 
Branch. Hershey, Markwood, Ruebush, and Fulkerson 
followed consecutively. "The College" was healthy, happy, 
romantic, the picturesque scenery adding enchantment to 
the toil. 1845 was a good year on South Branch, and the 
f^ood effects were to be seen many years later. An aged 
man dvinu of cancer asked Fulkerson to preach his funeral 
sermon. A day was appointed, the whole country around 
gathered, and the preacher talked to them and the sick man 
from Isaiah XLVI, 4. The man died within the month. 
This was the first and last time he conducted a funeral 



84 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



85 



service for a person still livini,^ Haney clian<4ed his preach- 
ini,^ from German to Eni^^lish, and though it was a "kind 
of mixture," he was still very successful. He made it a 
point to look after the youni,^ and to interest them in church 
activities. His first home as a [)reacher was with Abraham 
Funkhouser, whose two children were taui^^ht in English 
and this compelled him to converse with them in the same 
language. He visited about one hundred families this 
year. He rode up to P>enjamin Stickley's place and asked 
him if he would keep a preacher. ''Yes, and his horse too," 
was the response. Haney praised the i)urity of the water 
and though he did not say so, he thought it ran into a very 
filthy place. As they turned away from the spring, he 
told Slickley he knew of a purer fountain. The distiller 
understood the allusion and said Haney must j)reach here. 
Stickley sent out his children to solicit an audience and 
fixed seats under the sugar trees near the stillhouse. It 
was after this that Stickley became a Christian and tore out 
his still. Both Haney and Hershey held meetings at his 
house and a number were there converted. Stickley told 
others that after Haney preached his first sermon at his 
place ho could make no more whiskey, and that what l:e 
had in his barrels leaked out. 

George E. Deneal wi's '\smart and sharp as a tack," but 
once found his eciiial. He was preaching on a week-day 
in a private home and few people were present. At the 
end of !he sermon the [)reacher asked all who wanted to 
go to iieaven to risc> to their feet. All stood except Mr. 
SlimlK It. Deneal then asked all who wished to go to hell 
to stand. SlimhoU remained seated. The minister was 
non-pluss'.d. ''You are a strange man. You neither want 
lo gc) to heaven or hell. W:cr? do you want to go?" 
"When I am regularly dismissed, I want to go home," was 
the man's reply. 

J. Zahn was a good musician and companionable. He 
was poor, settled down, and got married. In driving up 
to a hotel in Romney he thus addressed the negro porter: 
"Monsieur, seize this quadruped by its government,, 



, 



extricate it from the vehicle, arrange it in a separate de- 
partment, polish it with care, give provender according 
to debility of its body, and at even I will compensate your 
master." The white in the darky's eyes enlarged, his teeth 
shone, and he made this remark to the proprietor, who 
was inside the hotel ofhce: "Come out, here is a F'rench- 
man talking (ireek." After supper the negro turned the 
tables on Zahn by a demonsiratic n of his powers as a 
singei'. 

The following i)iihy characlerizalion has been made as 
to certain of the early ])roachers: 

Haer was thoughtful imd v.alchful; Shuey was liberal 
and generous; S])essard was femir"ne and modest; P>achtel 
was fearless and irdepend nt: Tobey was critical and well 
informed; Miles was handsome and animated; Hrashear 
was a sermon memorizer; Hires was a noble singer and 
strong revivalist; Knott v;as a giant in exhortation, an 
exercise that usually followed a sermon; Rhinehart was 
of fine physique, powerful voice, unusual preaching talent, 
and tremendous energy in exhortation. 

"William R. Rhinehart was a tall, stately man, attrac- 
tive and commanding, a good scribe, a fine singer, a com- 
])()ser and compiler of music, a good organizer, with aggres- 
sive spirit and was an incessant worker. At times he lacked 
in the use and application cf means to the end he had in 
view. He was somewhat learned but not finished. At 
times he could produce dashes of fine taste and create 
drafts of statement with forcible simplicity and general 
admiration. Some of his i)ulpit 'fine sayings' would occas- 
ionally turn a somersault, and hastily plunge into a comic 
anecdote or illustration bringing his attitude and system 
of thought to grate on the minds of the fastidious. Rhine- 
harf s range of thought and influence as an advocate, filled 
an extensive sphere in the church. In his palmiest days 
he was a i)ower at camp and quarterly meetings. His 
silver eloquence, strung upon the golden thread of the 
gosi)el, would sparkle like diamonds before the minds of 
his audience and attract a whole camp meeting. He was 



m 



UNITED BRETHREN 



an advanced reformer, first in journalism, first in temper- 
ance work, first in the missionary enterprises, a leader in 
sabbath school work and pleaded for a better support of 
the ministry. He lived and died leaving a fragrant name 
in the church. 

Geo. B. Rimel possessed a fine physique,— healthy, 
ruddy, beef-eating appearance,— a notably handsome per- 
son. His preaching did not consist in pompous phrases 
or brilhant expressions, but terse, good sense and original- 
ity. His mind moved like a timber wagon loaded with 
Bible facts. The lion-hearted Rimel did some good sub- 
soil plowing in the Valley of Virginia, and is still remem- 
bered kindly by the people; for with his masculine im- 
passioned exhortation he could move the peoi)Ie to tears. 
RimeFs individuality was prominent. Strong and reliant, 
he held the truth of his own convictions fast in the face of 
all opposition. 

Joseph M. Hershey in youth was a sizeable man, pos- 
sessed emotional emulation. He was bred and born 
under the influence of the church, and w^as decidedly 
churchly in his feelings. In dress he was becomingly 
costunud, in manners quiet and dignified, occasionally al- 
most cold and indifferent, yet domestic in disj)()sition and 
loved home and surroundings. As a preacher he was not 
a brilliant explorer of the deep things of God, but adorned 
his efforts with the force of common sense and aimed at 
conii)actness with some degree of style. The last days 
of his life were somewhat foggy, made so by influences 
over which he had no control, still we believe he hves 
with Jesus. 

William R. Coursey was a large man with soft blue 
eyes, reticent in his social relations to a fault, but con- 
versed agreeably on all subjects when you could interest 
Mm. His preaching was on the conversational line. He 
reasoned softly, tenderly and eloquently, without enthu- 
siasm on his part or exciting violent emotions in his hearers, 
but i)ressed the truth to the judgment bv solid facts 
founded upon nature and good sense, creating in the nv.rd 



CHURCH HISTORY 



87 



the sensation of peace and repose. Coursey was one of 
the best educated men of his day, and possessed a sweet 
disposition. By his moral rectitude and careful habits he 
had educated his conscience to be his prompter, which 
made him one of the i)urv\st and brightest ornaments of 
the church in his time. He lived and died with the 13th 
chapter of First Cor. for his motto. Glossbrenner addressed 
the head to reform the life. Hershey aimed at the im- 
agination to i)r()duce a ({uickening, Coursey labored to 
reach Ihe underslanding, tiiat his people niiglit be instructed 
in the way oi riglU living. 

John ITaney was born April 10, 1807: was raised a 
German Reformed; was a member of that church when 
he began to i)reach in 1821): joined the Pennsylvania con- 
ference in 181)0, the Virginia conference in 1831. First 
circuit in Virginia, recjuired six weeks and about 100 miles 
travel; second year, Haney, Coursey, Glossbrenner and 
Hershey travelled together: the third year was made pre- 
siding elder and was engaged in extending the work; fol- 
lowed Peter Hott and others into Hardy county and oi)ened 
the work there. Hershey followed him on that charge. 
Sometimes he had thirty ai)pointments. He said in an 
experience at the Minnesota conference in 189."), '*These 
were the happiest days of my life. I had nothing to do but 
to gather in th(^ lost sheej) of the house of Israel." "I am 
a rough man. but the roughest part is on the outside. 1 
speak^my mind right out: but I never allowed my wrath 
to see the sun go down. Now my work is done. 1 have 
made prenarations to leave. 1 have been much alone- 
only the Telescope. Oh, bless the Telesco])e. God bless 
you all. I shall not see you again." 

He never needed to use glasses in reading and writing. 
Frederick Hisey died in Edinburo", Va.. June 20, 1802, 
aged about 71 years. In tlie midst of the confusion of war 
tiiiies lie V. as buried in liaste and v/ithout a funeral sermon. 
He was a member of the Virginia conference, always a 
local preacher, for about 25 years. He was an excellent 
blacksmith and worked at his trad- on the main street in 



S8 



UNITED BRETHREN 



the centre of the villaoe. His home was the preacher's 
home. He was of the strictest inteority and his conversa- 
tion was always turned to the relioious. He rci)rovcd 
warned and expounded the Scriptures on the street, at 
the shoj), and in the social circle, to saint aiui siinier alike 
He died triumphant, endeavoring to sino-, "A charoc to 
keep I have, A God to i^lorifv/' ^ '^ 



CHAPTER XI 

THE TRANSITION FROM GERMAN TO ENGLISH 

In 1725, probably nineteen-twentieths of the half mil- 
lion inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies were usini^ the 
English language exclusively. The Hollanders of New 
York and the Swedes of Pennsylvania and Delaware were 
fast breaking away from a dependence on the mother 
tongue. The Germans in America were as yet few. 

After the date just mentioned, the German immigra- 
tion became heavy and it almost accupied whole counties 
between the Hudson and the James. These foreigners were 
industrious and thrifty and showed a capacity for sub- 
stantial citizenship. But to a great extent they resisted 
Americanization, and to a still greater extent they resisted 
the adoption of the English language. They exhibited an 
extreme tenacity in clinging to the German idiom, especially 
in the talk of the home circle. Where Germans lived in 
close contact with English-speaking people, and where, as 
a consequence, intermarriages were frequent, the foreign 
speech slowly yielded. Hut when a Scotch-Irishnuin, for 
instance, took a German wife, the children were likely to 
become German-speaking and thus new territory would be 
conquered for the use of an un-American medium of 
thought. Too few of the newcomers were so broad-minded 
as pastor Pretorius. He wrote his sons that although tiiey 
were of a German father, they were nevertheless born in 
America, and he pointed out to them that it would be a 
shame if they did not use the language of the country. 

Over a considerable part of Pennsylvania the degenerate 
form of German known as Pennsylvania Dutch is still in 
daily use. It has no educational value, neither has it an.y 
literary development worthy of mention. But in the Val- 
ley of Virginia, those who spoke German and those who 
spoke Enalish lived as neighbors, and there was much 
intercourse between then.i. Before the present century 



90 



rXITED RHETHHEX 



bei:(an, the use of German had been ahiiost absohitely 
abandoned in this rei>ion. Tliere is, however, an area in 
the soutlieast of Pendleton that was settled almost ex- 
clusively by Germans. Here are more than a thousand 
people, who, in conversing anions themselves, seldom use 
anything else than a corrupt jari>()n now reduced to a very 
few hundred foreii^n words. Not only have these W(,rds 
lost tiieir i>rammatical terminations, but the commonr !;t 
idea can hardly be expressed without some help from F y^- 
lisli words. As in the case of the Pennsylvania Dutc!:, this 
crumbliuf^ patois serves no necessary or useful purpose 
whatever. The people wiio use it as home talk can neither 
understand standard German nor read the hu,i;e German 
Hibles purchased by Uieir great grandparents. Because 
of this devoiion to a useless form of speech, the dwellers 
in these valleys are superstitious as well as unprogressive. 
It holds them back fi'om entering into the full spirit of 
American life and American institutions. This grouo of 
people does not include any I'nited Brethren congregations. 
As a medium of preaching, the German tongue has been 
extinct within the limits of the Virginia Conference for 
at least eighty years. 

Wliere the (ierman speech has tiioroughly and for some 
time been discarded, the descendants of the German immi- 
grants of the eighteenth century are almost indistinguish- 
able from the mass of the American ponulation. Where 
this ln»s not been the case, the descendants still exhibit 
foreign peculiarities, are reactionary in spirit, and as 
Americans are even yet incompletely assimilated. 

An etlicit nl system of popular education, put into force 
at least a century ago, would long since* have extinguished 
this unfortunate display of obstinate conservatism. Not 
until iSTO did Virginia take any effectual ste]) in this direc- 
tion. Pennsylvania has been almost as great a laggard. 
For many decades both these stales were much remiss in 
the civic as well as educational duties toward their citizens 
of non-British origin. In the colonial era the German 
immigrant was tolerated rather than made at home. Too 



CHURCH HISTORY 



91 



often he was looked upon as a subject for extortion. In- 
stead of seeing that his children, if not himself, developed 
into genuine Americans, the propensity of the immigrant 
to be clannish was fostered and little Germanys on Ameri- 
can soil were unwittingly encouraged. 

Otterbein was twenty-seven when he arrived in America, 
and he continued to preach wholly in German to peo])le 
who knew little English. To the last his conversational 
English easily betrayed his foreign birth, although he 
finally mastered the art of writing English with force and 
clearness. Boehm was born in Pennsylvania, but like 
Otterbein he preached only in German. To the end of his 
long life he couM not express himself in Englisli with 
much ease. Geeting, the third of the founders of the I iiited 
Brethren Church, also conhned himself to the German in 
his preaching. But Newcomer soon found it necessary to 
preach in English as well as in German. As early as 1800 
he found that little German was understood at one of his 
Virginia ap])ointments. He remarks that though his Eng- 
lish was broken it seemed to make some impression. His 
audiences in the Valley of Virginia seem often to have 
been mixed, and had he not been able to preach or exhort 
in the otlicial language of the United States, his efTiciency 
as a bishop would have been much impaired. 

So it is not correct to say that until 1820 the preaching 
of the United Brethren in Virginia was almost exclusively 
in German. But until that date the use of German was in 
the lead. Only one decade later, English was fast taking 
the place of the foreign tongue. There were several rea- 
sons for this growing demand for English preaching. For 
forty years after the close of the Revolution the renewed 
immiiiration from Germanv was very small, and little of 
this small amount settled in the region now covered by 
the Virginia Conference. The children of the United Breth- 
ren families were often educated in English and not in 
German. Such persons would prefer to hear preaching in 
the adoi)ted tongue. And by reason of intermarriage, or 
the settling in of new^ comers, in nearly every locality 



92 



UNITED BRETHREN 



where the United Brethren fathers planted societies, there 
Avould be people who understood little German or none 
at all. 

Nevertheless, the church was slow to give up the use 
of the foreign speech. Until 1833 German dominated in 
the General Conferences. In 1819 a few copies of the 
Disciphne were printed in English, but it was not until 
1837 ttiat this book appeared in English, with the accom- 
panying German version looking as though it were a trans- 
lation from Enghsh to German and not as though the entire 
book had been translated from German to English. 

This tenacity in holding to a language that has no 
official recognition in this country worked against the 
numerical growth of the United Brethren Church. By 
1820 it counted only 20,000 members. During one decade 
there was an actual loss. The children of United Breth- 
ren parents who clung to the German noticed that the un- 
progressiveness of the latter operated as a handicap in the 
matter of civic and social opportunities. There was hence 
an extensive drift of the younger generation into other 
churches, esi)ecial!y the Methodist. 

But when once the speech of America had obtained the 
mastery in the United Brethren pulpits, the decline of the 
church was arrested. The falling away in membership 
gave [)lace to an increase, this increase coming largely from 
tlie non-German elements of the American peo])le. By 
1880 only one-twenty-fifth of the total membershi]) of the 
United Brethren were adhering to fhe German. 

The United Brethren Church is now a German denomi- 
nation only in the sense that a very large majority of its 
communicants are of the posterity of the German settlers 
of PeiHisylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. But this i)os- 
terity is now almost entirely American in speech and still 
more so in thought. That many peoi)le of English, Scotch, 
and Welch descent have joined the United Brethren is not 
because of what may still be termed a German complex- 
ion, but because of their approval of what the church dis- 
tinctivelv stands for. This non-German element has made 



I 



I 



I 

I 



CHURCH HISTORY 



93 



a very noticeable impression on the life of the organiza- 
tion. The non-British beginnings of the United Brethren 
are no longer felt. In brief, the United Brethren Church of 
1920 is as truly an American church, and in as full har- 
mony with American thought, as are the branches of 
American Protestantism that are purely of British origin. 

But the deluge of foreigners that has been inundating 
America since 1810 has called the attention of this church 
to new duties. It is in response to this call that the United 
Brethren have entered the field of foreign missions. One 
of these fields, — ver>^ appropriately the German, — was 
opened in 1869. 

The United States has no official tongue but the English, 
and if the foreigner does not know it on his arrival here, 
it is his business to learn it. And yet there is a sense in 
which preaching in a foreign tongue to an American con- 
gregation is quite proper and even necessary. 

The thoughts of the newcomer are cast onlv in the 
mould that is peculiar to his mother tongue. His compre- 
hension of thought uttered in English is as limping as the 
broken English in which he tries to converse with the 
natives of his adopted countr>\ If he is denied the privilege 
of hearing Scriptural truths expounded in the only idiom 
with which he is truly familiar, a positive wrong will be 
done him. It is better for the interests of Christianity, and 
even for Americanism in general, that he should retain the 
option of listening to a j)reacher who is at home in the 
language in which he was himself reared. But unless there 
has been positive neglect, on tlie ])art of the newcomer or 
the community, or both, the need that applies to the for- 
eign-born citizen does not ap])ly to his American-reared 
children. In them the bridge has been crossed and should 
no longer be necessary. 

It is greatly to the credit of the United Brethren that as 
a church they have moved along these very lines; slowly, 
it is true, yet so surely and effectively that theirs is almost 
the only considerable American sect that does not con- 
tinue to reveal unmistakably the original foreign impress. 



CHAPTER XTI 
THE CHl'RCH IN THE WAR OF 1861 

When the result of tlu^ (election of 1860 was made public, 
the quarrel between North and South eanie to a head. 
Within six more months there was open war between the 
sections. 

In an economic. Or industrial, sense, the territory 
covered then by the conference was much more Northern 
than Southern. Slaves were few in nearly all its counties, 
and were owned by a very small number of the white 
people. This was notably the case where the German 
element was strongest. The ij;reat majority of the farm- 
ers worked their land themselves. They had no interest 
in slavery and no love for the institution. There was not 
the social ban on manual labor that existed in the plantini? 
section of the South. The chief commercial outlet of the 
Shenandoah Valley was toward Haltimore and not toward 
Richmond. 

But on the other hand, the dominatini^" political senti- 
ment of the entire valley was of the Southern type, although 
not unanimous on the subject of secession. Viri^inia uave 
only a few scattering votes for Lincoln. The electoral 
vote of the state was thrown to l^ell and Everett, the can- 
didates of the Constitutional Union party, their ticket beincj 
heavily supported in the Valley counties. On the Mary- 
land side of the Potomac, secession was held in the i>reat 
disfavor. In the Virginia counties on or near the Potomac 
were not a few persons who were equally hostile to the 
doctrine. In the war, the Maryland ])()rti()n was in Con- 
federate hands only on three or four occasions, and for a 
very few days at a time. As far south as Strasburi> and 
Front Royal, the Viri^inia side alternated from one army to 
the other, yet was within the Federal lines the i^reater por- 
tion of the four years. Still farther southward, the Valley 
was nearly all the while within the Confederate lines. The 



CHURCH HISTORY 



95 



ir 



fe t 



I 



military situation was therefore such as to encourage 
Unionism in the northern half of the Conference district 
and discourage it in the southern half. 

The stronghold of the United Brethren was first in the 
southeast of Pennsylvania and also in the very part of 
Maryland that w^as most hostile to secession. The Church 
had been pressing numerously into the West. South of 
the Potomac its foothold was ver^^ small in area, and 
existed only where agriculture was organized about the 
same as in the North. As to slavery, we have already seen 
that the attitude of the Church was uncompromising. Un- 
der all these circumstances, it was inevitable that the United 
Brethren, taken in the mass, should have no sympathy with 
the Southern program. The small section of the Church 
in the two slave states of Maryland and Virginia could not 
fail to be out of harmony with the Confederate govern- 
ment, and to have sympathetic relations with their much 
more numerous brethren in the free states. 

Thus the 3,000 members of the Conference were placed 
in a difficult position. To all intents and purposes they 
were undeniably sympathetic toward the Union cause. 
Their feelings were no secret to such of their neighbors as 
felt it their duty to side with the Confederacy. To them 
the United Brethren were w^hat the pro-Germans were to 
the loyal Americans of 1914-18. They were held in dis- 
trust and subjected to some persecution. Some of their 
preachers were jailed, and some others had to flee from 
the state they were living in. Some of the members 
crossed over into the Federal lines for the primary purpose 
of enlisting in the Federal armies. Throughout the north- 
ern side of the Mason and Dixon line, the Brethren were 
patriotic in the highest degree. To be a Democrat even, 
was in some conferences to be under suspicion or in some 
instances to be pushed out of the Church, while to be a 
secessionist w as to receive no quarter. 

We have observed that the northern portion of the 
Conference was usually within the Federal lines, while the 
contrary w^as the case with the southern portion. This 



9() 



UNITED BRETHREN 



caused a temporary division of the Conference. During 
the four years beginning with 1862, one group of its preach- 
ers held sessions within Federal territory, while another 
group held sessions in Confederate territory. Hut as a 
rule the membership of the two bodies were not at odds 
in political sympathy. They were simply making a virtue 
of stern necessity. 

Bishop Markwood \yas fiery and uncompromising. No 
one could be more fierce in his invective against secession 
and everything that was involved with it. There was a 
reward for Markwood's arrest, but he made his escape to 
the other side of the Potomac. During the war he presided 
over the sessions of the northern section of the Conference. 

Bishop Glossbrenner, who presided over the southern 
section, was of another temperament. He was calm and 
conservative. There were a thousand or more of the mem- 
bers of his church who were at the outset within the limits 
controlled by the government at Richmond. Witli brief 
intervals this continued to be the case until the close of 
the war. He was convinced that it was his (hity to remain 
with them and see that they had such adviee and protection 
as his influence might command. Otherwise, it was cer- 
tain that their hardships would be more severe. It speaks 
volumes for the well-balanced prudence of the bishoj) that 
in sj)ite of the suspicion in wliicli his sect was heUL lie 
would still be able to retain the respect and confidence of 
those in Confederate authority. 

In 1863 he applied for permission to go within the 
Federal lines in order to attend the northern section of his 
conference and also the Pennsylvania Conference. The 
request was granted, although, as a matter of course, 
Glossbrenner was enjoined not to convey any information 
that might work to the disadvantage of the Confederacy. 
He was thus put on his honor and the trust was not al)us(^(i. 
On his return similar restrictions were imposed by the 
Federal military authority. Yet there was some difficulty 
in getting over the lines, both going and coming. 

For staying in the South the bishop's motives were 



CHURCH HISTORY 



97 



r 



I 



sharply assailed. After the return of peace he was called 
upon to defend his course. This he did to the satisfaction 
of his critics. He assured them that he had never wavered 
in his loyalty to the Federal government. He had told 
Stonewall Jackson to his face that he did not wdsh the 
success of the Confederate arms. 

The United Brethren preachers did not pray for the 
success of the Confederacy, yet had to be circumspect if 
they were to observe the civil authority in force where they 
were. The northern section of the Conference was at full 
liberty to pass resolutions in support of the Union cause 
and did not hesitate to do so. T. F. Brashear, presiding 
elder of the southern district in 1862, prayed for Federal 
success at the time the army under General Banks was in 
camp around Harrisonburg. But Banks had to retire, and 
Brashear had to flee. In 1862 the northern conference sec- 
tion passed the resolution that "we deeply deplore the un- 
avoidable separation from our brethren in Virginia, and 
hope that the time is not far in the future when we shall 
be perinitted to meet as usual and continue our connection 
as hitherto. We will thank God that it is no w^orse with us 
than it is and take courage." Strong resolutions were also 
passed in the subsequent sessions. 

At the end of the war, Markwood exclaimed that there 
was no longer a United Brethren church in Virginia. But 
this was decidedly an overstatement. The Church in the 
Shenandoah valley had seen a very real time of stress, yet 
a nucleus had been preserved, and during the war one house 
of worship had even been built. This was Salem church 
near Singers Glen. But in the devastation that had been 
wrought throughout the length of the valley, the mem- 
bership that had held together were in poor shape with 
respect to church buildings or in the ability to maintain 
their preachers. With respect to the paper money of the 
Confederate government, they had lost little, since they 
did not let it depreciate on their hands. But the close of 
the war found them poor, nevertheless. In this emergency 
the Marylanders came generously to the relief of their 



m 



UNITED BHETHREX 



l)rethren on the other side of the Potomac. The war had 
not touched them so harshly, yet that they did not come 
out unscathed, the following letter, written by Jonathan 
Tobey to the Rev. William R. Coursey, will bear witness. 
It is dated August 9, 1864, and was mailed from Pleasant 
Valley, Maryland. 

"We suffered much in our county from the late rebel invasion. 
Tt would take volumes to enumeraate all their acts of wrong, 
crueltv, and barbarism. They justified their conduct saying Gen. 
Hunter did so, and so Hunter's conduct in Virginia is not justifiable, 
but .Tohnv reb out done him by far. The Johnies they robbed, 
kidnapped, and burned in Maryland. They took all the horses 
they could see except some lame ones, and all who did not run 
off their horses or hide them lost them. They entered private 
homes in the night, and demanded of the citizens their purses, 
watches, and so forth. They shot a respectable citizen in his 
own house and in his own bedchamber. They plundered all the 
stores, took meat away, and much they destroyed. They took 
wagons, buggies, and harness. They seemed to be savage in their 
manner, quite insulting, and threatening, seemed to look upon the 
Maryland people as enemies, and treated them as such. They came 
back to the county twice since the first invasion, the last time 
took some of our citizens prisoners as hostages, for to have some 
of their rebs redeemed. It is unhappy living along the border.— 
Religion seems now to (be) almost lost, the people were so much 
excited and lost so much that (they) seem discouraged, broken 
down." 

It was asking too much of human nature to expect that 
the unpopularity of the Brethren in the Valley of Virginia 
could be thrown off in a day. Shortly after the return of 
peace. Markwood visited a quarterly meeting at Keezel- 
town and was invited to leave. He then went with Simon 
Whitesel to a Sunday school and was invited by Whitesel 
to address it. The entire audience immediately left, leaving 
the two men alone. Yet the unpopularity soon waned and 
has long since quite disappeared. 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE CHURCH IN RECENT TIMES 

It is now a little more than a half-century since the 
close of the great American war. To the Church of the 
United Brethren this has been an epoch of expansion. 

If two lines be drawn from Philadelphia, one to the 
northwest corner of the state of Washington, the other to 
the southwest corner of California, the space between will 
nearly coincide with the territory covered by the church. 
The old population to the east, northeast, and southeast is 
of non-German origin, and no effort has been made to in- 
troduce United Brethrenism in that section. The space 
wdthin the angle at the apex is where the Church arose. 
Until a time quite recent, the movement of the American 
people has been almost exclusively westward. Except in 
a very slight degree the membership has not migrated into 
Ne\v Jersey, New York, or New England, and not in num- 
bers sufficient to found churches. Neither has the Church 
ever been introduced into the plantation region of the 
South, although a reflex wave of settlement of recent date 
has placed a few congregations in that part of Virginia 
east of the Blue Ridge. But descendants of the original 
United Brethren have moved westward very numerously, 
and in doing so have established ne%v conferences all the 
way to the Pacific shore. 

As has been pointed out elsewhere in this volume, it 
was once the general opinion among the Brethren that 
preaching could be done by men who made no preparation 
for it and who gained their livelihood at something else. 
The laity Hstened, but did nothing tow^ard the support of 
the preacher except to feed him and his horse when he 
came around. This was doing no more than they would 
have done for a stranger. At length there w^as a rising 
demand for a change, and the time came when it had 
to be reckoned wdth. 



4- 



100 



UNITED BRETHREN 



"No wonder the transition to a paid ministry was slow 
and hard. The people themselves made money very slow- 
ly, and it was their idea that if the preacher had enough to 
eke out an existance, he was abundantly supplied. So 
the idea has grown slowly that the minister should be made 
comfortable with a support sutlicient to enable him to 
equip himself and do the best work possible, and that this 
support is his of right. Unfortunately, the idea does not 
yet j)revail among us that it is not the minister's business 
to see after the collection of his own support, and that it is 
the privilege and duty of the laity to see that the minister, 
who is the servant of all, be given this support promptly." 

As to how the church of to-day compares with that of 
1850, a correspondent expresses the following opinion, 
which may be colored by the pessimism that is liable to 
accompany old age: "Three log buildings were owned by 
the Church, wliich elsewhere worshiped in schoolhouses 
and i)rivate homes. There are now twelve good churches 
and a half-interest in four or live others. The increase in 
membership is 300 to 400, but no greater than the increase 
in population. The circuit covered what is now embraced 
in three circuits, a part of another, and also a station. 
Piety will have to be discounted fifty per cent." 

The first church paper was the "Mountain Messenger," 
appearing at Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1833, and edited by 
W. R. Rhinehart. Next year he sold out his equipment 
and moved to Circleville, Ohio, where he began editing the 
"Religious Telescope," the circulation of which was about 
1200 copies. In 1815 David Edwards was conducting the 
paper on a salary of $350 a year and his house rent. He 
wrote editorials on national peace, and against slavery, 
secret orders, liquor, and tobacco. The church publishing 
house begun here in a very modest way in 1834, was moved 
twenty years later to Dayton, Ohio, and has since developed 
into one of the most complete establishment of its kind 
in the Union. 

A church paper to represent the Virginia Conference 
was agitated as early as 1847. By a vote of 18 to 4, it was 



CHURCH HISTORY 



101 



4 



<*0 



4 



resolved, "that this conference, from the fact that the 
Religious Telescope, our church paper, is calculated to 
hinder, rather than promote, the church within the bounds 
of our conference, in consequence of its containin<:f abor- 
tion matters from time to time, take into consideration 
the propriety of publisliing within its own borders, a 
religious paper for its own benefit.'' The following year it 
was resolved, *'that we regard ourselves as havinu" btcn 
misrepresented in the columns of the Telesc()j)e during 
the past year." The evidences cfuoted were the arlicle, 
"Right Side Up,*' by the editor, Mr. Kdwards. "v/hich we 
regard as saying, sul)slanlial]y, flial the wrong side \\as up 
at the time being;" and by ''Zethar," concerning " 'a religion 
more refined and less repulsive to the feelings of the fasli- 
ionable,' which, with its connection, we regard as saying 
of us that our res()luti(ni proposing to 'consider the 
propriety,' etc., approbated upon our part the relinemer.t 
and fashionableness related to slavery." 

These resolutions show, after all, that the Virginia mem- 
bership was sensitive on the topic of slavery. That this 
membership was but a small part of the total membership 
of the church, and that it was resident in a locality not 
thoroughly i)ermeated by the slave labor system, were the 
conditions that ])revented a schism, comparable to tliat 
which took place a few years earlier in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 

"The Conference News" was finally established as the 
local organ of the Virginia Conference, but it was discon- 
tinued in 1911. 

As to the i)rovince of a denominational paper, the pro- 
jector of this book made the following observations: 

"Debate is inherent in democracy. As the highest form 
of government, democracy demands the highest intelligence 
and the soundest morality. The Puritan experiment in gov- 
ernment provided the town meeting and the schoolhouse 
by the side of the church. 

The United Brethren in theory is the most democratic 
church in America. Have we made the full, inteUigent, 






102 



UNITED BRETHREN 



and general participation of our people in church govern- 
ment one of our distinctive characteristics? Our highest 
law-making body is made by the direct vote of our people, 
and yet how few voted in the recent election. 

The forum must be our church paper. 

The General Conference is one-half ministers (of whom 
one-half follow the leaders) and one-half laymen, few of 
whom have given thought to church problems or taken an 
active part in legislation. These will come with good hearts 
but feeling the need of more information. If there is lack 
of vision, where's the wonder?" 

For many years instrumental music in church worship 
was held in great disfavor, and so late as 1865 there was 
a rule against its use. Neither were there any choirs, and 
ministers never thought of reading their sermons. It was 
about this time that that stern conservative. Bishop 
Edwards, protested against placing an organ in the Sun- 
day school at Dayton, Ohio. This prejudice has faded 
away, as has also the prejudice against mustaches and long 
beards among the ministers. 

So late as 1845 the Church was taking little interest 
in fronti(^r and foreign missions, the reasons being thus 
summed up by a minister who began preaching about tlie 
time mentioned: "A want of information concerning the 
state of the world, and the little interest the preachers feel 
on the subject. There is not the taste for reading among 
us there ought to be. Intelligence, liberality, and virtue 
generally go hand in hand." And yet foreign missionary 
work was begun in 1854, and in the home field still earlier. 
There are now missions in Japan, China, Africa, the Philip- 
pines and Porto Rico. 

A mission in Germany was opened in 1869. As a peo- 
ple mainly of German origin, the United Brethren woulc 
seem eminently suited to arrest the coming back of the 
thinly disguised Teutonic paganism which has been so 
])ainfully in evidence since 1914. Even in the youth of 
Otterbein, the German Reformation of the sixteen centurj 
had spent its force. He w^as himself aware of the wave 
of rationalism that was spreading mental and moral ruin 



CHURCH HISTORY 



103 



■4 



4 



in its haughty and self-sulhcient march over Germany. 
The established churches of that land were forced into a 
subservient attitude toward the state. This is why Spener, 
himself a Lutlieran, sought comfort in separation from the 
ruling elements of life. This explains why he and his fol- 
lowers sought to promote inward piety in the restricted 
fellowship of kindred souls. 

The earliest history of the United Brethren Church is 
Spayth's, and it did not appear until 1851. It has been 
followed by several others, and by many volumes on bio- 
graphy and reminiscence. 

A church paper to represent the narrowing German- 
speaking element was started in Baltimore in 1841. The 
General Sunday School Board appeared in 1865, the Board 
of Education and the Church Erection Society in 1869, and 
the Woman's Missionary Association in 1875. 

The most momentous changes took place in the quad- 
rennium, 1885-9. A revised Confession of Faith and a 
new Constitution were drawn up in 1885, and voted upon 
bv tlic Church in November, 1889. Lay representation now 
took ell'ect and the rule as to secret orders was modilied. 
The time limit was removed in 1893. The vote in the Gen- 
eral Conference in favor of the changes was 110 to 20. 
It produced the first and only schism that has yet appeared 
among the United Brethren. Of the 20 members voting 
in the negative, 14 withdrew from the Conference. Among 
them was Bishop Wright. They and their followers be- 
lieved with entire sincerity that they could not see their 
way to an acceptance of what they held to be a serious 
departure from the old standards. This wing claimed to 
be the real United Brethren Church, and the litigation 
which ensued was not finally settled until 1895. The Old 
Constitution wing of the United Brethren is an entirely 
separate church organization, but has no distinct official 
name. In adhering to the Constitution and Confession of 
Faith as observed by the whole denomination prior to 
1885, the Old Constitution wing adheres to the ban against 
secret orders. Some differences in church government 



104 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



105 



and manai^ement have arisen in the past thirty years, and 
a careful conservatism marks this branch in financial and 
other matters. The Old Constitution United Brethren are 
particularly stroni,^ in the West, yet have a membership of 
1500 to 2000 within the Hmits of the Virginia Conference, 
groui)ed in the Augusta circuit and the Highland and North 
Fork missions. The number of preaching places is about 
20. This church has a college and i)ublishing house at 
Huntington, Indiana, and from the latter issues a church 
paper, ''The Christian Conservator.'' 

With the one exception of the Disciples of Christ, the 
Church founded by Otterbein and Boehm is the largest of 
the American-born branches of Protestantism. It has 
steadily attracted to its fold persons of other than German 
descent, and that element in its membership is not incon- 
siderable in point of number and intluence. The fathers 
of organization were averse to founding a new church, and 
for a whik' the United Brethren were quite favorable to a 
union with kindred denominations. This feeling is now 
much less in evidence owing to a growth in denominational 
pride. 

The United Brethren Church no longer bears a distinct 
impress of foreignism. In this particular, not even the 
divorce from the German language is so significant as its 
refusal to espouse non-resistance as an article in its creed. 
An overwhelming majority of the American people detest 
war as much as do the Quakers juid Mennonites. But they 
l)elieve that when war is thrust upon a people, it is as much 
the duty of that people to take up arms as it is the duty of 
the ])rivate citizen to resist the outlaw who wantonly assails 
him. They note an inconsistency in the man who pays war 
taxes or buys bonds for war purposes, yet is unwilling 
to enroll as a soldier. 

There is a broad distinction between the Germans of 
the Germany of to-day and the German emigrants to 
America in the eighteenth century. The former have been 
hypnotized and indoctrinated by their autocratic leaders 
into an imi)licit belief that their national welfare rests on 



-t^ r 






ruthless force and wholesale plunder. Genuine Christian- 
ity had no place in the program marked out by these lead- 
ers. On the other hand, the Germans who came to America 
in the half-century 1725-75, w^ere essentially a religious and 
democratic people. Many of them were pacifists. All the 
non-resistant denominations in America, not excepting 
even the Quakers, are directly or indirectly of German 
origin. But the non-resistant sect becomes in some meas- 
ure a cave of Adullam for the slacker in civic duty. In 
pacifist churches of a German origin may be found con- 
gregations almost wholly of non-German blood, the in- 
fluence leading them here being an easy way to shirk mili- 
tarv service. 

The Moravians hold non-resistant principles, and their 
missionaries were able to persuade many a war-party of 
Indians to turn back. Yet they cheerfully paid taxes for 
the cause of American independence, and when their town 
of Bethlehem was in danger of attack, they fortified and 
])rovisioned it, and armed themselves. In the same war 
Quakers and Mennonites furnished money and provisions, 
and manv of them became soldiers. In that conflict the 
greatest American general except Washington was a son 
of Quaker parents. 



I 



CHAPTER XIV 

MOVEMENTS TOWARD UNION WITH OTHER 

CHURCHES 

The points of resemblance between the United Breth- 
ren and the Methodists have often been a snbject of com- 
ment. In theoloi>ical behef there is complete accord. Each 
body has a record as a revival church and has made much 
use of camp meetings. Each uses almost precisely the 
same terms throughout in designating the various features 
of its organization. Each has its conferences, its quarterly 
meetings, and its class meetings. Each has its bishops, 
presiding elders, local preachers, and exhorters. Each has 
its stations and circuits. Each has a well developed itiner- 
ant system. 

But the resemblance is almost wholly a matter of coin- 
cidence. Neither church is an otl'shoot of the other. 
Identity in purpose and methods has led to a very close 
identity in organization. 

The church of the United Brethren may very truly be 
said to begin in that sermon by Otterbein at Lancaster 
which marks the turning-point in the character of his 
ministry. We do not know the precise year, but 1755 is an 
approximate date. Boehm began to preach in 1758. At 
the memorable meeting in Long's barn, about 1768, the 
movement began to assume tangible form. The confer- 
ences of 1781), 1891, and 1800 were a recognition of a state 
of things already existing. The new church was in opera- 
tion, even if there were not yet an oihcial name or more 
than an informal organization. 

The Wesleyan movement arose in England, and was 
introduced into American by Strawbridge, a local i)reacher 
who settled in the north of Maryland about 1765. The 
hrst Methodist class was formed in the city of New York 
by Philip Embury and Barbara Heck in 1766. Both these 
persons, by the way, were of German parentage. In 1771^ 



4 



I 



CHURCH HISTORY 



107 



the first conference represented only six circuits and fewer 
than 1200 members. As an independent church. Method 
ism in America began on Christmas day, 1784, with about 
15,000 members, nearly nine-tenths of them living in the 
South. Thus the area in which the two churches appeared 
was nearly the same, the Methodist territory being the 
more extensive. 

Had Otterbein and Boehm used the Enghsh tongue ex- 
clusively, the founders of the United Brethren movement 
and the founders of American Methodism would have been 
drawn irresistibly together to work in a single organiza- 
tion. It was a Methodist bishop who said that if the mes- 
sage of Otterbein had been in English instead of German, 
he would have been the logical leader of the g( neral 
evangelical movement in this '^country. But Otterbein, 
Boehm, and Geeting i)reached exclusively in (ierman, and 
therefore to people of German birth or i)arentage. The 
early Methodists knew nothing of German, and i)reached 
in English to people who understood English, this class 
then including only a small proportion of the German 
element. There was consequently little overlapping of 
effort, and little ground for jealousy or rivalry. The dif- 
ference between the two sects was little else than a differ- 
ence in language, and incidentally in national origin. Each 
addressed the audience it was best fitted to address, and 
left to the sister organization the duty of looking after 
other people. That the United Brethren and the Methodist 
churches should spring up side by side was therefore the 
most natural thing in the world. 

As there is a striking similarity between these two 
bodies, so is there a striking correspondence between Wil- 
liam Otterbein and John Wesley. p:ach man was a thor- 
oughly educated scholar. Each grew up in the communion 
of a strong ecclesiastical system, to which his attachment 
was strong. Nevertheless, the time came when Otterbein 
could no longer work within the Reformed Church nor 
W\^sley within the Church of England. Like Otterbein, 
Wesley began preaching before he was an entirely con- 



II 



I 



108 UNITED BRETHREN 

verted man. The religious destiny of Otterbein was deter- 
mined by the small evangelical society of the Pietists, just 
as that of Wesley was determined by the small evangelical 
sect of the Moravians. Each man discarded the exclusive 
use of churchlv robes and a churchly i)ulpit, and went out 
to preach extemporaneously wherever he could gather an 
audience. The message of each was to the common people, 
and the common people heard them. Each was persecuted 
by churchmen as well as by the rabble, and each rose above 
these liindrances. Neither Otterbein nor Wesley had any 
desire to found a new church. Each tried to leaven the 
church in which he had been reared, and it was only when 
the opposition within that church could not be overcome 
that he gave his consent to the necessary measure of set- 
tino up a new one. Even then, Otterbein never formally 
or of his own accord withdrew from the Reformed Church, 
nor did Wesley sever his connection with the Church ol 
England. 

Hut though the broken English of the early United 
Brethren gave the earlv Methodists some trouble in carry- 
ing on a conversation, each band of Christians recognized 
from the first that the other was made up of fellow laborers 
in an identical cause. The diiference in language in fact 
made for friendship by removing a ground for one sect 
to interfere with what the other was doing. In a period 
of denominational narrowness and prejudice, it is there- 
fore pleasant to note the exceptionally cordial relations 
between the United Brethren and the Methodists during the 
formative period in the history of each. 

Between Otterbein, the senior founder of the United 
Brethren, and Asbury. the pioneer Methodist bishop, there 
was an attachment that was intimate and affectionate. The 
latter considered the former to be the foremost theologian 
in America. Asbury was instrumental in causing Otter- 
bein to go to Baltimore. Otterbein assisted in the ordina- 
tion of Asbury, and at the special request of the latter. It 
was Asbury who preached the sermon at the funeral of 
Otterbein. And as we might suppose, Otterbein had a high 






CHURCH HISTORY 



109 



opinion of Wesley and the Methodists. 

A union of the two churches was thought of at an early 
day. But until the close of 1784, the Methodists were a 
society within the Church of England. To the fathers of 
the United Brethren this was an obstacle. Another objec- 
tion was the adherence of the early Methodists to the doc- 
trine of apostolic succession. They held that it was wrong 
for any preacher to presume to administer the sacraments 
unless he had been regularly ordained by a bishop of the 
established church, and the doctrine assumes that there 
has been an unbroken line of ordination ever since the 
days of the apostles. Both objections came to lose all their 
force in consequence of the great unlikeness which has 
developed between the Methodist Church and the Church 
of England. 

A friendly correspondence looking toward union was 
begun by the Methodist conference of 1809, held in Har- 
risonburg. This is spoken of in our extracts from New- 
comer's Journal. A close cooperation with the Methodists 
was given much attention in the United Brethren confer- 
ences of 1809 and 1810. By an agreement of 1812, any 
meeting-house of either church was open to the other when 
the church in possession was not using it. Members of 
either church were freelv admitted to the class-meetings, 
prayer meetings, and love-feasts of the other. German 
converts usually went into the United Brethren Church 
and English-speaking converts into the Methodist. In 181.*^ 
an address signed by Asbury was received from the Metho- 
dist conference, and a reply was ordered so as "more and 
more to effect a union between the two churches." In 
1814 a letter from the Baltimore Conference of the Metho- 
dists expressed its gratification at the friendly relations 
with the United Brethren, and hoped these relations might 
continue. 

But organic union does not seem to have been strongly 
favored on either side. By the word "union" in the United 
Brethren letter of 1813 was meant no more than friendly 
<!Ooperation. Asbury was a very efficient superintendent. 



li 



no UNITED BRETHREN 

but did not bring Methodism into direct touch ^vith those 
inhabitants of America who did not speak Enghsh. 
America was not then a polx-lot country. German was 
the only other toni^ue spoken by any considerable number 
of white Americans. Even in that day the stubbornness 
^vith which the German element chm- to the German 
speech was deemed unreasonable and anti-American. And 
on the side of the United Brethren it may have been f e t 
that in consecpience of the temperamental and other dit- 
ferences between these two .groups of Christians, it mii^ht 
be better if each were to retain its separate ori^amzation. 
Rut this failure to unite did not lead to a sunderino- ot 
fraternal relations. Methodist ministers often visited the 
conferences of the United Brethren, and United Brethren 
ministers often visited the conferences of the Methodists. 
During the war for American Independence the Metho- 
dists began to grow rapidly, and it was then that Methcxhst 
preachers began to appear in the German settlements of 
Marvland and its neighboring states. These 'Tnaiish 
brethren," as thev were styled, were gladly received. Even 
the wife of Bishop Boehm joined the Methodists and so 

did some of her sons. 

Asbury died in 1810. A Methodist presiding elder, in 
an excess of denominational zeal suspended the working 
arrangement with the United Brethren, and insisted that 
Wesley's rules be strictly followed. One of these rules 
prescribed who should and who should not be admitted to 
social meetings. It had been necessary in England, because 
such meetings, if open, were subject to interruption l)y 
gangs of outlaws. In the America of 1810 no such caution 
was necessary and the rule soon became a dead letter. 
For a while, the social meetings of the Methodists were 
closed against the United Brethren. It is unfortunate that 
this reactionary policy arose, yet it has long since passed 

away. 

In the matter of church government, there is a differ- 
ence between the United Brethren and the Methodists. 
The former regard their system as the more democratic, 
and prefer it to the more centrally organized system of 



W 



i' 



CHURCH HISTORY 



111 



f 



the other church. Their bishop is chosen for a term and 
not for life; their presiding elders are chosen annually; 
their congregations have more control over their local con- 
cerns. They regard Methodism as autocratic, and yet the 
general efficiency of this feature has contributed very 
largely to the phenominal growth of the sister church. 

The United Brethren have lost the characteristics that 
for several decades marked them out as one of the Ger- 
man sects of America. Their very origin as a German sect 
is now almost lost to view. But though the points of 
difference which once stood in the way of an organic union 
w ith the Methodists have been removed, no action looking 
toward a merger has since taken place. But in recognition 
of the fact that in spirit and polity the United Brethren are 
of the Methodist group of churches, they were invited to 
send delegates to the Methodist ecumenical conferences 
of 1881 and 1891. For a rather technical reason Bishop 
Glossbrenner saw fit to oppose an acceptance. 

About the year 1800, the Albright Brethren, a German 
speaking body of Methodists, seceded from the parent 
denomination. In 1813 they had fifteen itinerants and 
about eight hundred members. In April of this year Bishop 
Newcomer visited the Albright conference and received 
a letter to be given the United Brethren conference of the 
same year. The latter assembly appointed a committee 
of four, w^hich met an Albright committee of the same size 
at New Berlin, Pennsylvania. A discussion of several days 
did not reach any conclusion. The Albright General Con- 
ference of 1810 adopted the name of Evangehcal Associa- 
tion for their sect, and discussed the proposed union. A 
committee of six persons from each church conferred in 
1817 at the home of Henry Kumler, but failed to come to 
any understanding, and no further negotiations appear to 
have been attempted. The Evangelicals thought the work- 
ins of the United Brethren itinerancy was too lose. 

The proposed merging of the United Brethren with the 
Cumberland Presbyterians, the Methodist Protestants, and 
the Congregationalists, is a matter of ver>^ recent history. 



r 



112 



UNITED BRETHREN 



That a union with the last named body did not take place 
is \er>^ easy to understand. The two denominations have 
overlapped only in a very sHght degree, and have been very 
little acquainted with one another. There is a wide tem- 
peramental difference in the membership of the two 
churches. Among the Congregationahsts each local body 
is entirely independent of any other and in church govern- 
ment is strictlv democratic. There is much more in com- 
mon between the United Brethren and the two other 
denominations. That any merger failed even here is per- 
haps due to the denominational pride that makes any form 
or degree of church unity very difficult to achieve in prac- 
tice, although in theory it may be warmly advocated. 



I 



CllARTKl^ XV 



i 



CONCKPvXlXC; SLAVI'.RY AND INTOXICANTS 

Slavery cxisled in aU the colonies when tlie United 
Bretliren Church was in course of formation. In Pennsyl- 
vania the institution never liad more tiian a slight liold, 
and after American independence came was soon abolished. 
Tlic Western Stales, into wliicli the church spread, wvvv 
free territory by virtue of tlie famous Orciinance ot" 1 7S7. 
Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee were slave states until 
after tlu^ war of 1H()1 had begun. Therefore, the grounci 
covered bv our cluu'ch was, until the last-named c^vent, 
partly free and partly slave. 

Yet from the lirst tlie sentiment of the church was dis- 
tinctly against the institution of slavery. This was partly 
because the (uM'mans of America were very generally 
averse to holding slaves. It was partly becaust^ some of 
their sects had religious scru|)les that stood in the way. 
Hut fundamentally the objection of these people to slavery 
had an economic source. The United Brethren were 
not gcMierallv large land owners but small farmers. Such 
men had no place for slavery. Without excei)tion, all the 
counties in which our church arose were overwhelmingly 
wiiite in j)opulatien, and c()nse(|uently the actual number 
of slaveholders in tlu>m was very small. 

The (ieneral Conference of 1817 was held in Pennsyl- 
vania and adopted a rule on slavery which is stated in very 
explicit and energetic language. It resolved that ''all 
slavery, in every sense of the word, be totally prohibited 
and in no way tolerated in our comnuuiity." Members 
of the church who were holding slaves at the time were 
required to set them free, or to ask the ([uarterly confer- 
ence to determine how long a slave might be held in order 
that tlie owner might thus be compensated ])y labor for 
his purclias(^-nioney, or the cost of raising the negro. And 



Ill 



UNITED BHETH1U:X 



i 



in no case should a iiunibcr sell a slave. A repriinaiul 
was to follow any violation of this rule, and if the reprimand 
were not observed, expulsion was to follow. It is to he 
noted that this rule was adopted just after the enaetnienl 
of the Missouri Compromise, and therefore at a lime when 
the line between free and slave territory was sharj)ly 

drawn. 

The rule of 1817 remained in force and was closely 
observed. It was enforced by Bishop (dossbrenner a^^ainst 
his own father-in-law. Some persons thought the rule 
should not have been so drastic, and in certain circum- 
stances, as when slave property was inherited, it worked 
some hardship. There was, indeed, in the Virginia Con- 
ference an element that disapproved of the rule on slavery 
as well as on secret societies. Nevertheless, the position 
taken bv the leaders of the church was so well sustained 
that there was no schism, such as occurred in the Methodist 
l\pisco])al Church. 

When the United Hrethren Church was taken root in 
the Valley of Virginia, slavery had relatively a much 
weaker hold in that district than in 18()(). And as white 
labor was there still general at the latter date, the church 
was able to hold its ground. Hut the slave power was 
politically dominant throughout the South, and any sect 
hokling a pronounced anti-slavery attitude was certain to 
be under susi)icion as an ally of the abolition sentiment in 
the North. Thus, until 18()0, the United Hrethren were 
never able to spread much beyond that area in Virginia 
which was covered by them in 1800. Nowhere else in the 
South did thev gain a foothold, save in the valley of East 
Tennessee. Now that slavery is gone, there is outwardly 
no reason whv the United Hrethren should not win new 
territorv^ in the South. Yet their lack of harmony with 
the prevailing sentiment of the South continues to render 
that section : closed field. The chuMi has been shut out 
of the South l)y its stand on slavery, and out of the cities 
by its stand on secret fraternities. 

"Forty years before the civil war the General Confer- 
ence made slavery^ a test of mc^mbership. No man who 



CHURCH HISTORY 



115 



i 




i 
\ 



owned slaves and would not arrange to free them, could 
remain a member of the church. This rule was never 
modified, but its enforcement was the more demanded as 
the abolition sentiment in the country grew in force and 
intensity. This, of course, kept the church out of the 
South, except in the north of Virginia, where the church 
had been carried by the German settlers before the ques- 
tion of slavery attracted pubhc attention. The Germans 
worked with their hands, and did not own or employ 
slaves, except in rare cases where a house woman or a 
farm hand was owned as the most available way of securing 
needed help in a community wdiere slave labor was the 
rule. This was winked at only during the civil war, when 
other labor could not be had. Otherwise, it was not 
tolerated. Christian Shuey, who gave the land and assisted 
largely in building Bethlehem church near Swoope Depot, 
was a small slave ow^ner. Although he w^as reared in a 
home where the fathers preached, and although he was the 
class leader and mainstay of his congregation, his son and 
his son-in-law enforced the church law^ against him, and 
expelled him from membership in his own church. How- 
ever, the question of character w^as not involved in this 
violation of church law, for Christian Shuey remained loyal 
to his church and was its standby until his death. He con- 
tinued to be the leader of the class from which he w^as 
technically expelled." 

In the matter of intoxicants the position taken by the 
United Brethren from the first is highly creditable. The 
German settlers of the eighteenth century w^ere a temperate 
people. They did not have the beer-loving propensity of 
the modern German, a habit which has made that element 
in America a laggard in the march of prohibition. Again, 
the United Brethren put themselves on record at a time 
when the drinking habit lacked little of being universal 
in this country. 

It is often asserted that in the "good old days" liquor 
was purer than it is now% and that although drinking was 
prevalent, intoxication was rare. The statement is echoed 



116 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



117 



time after time, as thougli its truth were unquestionable. 
And yet its only foundation is a mirage; an illusion of 
human nature that is very aptly expressed in the following 

couplet: 

Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, 
And robes the mountains in their azure hue. 

The onlv solid fact in the statement mentioned is that 
in those "good old days,"— about which, by the way, there 
is so much of humbug — the intoxicating element in liquor 
was generally alcohol, and not so much as now, a com- 
pound of corrosive chemicals. Alcohol is alcohol, the 
world over, and its effects on the human system are but 
slightly influenced by climate or race. Instead of actual 
drunkenness being less frequent than now, it was more 
frequent. The authority for this assertion is abundant 
and uninii)eachable. Washington said in 1789 that drink 
was the ruin of half the workmen in America. An eminent 
French visitor of the same period said that the most com- 
mon vice of the inferior class of the American people was 
drunkenness. The Continental Congress of 1777 passed a 
resolution that the state legislatures should at once pass 
laws ''the most effectual for putting a stop to the pernicious 
practice of distilling grain." But this resolution was too 
far in advance of the public sentiment of the day and was 
laid on the table. 

In our time it requires no high degree of courage to 
denounce the rum trade, for the simple reason that the 
business is now under the ban of the best pubhc opinion. 
But a century ago the trafTic was so strongly entrenched 
in the social customs of even the best classes of society 
that the person presuming to antagonize it was called a 
visionary or a fanatic. 

The decanter was then in almost every home. Tem- 
perance sermons were not preached, neither were there 
any temperance societies. High church officials drank to 
intoxicaton. Drinking was carried on at marriages, births, 
and burials. When a doctor visited a patient he was offered 
a dram. Speaking in 1820, a pastor in the city of New 






York said it was diilicult to make pastoral visits for a day 
without becoming intoxicated. Dr. Daniel Dorchester 
(juotes a minister of that period as saying he could count 
up among his acquaintances forty ministers who were 
drunkards, or who were so far addicted to the use of 
drink that their usefulness was impaired. Coming nearer . 
home, all but one of the eight deacons of a certain church 
were in 1839 actively engaged in distilling whiskey. And 
this was within the present bounds of the Virginia Con- 
ference. 

And yet we find the United Brethren Conference rul- 
ing,— as early as 1814,— that ''every member shall abstain 
from strong drink, and use it only on necessity as medi- 
cine." Seven years later, the General Conference ruled 
that "neither preacher nor lay member shall be allowed 
to carry on a distillery." Outside of our church there is 
in American historv no ecclesiastical action on record of 
earlier date than 1811. The one of 1811 took place in 
New England, and exerted very little influence outside. 
It was not until 182(), when the American Temperance 
Society was organized, that the evangelical churches of the 
United States put themselves on record as oi)ponents of 
the liquor trade. In 1841 came the adoption by the United 
Brethren of the rule which declares that "the distilling, 
vending, and use of ardent spirits as a beverage shall be 
and is hereby forbidden throughout our society." The 
Church thus became a total abstinence society, and such 
it has ever since remained. 

Nevertheless, the early restrictive legislation was not 
always heeded. The conference of 1831 took this action 
concerning one of its members: "Resolved, if Conrad 
Weast don't quit making liquor and preach more, he shall 
have his license demanded." Evidently this remedy was 
not effective, for six years later it is ordered that "it be 
published in the Telescope that Conrad Weast is no longer 
a preacher among us." 

As in the case of alcohol, the use of tobacco is no more 
nor less than a phase of the drug habit. In this matter 



118 



UNITED BRETHREN 



I 



the United Brethren early took advanced ground, notwith- 
standing the fact that this denomination arose in a tobacco- 
growing region, and hkewise where the tobacco habit has 
always been very prevalent. The objection raised within 
the Church is that the habit is unhealthful, unsanitary, 
unnecessary, an offense to neatness, and particularly un- 
becoming in a minister. 

In 1867 this resolution was adopted: "That the minis- 
ters of the Virginia Conference be advised to discontinue 
the habit of using tobacco in all its forms." Since then 
tobacco has repeatedly been denounced on the floor of 
conference. At the present time it is tacitly understood 
that applicants for admission to that body are expected 
to be abstainers from the weed, and that persistence in 
the habit by the older members operates as a bar to their 
advancement to high position. 



li 



h 



CHAPTER XVI 

CONCERNING SECRET SOCIETIES 

In the centur%' in which wc live, secret fraternities are • 
numerous. In the early years of the United Brethren 
church there were very few of them. The Masonic order 
was vastly more conspicuous than any other. As new 
societies arose, they were regarded as directly or mdn-ectly 
the oftspring of the Masonic by those persons who were 
opposed to secret societies in general. 

Otterbein and Bochm were in agreement with Wesley 
in holding secret fraternities in much disfavor. As a class, 
the Germans in America were very hostile to Freemasonry. 
It thus followed that for several decades there was very- 
general opposition to secret orders within the Lmtcd 
Brethren church. 

It was held that if there is anything good in secrecy, 
the public need not be kept in ignorance; and that if there 
is anything bad in it, the bad ought not to be shielded by 
an oath-bound veil. The claims of Masonry --bought 
to be anti-Christian and of no divine origin. To the Men- 
nonite element the Masonic oaths were an offense. It xxas 
held to be sinful for the initiate to swear to obey a code 
of laws he was not acquainted with As to tbe prcnmse 
made to the person about to enter the order.-that there 
is nothing in its oaths to do violence to his duties o him- 
self, his country, and his God.-it was held that this was 
a mere man-made opinion and not necessarily coi-rect 
And the admission by the Masons that the name of Jesus 
may not be used in their services was viewed as a stumb- 
ling-block that could not be surmounted. 

"in 18'^(> one William Morgan, a man residing m the 
west of New York, was known to be on the point o 
publishing a book that purported to be an exposure ot 
F oemasonrv. He was abducted and never again heard 
of What became of him is still a secret to the world at 



f 



120 



UNITED BRETHREN 



large, but the opponents oF the order were convinced that 
Morgan was put out of the way and his body sunk in 
Lake Erie. There was great excitement over the matter 
throughout the United States. A new poHtical party was 
formed, — the Anti-Masonic, — and in one presidential elec- 
tion, it carried the state of Vermont. 

Within the United Brethren Church the opposition to 
Masonry did not begin with the Morgan affair. Several 
months earlier the Miami Conference resolved by a unani- 
mous vote that it would bear with those of its brethren 
who had already joined the Masons, so long as they did 
not attend Masonic lodges; but that if any member sub- 
sequently joined the order he should be expelled. Three 
years later, the General Conference resolved by a unani- 
mous vote that "in no way or manner shall Freemasonry 
be approved or tolerated in our church," and that *'if any 
member join the Freemasons, such member, by such an 
act, excludes himself from membership in our church." 

M this time the grounds of the opposition against the 
Masons were substantially the same as the following digest 
of the charges formulated bv a convention of men who 
had withdrawn from the fraternity. 

These men declared that Masonry assumes to exercise 
a jurisdiction over the citizens of anv countrv in which it 
exists; that it claims the right to punish its members for 
oftVnse unknown to the laws of our nation; that it con- 
ceals crime and the person committing the crime; that 
it provides opportunity for plots against ])ersons and the 
very government itself; that it encourages crime by pro- 
viding ways for the guilty to escape; that it assumes un- 
republican titles and dignities and creates odious aristo- 
cracies; that it blasphemes the name of God and makes 
the Bible subserve its own concern; that by a j)rofane use 
of religious forms it destroys a veneration for religion; 
that it promotes idleness and intemperance; that it accumu- 
lates at the expense of the indigent, funds to be used in 
dissipation; that it contracts human sympathy by con- 
ferring its favors and its charities on its members onlv. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



121 



But new fraternities appeared, and during the last 
eighty years they have become increasingly numerous. 
The Sons of Temperance, the pioneer of the anti-liquor 
secret societies, arose in 1842. Many of the younger peo- 
ple among the United Brethren went into its "divisions" 
(lodges) in the belief that the considerations urged against 
Masonr\^ could not apply to a society whose leading aim 
was to further a cause very dear to the Church. And 
there were other persons in the denomination \vho were 
restive under the rulings on secret orders, and did not 
always observe them, even with respect to Masonry. This 
was particularly the case within the domain of the Vir- 
ginia Conference. 

As against the claims presented against the Masonic 
and other orders in a preceding paragraph, we now quote 
the substance of an address by Jacob Bachtel before the 
General Conference of 1849. In this session the rule that 
stood in the Discipline until 1861 was presented. It was 
adopted by a vote of thirty-three yeas and two nays. 
Bachtel and Markwood were the delegates voting in the 
neiiative. Burtner, the third delegate, was neutral. Mr. 
Bachtel spoke as follows: 

'^This report includes all secret orders. I am not much, 
if any, opposed to Masonry, and can not and will not 
turn a man out of the church, or refuse him admission 
to the church, on account of his being a Mason. I can not 
turn the Odd-fellows out or reject them. The object of 
the Sons of Tem])erance is grand, noble, and benevolent. 
They have done much good in Virginia, and have been 
the means of reforming many drunkards. Their secrecy 
is no just ground of objection. The disciples had secrets; 
warriors have secrets; the Church has secrets; annual 
conferences have secrets; sometimes it is necessary for 
them to have secret sessions, and there ought to be more. 
These societies must have secrets, or tests, to secure them- 
selves against fraud and imposition. The passage of this 
resolution will nearly ruin the church in our conference." 



/ 



122 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Within the United Brethren Church, two wings, styled 
the radical and the liberal, were now arrayed against each 
other. The radicals held inflexibly to the traditional policy 
of the church. They conceded that not all fraternities 
might be harmful in tendency, but they did object to 
letting down the bars. They insisted that the new societies 
imitated the mechanism of the Masonic order. They also 
insisted that the essence of secrecy is the same, whatever 
the avowed or unavowed objects, and that secrecy muzzles 
freedom of opinion. They thought it better for the church 
to keep clear of all fraternities, so that ministers and mem- 
bers might be free to utter their honest, untrammeled opin- 
ion at any time, and without asking the permission of 
any secret organization whatever. They thought that 
serious complications with respect to church discipline 
might result if all restrictions were withdrawn. The 
liberals, on the other hand, maintained that a rigid, un- 
compromising rule was unwdse and not in harmony with 
the spirit of the age. Their ranks were largely recruited 
from the non-German elements in the church membership. 
But the popular feeling against the Masons subsided. 
This ancient order maintained its ground, and many new 
fraternities arose. Meanwhile, the liberal element within 
the United Brethren Church grew stronger and stronger, 
and in 1885 was able to secure the adoption of the modified 
rule which is now in force. This rule runs as follows: 

A secret combination, in the sense of the Constitution, is a secret 
league or confederation of persons hohhng principles and laws 
at variance with the Word of God, and injurious to Clu'istian 
character as evinced in individual life, and infringing upon the 
natural, social, political, or religious rights of those outside its pale. 

Any member or minister of our Church found in connection 
with such combination shall be dealt with as in other cases of 
disobedience to the order and discipline of the Church.— in case 
of members, as found on page 23 of Discipline in answer to the 
third question of Section E, Chapter IV, and in case of ministers, 
as found in Chapter VI, Section 13, page 65. . 

Men of the type of Bishop Edwards were fierce in their 
denunciation of secret orders in general and the Masonic 
in particular, and that positive-minded man never receded 



CHURCH HISTORY 



123 



from his opinion. The stand taken by the Church was at 
first quite unanimously upheld and was very long con- 
tinued. It operated to very nearly exclude the Church 
from the centers of i)opulation and cause it to be a church 
of the rural sections almost wholly. In a large sense this 
is still the case. Yet at the present time, there is no active 
hostility to secret fraternities, and members (it the church 
feel free to connect themselves with such as are obviously 
not antagonistic to the public welfare. 



CHAPTER XVII 
LIST OF FRKACHEKS: CHRONOLOGICAL 

1800-11)21 

1800.— Dietrich Aurand, Jacob P>aiiiiis, Martin Rocliiu, 
Henry Boehm, Christian Cruni, Henry Cruni, Abraham 
Draksel, John Ernst, C. Fortenbaui>h, Jacob Geisniger, 
Christopher Crosh, Georiic A. Guelliini^, Snnon Herre, 
Abraham Hershev, Cln'istian Hershey, Abraham Hiestand, 
Martin Krcider,, Adam Lelnnan, Abraliam Mayer, Jolui 
Neidiiv, Chiistiaii Newcomer, Isaac Niswaiider, William 
Otterbein, Adam Riei^el, Frederick Schaetler, Benedict 
Schwope, John Seiiscny, David Snyder, Daniel Strickler, 
Michael Thomas, Henry Weidner :>1. 

1801— Ludwiii Diicivwald. Peter Kemp, Matthias Kes- 
sler, David Loni^, PvWv Senscny, Thomas Winter— 6. 

1802.-- WiHiam And)rose— 1. 

1803. (ieori^e P>enednm, Valentine Fhii^el — 2. 

180 1.- Matthias P>orlsiield— 1. 

1805.— Christian ]'>erivcr, Jacob Dehof, Frederick Dnck- 
wald, Lorenz Fberhart, Daniel Troyer— 5. 

1X0(). — Joseph HotVman -1. 

1807. — Abraham Niswaiider— 1. 

1808 Henry Duckwald, Geori^ie HolVman— 2. 

1809.— Christian Smith, John Snyder 2. 

1810.- Jlenry Ow -1. 

1811.— Michael Haer, Michael Hershey, H(>nry Hiestand, 
Joseph Jordan, Peter Swartz, Jacob Witter— 6. 

1812. Valentine P>auliis, Georiie A. Geetinii;, Jr., John 
Kreider. John Smith, Henry G. Spayth— 5. 

18i:i— John Hrown, Charles Hassel— 2. 

181 1. John Baer, Henry J. Fry, John (leisiniier, George 
Kolb, Henry Knnder, John Rathfani>, Jacob Winiijard— 7. 

1815.— Sanuiel Brandt, Jacob Flickini^er, Valentine His- 

key, Peter Swartz — 4. 

181(). William Brown, Jacob Flickint];er 2. 



CHUP.CII HISTORY 



125 



1S17— Jacob l^razcr, William Brown, George Brown, 
David Fleck, John Hildt, Conrad Roth— 0. 

1 SI 8.— Daniel PfeitVr, Daniel Ginoerich, Al)raham 
Horner, Jacob Lehman, John Russell, J. Zentmeyer— (). 

1810.— Conrad Weast--1. 
1820. David P.aer, Jacob Baer, John I'rown, Jacob 

Dimaho — 4. 

1821. — Henry P)nrlner, John Clop])cr, John HulYcr, 

Clnistian Traub 1. 

? 822. Thomas Hutlin, .lohn Rider 2. 

1823.— Jacob Frb. John HotVard, Abraham Huher, 

Gideon Smith I. 

1824. — Lorenz Ksterlein, James Fwii>- 2. 

1X25. — John Fry. John Hendricks. Abraham Hershey, 
John Krack, William Rhinehart. Chi"istian Shopp. James 
Snyder, John Zahn 8. 

1825 (Second session). -Kzekiel P>orinL>, Daniel Godnatt, 
Peter Habecker, Jonah Hank. Henry Kimmerlin^. Thomas 

Miller— (). 

1820.— John Hollman -1. 

1827. — John Eckstein, George Hiskey, Jolm Hu<>el— 3. 

1828 — Samuel Allenbaui^h, Joseph P>er<j;er. John Dchoi", 
FT^'derick (Gilbert. Georij;(^ GilbiMi, Henry Huber, William 
Kinnear. Moses Lawson. William Scholtle, John Smith., 
James Sutton, Richard Tablom- 12. 

1820.— Christian Crawlini^, John Dorcas, James E\vi«4, 
Peter Harman, Henry Hii^i>ens. Wilham Knott, James New- 
man. Daniel Senseny, David Winters, Noah Woodyard — 10. 

]S:')0. — Charles Boehm, John Haney, Herman Hauk, 
Geori>e Hufrman. John Potts. Jacob Rinehart, Peter White- 
sel, HcMiry Youn*^^ — 8. 

lS:n. — Jacob J. Cdossbrenner, Jacob Haas, Frederick 
Hisey, William Miller— 1. 

1832. — J()sei)h M. Hershey, George Rimel -2. 

is:!-:). — William R. Coursey, George A. Shuey — 2. 

1834. — Jacob Bachtel, Jacob P)aer, G(M)ri4e E. Deneale, 
Francis Eckard — I. 

18.35.- -Adam I. I'ovev, Martin L. Fries, Daniel Funk- 



126 



UNITED BRETHREN 



houser, David Jackson, Jacob Minser, David S. Spessard, 
Jonathan Tobey — 7. 

1836.— Moses Michael— 1. 

1837.— Frederick A. Roper, Charles W. Zahn— 2. 

1838.— William p:d\vards, Jacob Mark wood, John Rich- 
ards — 3. 

1839.— Henry Jones, Robert G. H. Levering, John Rue- 
bush, San>uel Zehrung — 4. 

1840. — John Pope, Renjamin Stickley — 2. 

1841.— Joseph S. Grim — 1. 

1842.— Jacob C. Spitler, Emanuel Witter— 2. 

1843. — James E. Rowersox, Andrew J. Cofi'man, John 
W. Fulkerson, William Lutz — 4. 

1844. — David Ferrell, Joseph Funkhouser, John Gib- 
bons, James W. Miles, John G. Steward — 5. 

1845. — Richard Nihiser — 1. 

1846. — John Markwood, Jacob Rhinehart — 2. 

1848.— Georije (). Little, George W. Station— 2. 

1849.— Theodore F. Rrashear — 1. 

1850. John W. F^erry, Abel Randall, Isaac K. Statton, 
H. R. Winton— I. 

1851.— W\ T. Lower, L. \\\ Matthews— 2. 

1853. — Levi Hess, John Phillips, John F. Station- -3. 

1854.^ — Samuel Martin, Henry Tallhelm^ — 2. 

1855. — Isaiah Raltzel, William H. H. Cain, Renjamin 
Denton, Zebidee Warner, J. P. Wliite — 5. 

1856. — G. W. Albaugh, Jacob A. Rovey, H. R. Davis, 
Cornelius R. Hammack, Eli Martin, William Yerkev — 7. 

1857. — Samuel Evers, Joseph Holcomb, John W. Howe, 
William James, George W. Rexroad, Jacob M. Rodrick — 6. 

1859. — John Delphy, James T. Hensley, T. S. McNeil — 3. 

I860.— W. A. Jackson— L 

1861. — T. Rushong, Joshua Harp — 2. 

1862. — Henry A. Rovey, J. M. Canter, Abram M. Evers, 
James W. Hott, John K. Nelson, Charles T. Stearn — 6. 

1863.— John W. Grim, John W. Kiracofe— 2. 

1864.— W. J. Miller, George H. Snapp— 2. 

1865.— William O. Grim, P. H. Thomas— 2. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



127 



1866.— J. Elkanah Hott— 1. 

1867.— Jacob L. Grim, George W. Howe, Snowden 

Scott — 3. 

1868.— Isaiah Raltzell— 1. 

1869.— William H. Rurtner, George Harman, Abram 

Hoover — 3. 

1870.— George W. Rrown, John N. Ross— 2. 

1871.— John R. Funk— 1. 

1872.— Abraham P. Funkhouser, Erasmus P. Funk, J. 
W. Funk, Charles M. Hott, J. Negley, P. W. WMler, James 

E. Whitesel, J. Ziirman — 8. 

1873.— C. I. R. Rrane— 1. 

1874.— D. Rarnhart, WilUam Reall, J. N. Fries, J. G. 
Humphreys, George W.. Kiracofe, Charles Miller, Zimri 
Umstot, I. M. Underwood— 8. 

1875.— W. H. Clary, A. D. Freed, Henry Jones, Monroe 

F. Keiter, George J. Roudabush, Jacob R. Roudabush — 6. 

1876.— Isaac T. Parlett, C. W. Stinespring, S. T. 
Wells— 3. 

1877.— John D. Donavan, John M. Hott, J. E. Widmeyer, 
Sylvester K. Wine — 4. 

1878.— William R. Rerry, Charles H. Crowell, Isaac T. 
Hott, Charles W. Hutzler, E. Ludwich, John H. Parlett— 6. 

1879.— R. F. Cronise, George P. Hott— 2. 

1880.— J. A. Evans, William Hesse, Abram M. Horn, 
J. G. Ketterman, M. L. Mayselles, M. A. Salt, Samuel H. 

Snell— 7. 

1881.— John M. Rolton, C. P. Dyche, William O. Fries, 
James W. Hicks, W. L. Martin, W. H. Sampsell— 6. 

1882.— Luther (). Rurtner, P. J. Lawrence— 2. 

1883.— Albert Day— 1. 

1885.— Rudolph Ryrd, N. F. A. Cupp, Harness H. Font, 
William S. Rau, J. E. R. Rice, Silas D. Skelton— 6. 

1886.— A. S. Castle, Green R. Fadeley, Abram S. Ham- 
mack, Alexander N. Horn, Nimrod A. Kiracofe— 5. 

1887.— T. K. Cliti'ord, George M. Gruber, William F. 

Gruver — 3. 

1888.— W. P. Razzle, George W. Stover— 2. 



128 



UNITED BRETHREN 



1S89. — J. D. Chamberlain, William 0. Ewing, Jacob C. 
S. Myers, Edgar A. Piigh, Samuel L. Rice — 5. 

1890. — R. L. Dorsey, Julius R. Fout, J. F. Snyder — 3. 

1891. H. P. S. Husey, Kdgar W. xMcMullen— 2. 

1892. John W. Maiden— 1. 
1893.— J. W. Walter— 1. 

1894.— James W. Brill, Otto W. Rurtner, Walter L, 
Childress, S. 1). Dawson, S. R. Ludwig — 5. 

1895. — C. 1). Rennett, W. H. Rruce, Samuel A. Crabill, 
William O. Jones, H. E. Richardson, A. J. Secrist — 6. 

1897. -William A. Rlack, John H. Rrunk, George M. 
Jones, Lan Seng Nam, L. A. Racey, J. W. Stearn — 6. 

1898.— Luther (). F>ricker, T. J. Feaster, A. R. Hendrick- 
son, A. P. Walton — 4. 

1899.— Charles M. Good, T. C. Harper, Ida M. Judy, 
E. A. Stanton — 4. 

1900.— E. A. Stanton, T. C. Carter, W. S. Ran— 3. 

1901.— J. R. Ferguson, W. R. Keeley— 2. 

1902.- — W. D. Good, Geo. Rurgess, S. E. Royd — 3. 

1903.— J. L. Argenbright, E. E. NeH', A. G. W^ells— 3. 

1904.— W. M. Maiden— 1. 

1905. — A. R. Wilson, A. R. Vondersmith, C. J. Racev, J. 
Ralph Geil, R. N. Sypolt, John D. Scott, G. J. Rouda- 
bush — 7. 

1907— W. R. Chapman, W. D. Mitchell, A. L. Maiden— 3. 

1908.— T. T. Tabb— 1. 

1909. R. (i. Hammond, T. M. Sharp, H. E. Richardson, 
Clayton Wyand — i. 

1910.— F. R. Cliubb, Wm. Yansickle— 2. 
1911. — L. C. Messick, A. R. Mann, Geo. A. McGuire, 
I. Summers — i. 

1912.— D, G. Rrimlow— 1. 

1913. -R. N. Young, W. L. Hamrick, A. Ramford— 3. 
1914.— R. Rock, S. L. Raugher, J. W. W^ght— 3. 
1915.— T. E. Gainer, W. G. McNeill, D. T. Gregory, J. 
H. Schmitt, H. M. Crimm, J. R. Collis, F. A. Tinney— 7.^ 
19ir).— W. R. Swank, D. F. Glovier, V. L. Phillips, W. R. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



129 



Obaugh, M. W. Nelson, J. R. Reale, D. D. Rrandt, W. 

A. Wilt— 7. 

1917.— T. J. Coil'man, W^ H. Smith, C. W. Hiser, W. R. 
McKinney, J. E. Oliver, L. G. Rridges, \\\ P. Holler, W. M. 

Courtney— 8. 

1918.— M. L. Weekley, J. H. Arnold, J. R. Chamber- 

lain^ — 3. 

1920.— H. P. Ruppenthal, E. E. Miller— 2. 

1921.— Claude Ryan, Herman Grove, Lester M. Leach, 
C. W. Tinsman, E. R. CapHnger, U. P. Hovermale, C. K. 
Welsh— 7. 



* 



♦ 



The following list, with the date of joining the confer- 
ence, gives the names and address of all living former 
members of the Virginia Conference, as far as we are able 
to ascertain, and we believe it is exactly correct.* 

1830.— John Haney, Marion, Minn. 

1843.— John W. Fulkerson, Marion, Minn. 

1844.— James W'. Miles, Raldwin, W. Va. 

1848.— Geo. W. Statton, Monte Vista, Colo. 

1850.— L K. Statton, Lisbon, Iowa. 

1854.— Henry Tallhelm, Edinburg, Va. 

1859.— James T. Hensley, Marion, Ohio. 

I860.— William A. Jackson, Glen Savage, Pa. 

1861.— T. F. Rushong, Eldorado, Ohio. 

1861. — Joshua Harp, Renevola, Md. 

1862.— Henry A. Rovey, Potsdam, Ohio. 

1862.— Chas. T. Stearn, York, Pa. 

1862. — Abram M. Evers, Hagerstown, Md. 

1863. — J. Wesley Grimm, West Fairvie\v, Pa. 

1863. — J. W^esley Kiracofe, Greencastle, Pa. 

1864.— William J. Miller, Lebanon, Kans. 

1864.— Geo. H. Snapp, Mt. Olive, Va. 

1867.— J. L. Grimm, Harrisburg, Pa. 

1871.— John R. Funk, Lancaster, Pa. 

1872.— J. W. Funk. 

1873.— C. I. R. Rrane, Lebanon, Pa. 

1874.— Geo. W'. Kiracofe, Chincoteague Isle, Va. 



130 



UNITED HHETHHEN 



187 1.— William Hcall, Berkeley Springs, W. Va. 
1874. — I. M. Underwood, Adeline, 111. 
1875. — M. F. Keiter, Huntingdon, Ind. 
1875. — (leo. J. Roiidabush^ Myersville, Md. 
1876. — C. W. Stinespring, Frederick City, Md. 
1877.— J. F. Hott, Long Glade, Va. 

1878— Chas. W. Hutsler, 1035 N. 12th St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 
1878. — F. Ludwick, Middletown, Pa. 
1880.— William Hesse. 
1880.— S. H. Snell, Keedysville, Md. 

1880. M. L. Mayselles, Munson, W. Va. 
1880.— M. A. Salt, Florin, Pa. 

1881. — W. (). Fries, Fostoria, Ohio. 
1881. -W. L. Martin, Thurmont, Md. 

1881. John M. Bolton. 

1881. — J. W. Hicks, Chicago Junction, Ohio. 
1882. — Luther O. Burtner, Hagerstown, Md. 
1883.— Albert Day, Marietta, Ohio. 
1885.— Rudolph iwnl Chewsville, Md. 
1885.— H. H. Font, Dayton, Ohio. 
1885. — J. F. B. Rice, Boonsboro, Md. 
1886. — N. A. Kiracofe, Pequea, Pa. 
1886.— A. X. Horn, Fayetteville, Pa. 
1887.- Geo. M. Gruber, Hagerstown, Md. 
1880.— J. B. Chamberlain, Washington, D. C. 
1880. Samuel L. Rice, Keedysville, Md. 
1800.— ^Julius F. Font, Fostoria, Ohio. 
1807. — Lau Seng Nam, Canton, China. 

*This compilation was made for the United Brethren Centennial 
of 1900. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
LIST OF PRFACHERS: ALPHABETICAL 

1800-1900, Inclusive 

The date following a name indicates the year in which 
it first appears on the Conference roll. A star folloxvuig 
the date 1800 shows that the preacher was a member m 
that year or was licensed at that time. 

Abbreviations : d.— died ; ord.— ordained ; trans.— 
transferred; M. E.— Methodist Episcopal; M. E. C. S.— 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South; Presb.— Presbyter- 
ian; Ref.— German Reformed; Ch.— church; b.— born; 0. 
C.--United Brethren, Old Constitution. 

Albaugh, G. W.— 1856— withdrew under charges. 

AUenbaugh, Samuel— 1828— ord. 1834— withdrew irreg- 
ularly, 1842,' and joined the Lutherans— lived on Bowman 
place between Whitesel's and Harrisonburg— came from 
Pendleton— helped Shickle and Biddle in great meeting at 

Frieden's. 

Ambrose,William— 1802— see Chap. XX. 

Aurand, Dietrich— 1800*. 

Bachtel, Jacob- 1831— ord. 1837— d. 1806 aged d4— 
buried at Otterbein, Jackson Co., W. Va. 

Baer, Michael— 1811— lived near Chambersburg, Pa. 

Baer, John —1814. 

Baer, David— 1820— ord. 1822— d. at Potts Valley, Pa., 

1853. 

Baer, Jacob— 1820— d. 1823 (?). 

Baer, Jacob— 1834— ord. 1837— came from Md. (?) — 
b. 1807, d. 1855 -buried at Churchville, Va.— widow mar- 
ried John Smith. 

Baltzell, Isaiah— 1855— ord. 1856— in Pennsylvania 
Conf. 1859-60, 1862-68— trans, to E. Pennsylvania Conf. 
1872— d. 1893 — memorial services at General Conference. 

Barnhart, D.— 1874— ord. 1879— trans, to Pennsylvania 
Conf. 1880. 



132 



UNITED B BETH HEN 



CHIBCH IlISTOHY 



133 



Bauliis, JiRob^Settled near Fremont, O., 1822^fatlicr 
of Sandusky Conf. 

Haulus, Valentine -1812 ord. 1817— d. about 1818, 
ai^ed o(). 

Hazzle, W. P.— 1888 -ord. 1895. 

Heall, William -^ 187 l^ord. 1876— honorably dismissed 
at his own request, 1880. 

Henedum, (leor^e— 1803— moved to O., 1801— d. 1837, 
a.qed 72. 

Bennett, S. D.— 1895— ord. 1898. 

Heri^er, Christian— 1805— to see what would take place 
below in the i>reat meetini,% he hid himself in a barn in 
Berks Co., but at lenijth the people were startled by his 
loud eries and prayers; he was brought down and soon con- 
verted— always in deep poverty, but an indefatioable 
preacher— moved to Westmoreland Co., Pa. 

Berber, Joseph — 1828. 

Berry, William R.— 1878— ord. 1881— d. 1906, ai^ed 53 
— buried at Dayton, Va. 

Black, William A,— 1897— ord. 1900. 

Boehm, Martin 1800*— see Chap. III. 

Boehm, Henry— 1800*— joined M. E. CIi. 1804. 

Boehm, Charles— 1830— ord. 1832. 

Bolton, John M.— 1881— ord. 1886— trans.to Md. Conf. 
1887 — joined Presb. Ch. 

Borini,^ P:zekiel— 1825— ord. 1828-Jived in Pa., but 
traveled in Va. and preached at Whitesers— d. 1861. 

Bortsfield, Matthias— 1804— eharter members of Musk- 
ini^unn Conf. 1818. 

Bovey, Adam I.— 1835— ord. 1838— went from Keedvs- 
ville, Md. to W. Va., 1852— d. 1879, aged 82. 

Bovey, Jacob A.— 1856— ord. 1858— d. 1859, aged 35-- 
buried at Edinburg, Va. 

Bovey, Henry A.— 1862— ord. 1864— b. 1831— trans to 
Central Ohio Conf. 1878. 

Boyd, S. E.— d. at Roanoke, Va., 1911, aged 67— this 
name occurs only in Mr. Funkhouser's necrology. 



1 



Howersox. James E.— 1843 -ord. 1846 -trans, to Iowa 
Conf. 1858 married a Shuey^d. at Shueyville, la. 
Brandt, Samuel 1815. 
Brane, C. I. B. 1873 ord. 1876 Trans, to Md. Cont. 

1887. 

Brashear, Theodore F.- -1849— iine singer— went to 

Iowa, 1862. 

l^razer, Jacob 1817— lived at Chambersburg, Pa.— 

d. 1822. 

Bricker, Luther ().— 1898— ord. 1900. 

l^>rill, James W. 189 1. 

P,r()wn, John 1813 exhorter. 

Brown, John 1820- ord. 1821 same as preceding (?). 

Brown, William— 1816— ord. 1819 moved to Benton 
Co., Ind. 1838(1. 1868, aged 72. 

Brown, William— 1817— bishop one term, dechned re- 
election. 

Brown, George 1817. 

Brown, George W.— 1870— withdrew under charges, 

1877. 

Bruce, W. H.— 1895. 

Brunk, John H.— 1897— ord. 1900. 

Burtner, Henry— 1821— ord. 1823— d. 1857, aged 57. 

Burtnerl William H.— 1869— ord. 1874. 

Burtner, Luther ().— 1882— ord. 1889— trans, to Md. 
Conf. 1889— appointed to Africa 1892, serving 1\:^ years. 

Burtner, Otto W.-1894. 

Busey, B. P. S. ord. 1898. 

Bushong, T.— 1861— trans, to Miami Conf. 

Byrd, Rudolph— 1885--ord. 1887. 

Cain, William M. H.— 1855— trans, to Parkersburij 

ConL 1857. 

Canter, J. M.— 1862— ord. 1864— trans, to Scioto Conf 

(:>) 1866. 

Castle, A. S.— 1886— trans, to Md. Conf. 1887. 
Chamberlain, J. B. -1889— ord. 1891. 
Childress, Walter L.— 1894— an elder from M. P. Ch. 
Clary, \\\ H.— 1875— ord. 1885— d. 1913, aged 69. 



134 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



135 



Clifford, T. K.— 1887— ord. 1890— d. 
Clopper, John— 1821— ord. 1829— lived in Md. 
Coffman, Andrew J. — 1843^ — ^ord. 1846— from Page Co. 
- — joined Lutheran Ch. 

Coursey, William R. — 1833 — ord. 1835 — trans, to Rock 
River Conf. 1867— d. at Henevola, Md., 1880. 

Crabill, Samuel A.— 1895- ord. 1898. 
Cronise, B. F.— 1879— ord. 1879— local— from M. E. Ch. 
—trans, to Md. Conf. 1887. 

Crowell. Charles H.— 1878— ord. 1882. 

Crowling, Christian — 1829. 

Crum, Christian — 1800* — ord. 1819 — b. near Frederick, 
Md.- — lived near the Hott place, Pleasant Valley, Va. — 
d. 1823. 

Crum, Henry— 1800*. 

Cupp, N. F. A.— 1885— ord. 1887. 

Davis, H. F. — 185() — trans, to Parkersburg Conf. 

Dawson, S. D.— 1894. 

Day, Albert 1883— ord. 1886— joined Presb. Ch. 1892. 

Deiiof, Jacob— 1805— ord. 1817— d. 1834. 

Dehof, John— 1828— ord. 1830 and went to Penn. Conf. 
— d. 1844. 

Delphy, John— 1859. 

Denea'le, George E.— 1834— ord. 1835— from Ohio (?) 
— "no longer a preacher among us," 1837. 

Denton, Henjamin — 1855 — local preacher and farmer — ■ 



grandfather of Rev. S. L. Rice— d. about 1856 — buried at 
Drv Run. 

Donavan, John D.— 1877— ord. 1881— d. 1905, aged 50— 
buried at Singers Glen, Va. 

Dorcas, John— 1829— ord. 1832. 

Dorsey, R. L. — 1890 — dismissed from the ministrv, 1894. 

Draksel, Abraham — 1800* — b. in Lebanon Co., Pa., 1753 
—removed to Mt. Pleasant, Pa., 1804— d. 1825. 

Duckwald, Ludwig — ^1801. 

Duckwald, Frederick — 1805— lived at Sleepv Cr., Va. 

Duckwald, Henry— 1808. 

Dunaho, Jacob— 1820. 



I 



Dyche, C. P.— 1881— ord. 1885. 

Eberhart, Lorenz — 1805. 

Eckard, Francis— 1834— ord. 1838— silenced 1842 -re- 
stored 1844— license demanded 1845— d. near Midway. 
Rockbridge Co., Va., during the war— wife a Hoffman. 

Eckstein, John— 1827— ord. 1829. 

Edwards, William— 1838— ord. 1841— trans, to Iowa 
Conf. 1853— reared at Whitesel's Church— strong m 
prayer — wife a Ganger — d. in Iowa. 

Erb, Jacob— 1823— ord. 1825— bishop three terms— d. 

April 29, 1883, aged 79. 

Ernst, John— 1800*— belonged in Pa. 

Esterlein, Lorenz — 1824 — ord. 1827. 

Evans, J. A.— 1880— b. in Michigan, educated, went to 
Africa, 1870, returned, served the freedmen in Va., and 
returned to Africa, 1880— d. at Freetown, Africa, 1899 

and there buried. 

Evers, Samuel— 1857— d. 1861 aged 30— buried at L nion 

church, Cross Keys, Va. 

Evers, Abram M.— 1862— ord. 1863— trans, to Md. Conf. 

1887 

Evig, James— 1824— ord. 1829 (?). 

Ewing, William O.— 1889— ord. 1892— d. 1898 aged 
32— buried at Friendship, Frederick Co., Va. 

Fadeley, Green H.— 1886— ord. 1889. 

Feaster, T. J.— 1898— 1901— d. 1906 aged 32— buried 

at Lahmansville, W\ Va. 

Ferrell, David— 1844— went West and died in Kans.— 

wife a preacher. 

Fleck, David— 1817— ord. 1819. 

Flickinger, Jacob— 1815— exhorter. 

Flugel, Valentine— 1 803. 

Fortenbaugh, G.— 1800*. 

Font, Harness H.— 1885— ord. 1887— and trans, to Md. 

Conf. 

Font, Juhus E.— 1890— ord. 1893— trans, to Md. Conf. 

1894; to Sandusky, 1898. 

Freed, J. D.— 1857— ord. 1862— trans, to Penn. Conf. 

1885. 



13() 



L'MTEl) HHi:THiU:X 



FR('d, A. D. 1875 - d. 187(). 

Fries, Martin L. — 1835 — brother to Josiah Fries — well 
educated, very briijilit and proniisint^ — married Sarah Fix 
at Leitersburij;, Md. and died one niontli later about 18.'i7 — 
buried at Haiierstown, Md. 

Fries, J. X.— 1871— ord. 1878. 

Fries, William ().— 1881 ord. 1885— trans, to Md. 
1887 — trans, to Sandusky Conf. 181)0. 

Fry, Henry, J.— 181 1. 

Fry, John -1825— ord. 1829. 

Fulkerson, Jolin W. 1813 — ord. 1816 — trans, to Iowa 
Conf. 1859; to Minn. Conf. 1857. See Chapter XIX. 
Funk, Frasmus P. — 1872 — ord. 1875 — trans, to Pa. 
Funk, J. W. -1872()rd. 1875 — trans, to Kas. Conf. 

Funk, John F>. 1871— trans, to F. Penn. Conf. 1878. 
Funkhouser, Daniel 1835 reared at Mt. Hebron^ 
from Penn. Conf. 

Funkhouser, Joseph 181 1 -farmer near Keezletown, 
Va.— ord. 1817— joined M. F. C. S., 18()5. 

Fimkhouser. Abram P. — 1872 ord. 187() — see Cha]). 
XXIII. 

Geisin^er, Jacob 1800*. 
Geisini>er, John — 1814. 

(libbons, John 1811 — ord. 181f) — reared near Church- 
ville, Va. bashful as a boy, could preach from the start — 
professed religion in a camp meeting at Peter Ruebush's — 
d. near P)urlin<4t()n. W. Va. about 1817 and buried at old 
stone church. 

Gilbert, (reor<>e— 1828- trans, to Penn. Conf. 18 l.*!. 

Gilbert, Frederick 1828()rd. 1830(1. 1800 buried 
at Chambersburii, Penn. 
Ginoerich , Daniel — 1818. 

Glossbrenner, Jacob J.— 1831— ord. 1883 — see Chapter 
XIX. 

Godnatt, Daniel- 1825. 
Good, Charles M.— 1900. 



CIirHCH HISTOHY 



1.37 



Grim, Joseph S.— 1841— ord. 1817 -trans, to Md. Conf. 

1887. 

(irim, John \V.— 1803— ord. 1801— trans, to Penn. 

Conf. 187(). 

Grim, William 0.— 1805 ord. 1805— trans, to Penn. 

Conf. 1883. 

Grim, Jacob L.— 1807— ord. 1809. 

Grosch, Christopher— 1800* -went West -d. 1829— 
buried in Lancaster Co., Penn. 

Gruber, Geori^e M. -1887— trans, to Md. Conf. 1887. 

Gruver, William F.— 1887— ord. 1889. 

Guethiniv, Geori^e A.— 1800*— ord. 1783-d. 1812, aiied 

7.'^ — see Chap. VI. 

Guethiniv ((ieeliniv). George A., Jr.— 1812 -ord. 1810— 

d. about 1842, atj;ed ()1. 

Haas, Jacob 1831— local j)reacher and blacksmith- 
lived in Fdinburiv, Va. d. 18()2, ai^ed 72— converted at 
Mill Cr.— of the family about Woodstock. 

Habecker, Peter- -1825. 

Hammack, Cornelius B.— 1850— d. Mar. 1, 1877 buried 
at Oak Hill, Va. 

Hammack, Abram S.— 1880— ord. 1890. 

Hanev, John— 183>0 ord. 1832— went to Penn. 1830, 
returned 1841— removed to Minn. 1857— a charier member 
of Minn. Conf.— strong and influential preacher loved a 
oood horse — i)receded Cdossbrenner in Rockini^^ham. 

Harman, Georoe— 1809— ord. 1870— d. 1899, ai>ed 70. 

Herman (Herrman), Peter -1829()rd. 1831 -trans, to 

Penn. Conf. 1834. 

Harp, Joshua— 1801— ord. 18()4— trans, to Md. Conf. 

1887. 

Harper, T. C— 1900. ' 

Hassell, Charles— 1813— exhorter. 

Hendricks, John— 1825— ord. 1827 preached at Kep- 

liui^eFs. 

Hendrickson, A. R.— 1898. 

Hensley, James T.— ord. 1859 trans, to Parkersbun-4 
Conf. 1800. 



I 



I 



I 



138 



UNITED BHETFIHEN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



139 



Hcrre, Simon— 1800*— d. 1821. 

Hershey, Christian— 1800*— lived in Pcnn. 

Hershey, Abraham— 1800*— uncle to Jacob Erb, as also 

was Christian Hershey. 

Hershey, Abraham— 1825— ord. 1827— d. 1839— hved m 

Penn. 

Hershey, Michael— 181 1 — exhorter. 

Hershey, Joseph M.— 1832— trans, to St. Joseph Conf. 

Harman (Herrman), Peter— 1829— ord. 1831— trans, to 

Penn. Conf. 1834. 

Hess, Levi— 1853— ord. 1855— in Penn. Conf. 1857-68— 
trans, to Parkersburt^ Conf.— joined M. E. Ch.— d. at Win- 
chester, Va. 

Hesse, Wilham— 1880— ord. 1883— joined Lutheran Ch. 

Hicks, James W.— ord. 1881— came from Miami Conf .— 
£tradauated from U. H. Seminary, 1880— trans, to Md. Conf. 
1887— later to Sandusky Conf. 

Hiestand, Abraham— 1800*. 

Hiestand, Henry— 1811. 

Higgens, Henry, 1829— ord. 1831— d. about 1832. 

Hiidt, John— 1817— ord. 1820. 

Hisev, Frederick— 1831— ord. 1835— d. at Edinburgh 
Va. — grandfather to L. M. Hisey. 

Hiskey, Valentine— 1815— ord. 1822. 

Hiskey, George— 1827— ord. 1830. 

Hoffard (Huffer), John— 1821— ord. 1829— d. 1842, 
aged 42. 

Hoffard, John— 1823— ord. 1831. 

Hoffman, Joseph— 1806— ord. 1813— b. in Cumberland 
Co., Pa., 1780, began preaching 1802, succeeded Otterbein 
as pastor in Baltimore — removed to Montgomery Co., O. 

Hoffman, George— 1808— ord. 1816. 

Hoffman, George— 1830— ord. 1833— d. 1888, aged 82. 

Hoffman, John— 1826— ord. 1829. 

Holcomb, Joseph — 1858 — ord. 1862 — joined M. E. C. S., 

1873. 

Hoover, Abram— 1869— ord. 1871-^. at Churchville, 

Va., 1901, aged 62. 



Horn, Abram M.— 1880— ord. 1883. 

Horn, Alexander N.— 1886— trans, to Md. Conf. 1887. 

Horner, Abraham— 1818— exhorter. 

Hott, Jacob F.— 1887— b. Nov. 20, 1822— d. Aug. 31, 

1884. 

Hott, James W. 1862 -ord. 1864— see Chaj). XIX. 

Hott, J. Elkanah -1866— withdrew, 1870 -trans, from 
Dakota Conf. 1877— joined (). C, 1889. 

Hott, Charles M.— 1872— ord. 1875— trans, to Md. Conf. 
1887— d. at Woodbridge, Cal. 

Hott, John M.— 1877— ord. 1883. 

Hott, Isaac T.— 1878 trans, to Miami Conf. 1882 -join- 
ed Presb. Ch. 

Hott, George P.— 1879 -ord. 1883 -see Chai). XX. 

Houk, Jonah— 1825. 

Houk, J. B.— same as Jonah?— withdrew irregularly- 
joined M. E. C. S.— d. about 1864 on Elizabeth Island. 

Houk, Herrman— 1830— ord. 1834. 

Houk, Jacob M. -1830— ord. 1833— lived near Melrose— 
married Barbara Rhodes, the woman who reared him and 
who was probably 40 years older. 

Howe, John W.- 1858 -ord. 1860— see Chaj). XX. 

Howe, George W.— 1867 -d. 1889, aged 57 buried at 

Mt. Horeb. 

Huber, Samuel— 1816— ord. 1819. 

Huber, Henr^^ — 1828. 

Hugel, John— 1827— ord. 1830. 

Humphreys, J. G.— 1874— dismissed for failure to meet 
committee on course of reading, 1877. 

Hutlin, Thomas — 1822. 

Hutzler, Charles W.— 1878— ord. 1881— trans, to E. 

Penn. Conf. 1883. 

Jackson, David— 1835— local preacher— gave up his 
license— d. at Churchville, Va.— father of Rev. W. A. Jack- 
son. 

Jackson, W. A. 1860— trans, to Penn. Conf., 1863. 

James, William— 1856— trans, to Parkersburg Conf. 

Jones, Henry— 1839— perhaps lived on Holcomb place 
near Melrose, Va. 



140 



UNITED BHETHREN 



CHURCH HlSTOin^ 



141 



Jones, HeniT-1875-ord. 1878-d. 1881), aged 52. 

Jones, William O.— 1895. 

Jones, George M.— 1897. 

Jordan, Joseph— 181 1—exhorter. 

Judv, Ida M.- 1900. 

Keedy, D. D.— trans, from Alleghany Cont. 18o/— trans. 

to Md. Gonf. 1887. ^ . . ^ ,^ r iqoi 

Keiter, Monroe F.-1875 ord. 18/8-]omed O. G 1S,)1. 
Kemp, Peter— 1801— d. near Frederiek, Md., 1811. 
Kessler, Matthias — 1801. 
Ketterman. J. G.— 1880- xl. 1881, aged 50. 
Kimmerling, Henry— 1825. 
Kinnear, William- 1828— ord. 18:U. 
Kiracofe, John W.-1863-ord. 1864-trans. to Md. 

Conf. 1887. 

Kiraeofe, George W.-1874-ord. 187/ trans, to Penn. 

Conf. 1878— joined Bapt. Gh. 

Kiracofe, Nimrod A.— 1880— trans, to Md. Gont. 188/ — 

ord. 1893. 

Kolb, George 1814. 

Knott, William-1829-ord. 18:V2-"Papi)y Knott was 
a good preacher with a wonderful voice— could not read 
when he began to preach and someone often read for Inm. 

Krack, .John 1825--ord. 1827. 

Kreider, Martin— 1800*. 

Kreider, John— 1812— ord. 1817. 

Kunder, Henrv-1814-ord. 1810-lived near Green- 
castle. Penn., but moved to Hutler Go., O. 1819-member 
first General Gonference— bishop 20 years -son of Swiss 
immigrant— d. 1854, aged 79. ,^' 

Lan Seng Nam— 1897 native of Ghina— iomed Gont. 

in Ghina. 

Lawrence, P. J.- -1882 ord. 1885. 

Lawson, Moses— 1828 ord. 181^0. 

Lehman, Adam— 1800*— d. about 1823, aged 90. 

Lehman, Jacob — 1818. 

Levering, Robert G. H.— 1839— stammered in conversa- 
tion but no"l in preaching, in which he was powerful. 



Little, George O.— 1848— trans, to Penn. Gonf.- -father 

of G. K. Little. 

Long, David — 1801. 

Lower, W. T.— 1851— ord. 1853 trans, to Penn. Gonf. 

1^7()__(1. in Ghambersburg, Penn. 

Ludwick, E.— 1878— ord. 1881— trans, to Penn. Gonf. 

1 S85 

Ludwig, S. R.— 1894— ord. 1897. 

Lutz, William— 1843— ord. 1840— native of Page Go., 
Vj,, — joined Lutheran Gh. 

Lutz, L. Walter— 1899— ord. 1900— from W. Va. Gonf. 

which he joined 1897. ^ 

M.iiden, John W.— 1892 ord. 1896. 

Markwood, Jacob— 1838 ord. 1841— see Ghap. XIX. 

Markwood, John— brother to Jacob- -trans, from Scioto 
Gonf.— lived in Hampshire Go.— blind last years of life. 

Martin, Samuel— 1854— local preacher and blacksmith- 
charter member of Parkersburg Gonf. 

Martin, Eli— 1856— came from Baptist Gh.— trans, to 

Parkersburg Gonf. 

Martin, W. L.— 1881 ord. 1884 trans, to Md. Gonf. 

1887. 

Matthews, L. W.— 1851 ord. 1853 -trans. 1863— rear- 
ed in Frederick Go.— a fine preacher. 

Mayer, Abraham— 1800*— d. 1826, aged 69-4ived near 
Garlisle, Penn.— ord. 1819. 

Mayselles, M. L.— 1880--ord. 1887 trans, to Md. Gonf. 

1887. 

McMullen, Edgar W.— 1891- d. 1817, aged 54 —buried 

at Singers Glen. 

McNeil, T. S.— 1859— from Miami Gonf. d. 1874. 

Micliael, Moses— 1856— ord. 1858 (?)— trans, to Mo. 
Gonf. — charter member thereof, 1858. 

Miles, James W.— 1844— ord. 1846— trans, to Parkers- 
burg Gonf. 1857. 

Miller, Tliomas— 1825— ord. 1828— preached at White- 
seFs— lived in Shenandoah Go.— married a Painter— joined 
Lutheran Gh. 



142 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



CHTHCH HISTORY 



143 



Miller William— 1831 silenced for riinnini^ his horse 
on a race track about 1836— d. in Penn. ISfVi. 

Miller, \V. J.— 1864— ord. 1868 trans, to N. Kans. 

Conf. 1890. 

Miller, Charles— 1874— from p:vani^elical Association— 

d. 1892, aged 67. 

Minser, Jacob— 1835— came from the Methodists -n^ar- 
ed in Frederick Co., Va.— married a Bender— quit preach- 
ing — went West. 

Mvers, Jacob C. S. -1899— ord. 1900. 

Nt^gley, J.— 1872— ord. 1878— d. 1898, ai^ed 67. 

Neidii^, John— 1800*— lived near Harrisburg, Penn.— d. 
1844, ai4ed 79. 

Nelson, John K. 1862— ord. 1864— trans, to Md. Couf. 
1887— joined O. C, 1890 (i. at Winchester, Va. 

Newcomer, Christian -1 800*— ord. 1 81 3— see Chap. 
VIII. 

Nihiser, Richard— 1845— reared near Mt. Hebron, Shen- 
andoah Co., Va.— pious student, great in song and prayer, 
voice like a trumpet — death most triumphant — d. of con- 
sumption at Chewsville, Md., 1847— b. at Hagerstown. 

Nihiser, J. W.— 1857— ord. 1858— married Mary Lig- 
gett of Kdinburg, Va.— d. 1893, aged 66— buried at Keedys- 
ville. Md. 

Niswander, Isaac— 1800*- -d. 1820 (?). 

Niswander, Abraham — 1807. 

Otterbein, William— 1800*— see Chap. II. 

Ow, Henry— 1810— ord. 1817. 

Parlett, Isaac T.— 1876— ord. 1879— joined (). C, 1891. 

Parlett, John H.— 1878— ord. 1881— joined O. C, 1891. 

Perry, John W. — 1850 — ord. 1853 — trans, to Parkers- 
burg Conf. 1857. 

Pfeifer, Daniel— 1818— ord. 1820. 

Pfrimmer, John G. — 1800* — ord. 1815 — b. in France — 
d. in Harrison Co., Ind., 1825, aged 63. 

Phillips, John — 185,'^ — ord. 1855 — withdrew irregularly,. 
1858 — joined Presb. Ch. — d. in the west of Penn, 



I 

I 



Pope, John— 1840— ord. 1843— local preacher— lived in 
Pendleton Co. 

Potts, John— 1830. 

Pugh, Fdgar A.— 1889— trans, to E. Tenn. Conf., 1899— 

d. 1899. 

Racey, L. A.— 1897— ord. 1900. 

Randall, Abel— 1850— ord. 1853— local preacher— lived 
in Pendleton Co., below Fort Seybert— trans, to Iowa Conf. 

1859. 

Rallifang, John— 1814. 

Ran, William S.— 1885— returned his credentials to 
Conference. 

Rexroad, George W.— 1858— ord. 1862— d. 1898, aged 
77_buried at Mill Cr., Rockingham Co., Va. 

Rliinehart, William R.— 1825— ord. 1828— buried at 
Miami chapel. 

Rliinehart, Jacob— 1830— ord. 1832— in Penn. Conf. 
1840-46— d. at Fishersville, Va., 1856— buried at Rethlehem, 
Augusta Co. — grave unmarked. 

Richards, John— 1838— ord. 1841 -great revivalist and 
popular— withdrew irregularly, 1846 — joined Lutheran 
Ch. — went to Iowa. 

Richardson, H. E.— 1895— ord. 1898. 

Riegel, Adam— 1800*. 

Rice, J. E. R.— 1885— ord. 1887— trans, to Md. Conf. 

1897. 

Rice, Samuel L.— 1889— ord. 1892. 

Ridenour, Jacob R.— 1875— ord. 1878. 

Rider, John— 1822. 

Rimel, George — 1832 — ord. 1835 — owned a farm and 
rode a poor horse — trans, to Mo. Conf. 1866 — d. soon after- 
ward. 

Rodrick, Jacob M.— 1858— ord. 1860— d. 1887, aged 73. 

Ross, John N.— 1870— joined M. E. C. S., 1873. 

Roth, Conrad— 1817. 

Roudabush, George J.— 1875— ord. 1879— trans, to Md. 
Conf. 1887. 



144 



UNITED J5HETHKEX 



CHLHCH HISTORY 



145 

\ 



RiRbusli, John— 1839— ord. 1812— in Tenn 185()-70— 
d. at Lcittrsburg, Md., 1881, ai^ed 64— buried at KceysviUe, 

Md. 

Russell, John— b. near Baltimore, Md., Mar. 18, 1/9J— 
be^an to preach, 181t^- bishop two terms— lived at Keedys- 

ville, Md.— d. Dec. 21, 1870. 

Salt, M. A.— 1880— ord. 1883— trans, to E. Penn.. 188o. 

Sanipsell, W. H. 1881— ord. 1885. 

Schaeller, Frederick— 1800*— ord. 1813. 

Schottle, William— 1828— ord. 1829. 

Schwope, Benedict— 1800*— in conference of 178'J. 

Scott, Snowden— 1867— see Chapt. XX. 

Scott, John 1).— 1805— d. at Roanoke, Va., 1907, aged 78. 

Secrist, A. J.— 1895— ord. 1898. 

Sensenv, John— 1800*. 

Sensenv, Peter— 1801— d. at Winchester, Va., 1804 (?). 

Sensenv, Daniel— 1829. 

Shopp, Christian— 182,V()rd. 1829. 

Shuey, George A.— 1833^ord. 1835-d. 1877 (?). 

Skelton, Silas D.— 1885— ord. 1887. 

Smith, Christian— 1809. 

Smith, Gideon -1823— ord. 1825. 

Smith, John— 1828— ord. 1830. 

Snapp, (leorge H.— 1864— ord. 1874— trans, to Parkers- 
burg Conf. 

Snell, Samuel H. 1880— ord. 1883— trans, to Md. Conf. 
1887. 

Snyder, David 1800*— d. near Newville, Penn.. 1819, 

aged 57. 

Snyder, John — 1809 — ord. 1817— lived in Penn. — 

d. 1845. 

Snvder, James— 1825— ord. 1828. 

Snyder, J. F.— 1890— ord. 1892. 

Spayth, Henry G.— 1812— ord. 1817— delegate from 
Va. to General Conference, 1815 — member thereof six other 
terms— d. at Tiflin, Ohio, Sept, 2, 1873. 

Spessard, David S. — 1835 — ord. 1837 — married Martha 
A. Cline at Newtown. 



i 



Spitler, Jacob C— 1842— ord. 1845— lived near Spring 
Hill— d. of cholera in St. Louis, 1855, on his way to Kas. 

Stanton, E. A.— 1900. 

Station, George W.— 1848— trans, to Des Moines Conf. 
1880. 

Station, Isaac K.— 1850— ord. 1858— trans, to Rock 
River Conf. 1862. 

Statton, John F.— 1853— trans, to Kans. Conf. 1855. 

Stearn, Charles T.— 1862— in Rock River Conf. 1863- 
65 — trans, to Penn. Conf. 1871. 

Stearn, J. W.— 1897. 

Steward, John G.— 1844— ord. 1847. 

Stickley, Benjamin— 1840— ord. 1843— tender-hearted, 
but a giant in strength— arrested in Hampshire, 1862 and 
coniined to Staunton— released on writ of habeas corpus- 
transferred to Iowa Conf. 1863. 

Stinespring, C. W^- 1876— ord. 1880— trans, to Penn. 

Conf. 1885. 

Stover, George W.— 1888— ord. 1896. 

Slrickler, Daniel— 1800*. 

Sutton, James — 1828. 

Swartz, Peter— 1811— ord. 1816. 

Tallhelm, Henry— 1854— ord. 1856— see Chap. XX. 

Thomas, Michael— 1800— d. 1834 (?)— lived in Md. 

Thomas, P. H.— 1865— ord. 1865— d. 1889, aged 72. 

Tobey, Jonathan— 1835— local— good preacher and 
ahead of his time — d. in the West. 

Traub, Christian— 1821— ord. 1823. 

Troyer, Daniel — 1 803 — converted under Otterbein's 
preaching at Antietam, Md.— moved to Ohio, 1806 — d. 1860, 
aged 94. 

Underwood, I. M.— 1874— from Parkersburg Conf.— 
trans, to Kas. Conf. 1893. 

Umstot, Zimri- 1874— ord. 1873— local preacher— d. 
1883, aged about 43. 

Walter, J. W.— 189^— ord. 1900. 

Walton, A. P.— 1898— ord. 1899. 



li(i 



LMTEI) BHETHHEN 



Warner, Zebedee— 1855— ord. 185()— b. in Pendleton 

Co. — see Cliap. XIX. 
• Weast, Conrad-"1819 ord, 1822— ruled, "no longer a 

preacher among us," 1837. 

Weidner, Henry— 1800*— in conferences of 1789, 1791. 
Weller, P. \V.— 1872— ord. 1875— trans. 1880— d. at 

Westfield, III., 1880. 

Wells, S. T.— 1876— from Des Moines Conf.— trans, to 

E. Penn. Conf. 1880. 

White, J. P.— 1855 — trans, to Parkersburg Conf. 1857, 

Whitesel, Peter— 1830— ord. 1832— d. 1837 (?). 

Whitesel, James E.— 1872— ord. 1875— d. at Church- 
ville, Va., 1878, aged 27. 

Widmeyer, J. E.— 1877— ord. 1880— d. 1883, aged 20. 

Wine, Sylvester K.— 1877— ord. 1881— trans, to Md. 
Conf. 1887 -trans, from Sandusky Conf. 1896. 

Winegerd, Jacob— 181 4— ord. 1819— d. 1862, aged 85. 

Winter. Thomas— 1801 — trans, to Miami Conf. 

Winters, David— 1829. 

Winton, H. H. 1850 — fine preacher -trans. 1862 — join- 
ed Lutheran Cd.— d. at Pittsburgh, Penn., 1897. 

Witter, Jacob — 1811 — buried at Mt. Hebron near 
Keedysville, Md. — daughter married Rev. J. M. Hensley. 

Witter, Emanuel — 1812 — ord. 1815 — son of above 

Jacol). 

Woodyard, Noah— 1829 -ord. 1831. 

Yerkey, William — 1856 — trans, to Parkersburg Conf. 
1857. 

Young, flenry — 1830 — lived in Penn. d. 1867. 

Zahn, John— 1825— ord. 1827— d. 1881. 

Zahn, Charles W.— 1837— ord. 1840— brother to John- 
withdrew irregularly, 1816. 

Zarman, J. — 1872 trans, from Minn. Conf. — d. 1885, 
aged about 72. 

Zehrung, Samuel— 1839— ord. 1842— d. 1849, aged 37— 
brother to Matthew. 

Zentmeyer, J. — 1818 — lived near Chambersburg, Penn. 



CHAPTER XIX 

BISHOPS, MISSIONARIES AND OTHERS 

Twelve bishops of the United Brethren Church have 
been members of this Conference. Biographical sketches 
of Otterbein, Boehm, and Newcomer appear in other 
chapters. Henry Kumler, William Brown, John Russell, 
and Jacob Erb did not live within the present domain of 
the Conference. Eive others were born in Virginia or lived 
here. These are (ilossbrenner, Mark wood, Hiestand, Hott, 
and Tout. 



Jacob John Glossbrenner was born of Lutheran parents 
at Hagerstown, Maryland, July 24, 1812. His father was 
killed by an accident when the boy was only seven years 
old, and the widow and the four children were left in very 
straitened circumstances. Jacob was apprenticed to a 
silversmith to learn his trade, but his conversion at the age 
of seventeen changed the current of his life. A year later 
he was licensed to exhort in the United Brethren Church. 
A year later yet,— when he was only nineteen, — he was an 
itinerant preacher. At this time he looked even more 
youthful than his years would indicate, and some people 
wondered what the conference meant by sending out boys 
to i)reach. But he felt no doubt as to his call, and his hear- 
ers at once found the boy could preach and preach well. 

Glossbrenner in 1831 was among the first, if not the 
very first, of the United Brethren ministers who gave their 
whole time to the calling, and without having any other 
means of support. It was still thought by the people that 
if they fed and lodged the preacher and took care of his 
horse, they were doing their full part. This enabled him to 
exist, but in any proper sense of the term it did not permit 
him to live. Glossbrenner was first put on the Hagerstown 
circuit and next on the Staunton. 



h 



148 



UNITED RRETHHEX 



CHURCH HISTORY 



14i> 



Tlic house of Christian Shiicy, seven miles from Chureh- 
ville, was his home while on the Staunton circuit. Sluiey 
was noble, wealthy, and generous, and had a room in liis 
house known as the preacher's room. When an itinerant 
had rested, he left his soiled clothes here, and on his re- 
turn they were ready to put on at,*ain. Mrs. Shuey was a 
granddaughter of George A. Geeting, one of the three lead- 
ing founders of the United Brethren Church. She took a 
great interest in its activities, especially the camp meetings. 
At this house the young preacher, when not yet twenty-one 
vears of age was married to Maria M., a daughter of the 
Shueys. The marriage was happy to each of the couple, 
and Mrs. Glossbrenner often accompanied her husband 
on his travels. A little earlier the young man had been 
much inclined to wed one of the Brocks, a sister to the wife 
of George E. Deneale. But after becoming acquainted with 
the Shueys he changed his mind. When visiting at the 
Brock home, some time afterward, he noticed that the ob- 
ject of his earlier attention had a white-handled penknife 
that he had given her. He asked her to return it, but she 
replied that wherever the knife went she went. Glossbren- 
ner was glad to say no more on the subject of knives. 

When Mr. (dossbrenner was but twentv-two vears old 
he was chosen presiding elder of the Staunton district. 
He was several times re-elected, and up to the time that he 
llrst became a bishoj), he had served but four other itiner- 
ances, — Shiloh mission, and Frederick, Bockbridge. and 
Staunton circuits. In 1845 he was a bishop and sucli he 
remained for forty years. In 1885 he became bishop 
emeritus, being continued in all his former relations to [hi 
superintendency, but relieved from presiding over confer- 
ence sessions. 

Bishop Glossbrenner was naturally conservative. When 
he entered the Virginia Conference, there were only four 
circuits, eight itinerants, and two or three houses of wor- 
ship. Yet through half a century he kept abreast with the 
progress of the Church. Ever\^ interest and every great 
enterprise which grew up in these fifty years found in him 



a friend, and though crowned with honor and years he died 
young in heart. He was a man of retiring modesty, but 
was a systematic and logical thinker and profound theolo- 
gian. As a preacher he was bold, fearless, tender-hearted, 
persuasive, earnest, and eloquent. Though he made con- 
version a direct aim in his preaching, he was not emiiuiit- 
ly a revivalist. Beformalion and not denunciation was 
uppermost in his sermons. As a i)residing otHcer he was 
able, dignified, discreet, and broad-minded. He was also 
a good parliamentarian. 

A vounger minister, in giving some reminiscences, re- 
marked that whenever he looked at Glossbrenner, he fe!t 
insi)ired to make a better man of himself. Bishop Hott 
said that Glossbrenner was unique, that no other man could 
be like him, and that no person since Otterbein had so 
s!nnii,^!y imoressed himself on the United Brethren Church. 

The bishop's fine farm on Middle Biver was the aift 
of his father-in-law. In 1855 he removed to a very com- 
fortable home at Churchville. In the opinion of the 
I)ublic he was worth several times the actual inventory of 
.^1 (),()()() and some insurance. During his first year as 
bisliop lie received only $3(^ and his traveling expenses. 
This stipend was increased to ip75() in 1865, and later to 
twice that amount. 

Bishop Glossbrenner died at his home at Churchville, 
January 7, 1887, at the age of seventy-four. He was of 
more than inedium hei<iht. He had black eyes, dark com- 
plexion, and regular features. His manner was winning and 
sincere. By adults he was familiary known as "Brother 
Gloss," and by children as '"Uncle Gloss." His voice was 
distinct, ringing, and melodious. His preaching was wholly 
in English. Even his parents understood but little Ger- 
man. The bishop had three daughters. His only son died 
in infancy. 

Jacob J. Glossbrenner built himself very largely into 
the history of the Virginia Conference, and more is said of 
him in other chapters of this book. 



I I i., |i J ii i.| | < i»WijjgHH >jMlluHII|n i| |MH I W 



150 



UiNlTEI) BHETHHHX 



CHURCH HISTORY 



151 



I 



Jacob Markvvood was born at Chariestown, West Vir- 
tiinia, December 25, 1818. His brotber was a Presbyterian. 
Wbeii thirteen years old, and an apprentice in a woolen 
factory, he was converted. He soon felt it his duty to 
l)reach, and at the age of eighteen was licensed to exhort. 
A few months later he was placed on Hagerstown circuit. 
His next Held was the Soutli Branch. In 1843 he was a 
presiding elder, and beginning with 1845 was a delegate 
to every General Conference. In 18()1 he was elected bishop 
and held this place eight years. As a preacher, Bishof) 
Markwood was fervent and elcxjuent. He was an indefatig- 
able worker, and one of the most remarkable men the 
United Brethren Church has produced. In personal ap- 
j)ea ranee he was dark, thin, and wiry, and he was too heed- 
less of his physical welfare. He died at Luray, Virginia 
in 1873. 

.James \V. Hott, a son of Jacob F. Hott, was born 
November 15, 1844, was converted at the age of thirteen, 
and three years later was licensed to preach. In 1802, 
whm but eigliteen years old, he entered the Virginia Con- 
ference, and was ordained in 18()5. During the eleven 
years that he was a member of the conference, his tields 
were Winchester, Martinsburg, Woodstock, Churchville, 
Boonsboro, and Hagerstown. He was very successful, sev- 
eral hundred conversions taking place under his ministry. 

In the General Conference of 1869 he was the youngest 
delegate, being twentv-four years of age. At the next Gen- 
< ral Conference, of which he was likewise a member, he 
was chosen treasurer of its Missionary Society. In 1877 
he became editor of the Religious Telescope, and held this 
very imi)ortant position twelve years. This period was a 
critical time in the history of the Church, yet he filled the 
plc:ce with great tact and acceptability. 

In 1881 Dr. Hott was chosen as a delegate to the Metho- 
dist Ecumenical Conference at London. He extended his 
visit to the f^astern Continent, and his "Journeyings in the 
Old World" is one of the best books of its kind ever writ- 



ten. In 1889 he was elected bishop and for twelve years 
he filled this place with credit to himself and the church. 
In 1894 he made an official visit to the mission fields in 
(iermanv and Africa. This seemed to fire his zeal in the 
cause of missions. 

Although Bishop Hott was a self-made man, his was a 
well-stored and cultured mind, and he was an eloquent 
speaker. The degree of doctor of divinity was conferred 
on hmi by two colleges, and that of doctor of laws by Lane 
University. 

Dr. Hott was recognized within and without his church 
as an able preacher, strong writer, an efficient presiding 
officer, and a safe counselor. His superior natural gifts 
^md his positive convictions, sharpened by lifelong study, 
made him a leader. He was at the front in every move- 
ment looking to the good of the Church and the salvation 
of men. His deej) and genuine interest in young |)eople 
made him a friend of the United Brethren schools and the 
Christian societies of the young folks. He possessed an un- 
usual personal charm. His conversational power, his 
urbanitv of manner, his warm affabilitv, and his genuine 
hospitality were attractive elements of his character. His 
ceaseless toil was remarkable, and undoubtedly contributed 
to cut him off at what seemed a premature age. 

Bishop Hott died January 9, 1902 at the age of fifty- 
seven years. His first wife was Martha A. Ramey of Fred- 
erick County, Virginia. Their children were four. He was 
married a second time to Marie Shank of Ohio. 



* 



Henry H. Font was born at Maysville, West Virginia, 
October 18, 1860, being a son of Henry and Susan (Powell) 
F'out. He was educated at Shenandoah Institute and 
Union Theological Seminary. He was licensed in 1885, 
and in this conference served Frederick (Md.), Keedysvillr, 
Fldinburg, and W^illiamsport. He then joined the Miami 
Conference, in which he was a presiding elder. During 
e next twelve vears he was editor of the Sundav school 



« 



1 "•> 



rXITEI) BHETHHEX 



pnpcrs of tlie Church, and in 1913 he became a bishop with 
his residence at Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Julius K. P\)ut, a son of Henry Fout, was born at Mays- 
ville. West Virginia, in 1870, and was graduated from Shen- 
andoah Seminary in 1893, in which year he was ordained. 
His only field in the Virginia Conference territory was 
Franklin circuit. In the first seven years of his ministry, 
he received 287 members. After rising to high position in 
tht^ activities of the Church, Dr. Font became General 
Manaiier of l^onebrake Theological Seminarv, Davton, Ohio. 



Sanuiel Hiestand, ninth bishop of the United Hretfiren 
Church, was born in Page county, Virginia, March 3, 1781. 
His {>a rents were Moravians. About 1804 he went to Ohio, 
and through the influence of George Henedum was roused 
from a backslidden state, becoming associated with him 
as an evangelist. In 1810 he helped to organize the Miami 
Conierence, the first daughter conference of the Church. 
He was a faithful itinerant and became bisho]) in 1833. 
Bishojj Hiestand was a man of estimable social qualities. 
As an English scholar he was indifl'erent, but he was well 
read in the German. He died in Fairfield county, Ohio, 
in 1838. 



Zebetlee Warner was born in the west of Pendleton 
comity. West Virginia, February 28, 1833, and died in 
Nebraska, January 24, 1888. He joined the United Breth- 
ren Church in 1850. Feeling the need of a better education 
than he could secure in his native county, he went the fol- 
lowing vear to the Northwestern Academv at Clarksburg, 
W. Va. He arrived there without any money, yet he re- 
mained one vear, earning his board and tuition bv manual 
labor. A student he remained all his life. In 1853 he was 
licensed as a preacher, and three years later was sent to 
the extreme west of Virginia. In 1858 he helped to 
organize the Parkersburg Conference, this being done in 
Tavior countv, and from the verv first he was a lead t 



CHIHCH HISTOHY 



153 



m it. In the new conference his first charge was Taylor 
circuit, which took in parts of five counties. His salary 
was $100, and out of this he had to pay rent on a little log 
cabin in the outskirts of Philippi. At times the family 
faced want. P'rom 1802 to 1809 he was a presiding elder. 
Whether as pastor or elder, Mr. Warner had very unusual 
courage and endurance and neglected no duty. He made 
a specialty of "catching and training" young men. For 
this purpose he established a theological institute for the 
benefit of young candidates for the ministry who were 
without a sufficient education, and he taught this school 
without compensation. His pastorate at Parkersburg, — 
1869 to 1880, — was when it closed the longest known in 
the history of the Church. He was Missionary Secretary, 
1880-87. In 1878 Mr. Warner was made a Doctor of Divin- 
ity by Otterbein University. He was one of the greatest 
j)ul|»it orators in the Church, a great advocate of temper- 
ance, and he helped to change the attitude of his Church 
on [hv ([uestion of secret orders. 



m 



Aljiier Corbin was born in Hampshire county in 1823, 
but went to Iowa in 1844, where he was soon licensed. 
About 1818 he was made a frontier missionary. In this 
capacity his labors were of the most strenuous character. 
There were times when he could cross a river only by 
fastening several logs together and making his horse swim. 
He died in 1802. 

John W. Fulkerson was born in Frederick county, Vir- 
ginia, in 1822, and was still living in 1900. He was a mem- 
b( r of the N'irginia Conference from 1839 to 1852. In 
1850 he went to Minnesota as a missionary, and held his 
first meeting as such on the site of Eyota. The people on 
that frontier were living in log cabins, board shacks, and 
sod liouses. What little money they brought with them 
had been spent in the long winter that followed. Living 
\vas very high and potatoes could not be had at any price. 



.K 



ff' 



_JWM ' 



.y. » i ni| ii| ,i i | l |B. i iij 



154 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



Snow covered the j^round to a depth of five feet. Mr. Fiilk- 
erson was a student of human nature and learned to adapt 
himself to his environments. When he began his minis- 
trv, his mother had given him this advice: '*John, vour rest 
must be in labor. Greet all with a smile. Make your back 
fit anvbodv's bed. Hv vour social life attract the people, 
and by your religious life save them." The first session of 
the Minnesota Conference was held in 1857, himself, J. 
Haney, and two others comprising the preachers. The 
membershij) was 247. The first year he had .^188.2() from 
the General Board. 

********* 

John C. McNamar, born in Virginia in 1779, was the 
first Knglish-sj)eaking i)reacher of the United Hrethren. He 
joined the Miami Conference in 1813, and distinguished 
himself in the home missionary field. Within six more 
years eight more Knglish-speaking ministers had leaned 
that conference. 

********* 

A. S. Sellers was born in Rockingham county in 1808. 
He was converted at a camp meeting in Harrison county, 
Indiana, in 1830 and on that ver>' spot preached his first 
sermon. In 1836 he joined Wabash Conference. Three 
years later he moved into Iowa, and in that state lit ''per- 
haps endured more hardships and made greater sacrifices 
to build up the Church" than any other missionary. When 
a presiding elder in 1850, he traveled 900 miles to make 
one round on his circuit, encountering frequent peril from 
storm and flood. Up to 1857 he had received only is521).37. 

********* 

Walton C. Smith was born near Winchester in 1822 and 
died at Westfield, Illinois in 1905. He went West in 1834 
and joined the Wabash Conference in 1848. He was a 
member of eight General Conferences, and is known as 
the "Father of Westfield College." 



CHAPTER XX 
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF MINISTERS 

Some of these sketches are compiled from letters writ- 
ten about 1900. There has been no opportunity to bring 
them all up to date. 

AMBROSE: William Ambrose was born in Maryland 
in 1770, but lived on Sleepy Creek, W. Va., from about 
1789 until 1815, when he removed to Highland county, 0., 
where he died in 1850. He was licensed in 1792 ard ordain- 
ed in 1808. In 1812 he was with Bishop Newcomer during 
an extended tour in Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and 
Kentucky. After going to Ohio he became a member of 
the Scioto Conference. A revival in his neighborhood in 
1820 resulted in a strong church organization. The wife 
of Mr. Ambrose was a daughter of Christian Crum. Two 
of his sons became members of the Ilhnois Conference. 

BAUGHER: Solomon L. Baugher was born at Swift 
Run, Va., licensed in 1895, ordained in 1898, and has been 
in the itineracy 24 years, serving Fulton, Conshohocken, 
(Pa.), Portland, (Ind.), Big Pool, Pleasant Valley, Edin- 
burg. While at Conshohocken, 234 were received into 
church membership, and 455 were enrolled in the Sunday 
School. 

BEALE: Joseph R. Beale, son of Dr. George F. and 
Mary (Dickenson) Beale, was born near Pamplin's Depot, 
Va., Oct. 13, 1869, and was educated at Lafayette College 
and Union Theological Seminary (New York City). He 
was licensed in 1897 and ordained in 1900. Mr. Beale was 
12 years a Presbyterian minister in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, New^ Jersey, and Nebraska. He joined the United 
Brethren Church in 1916, and was two years on the West 
Frederick charge. He had taught several years before join- 
ing the teaching stall' of the Shenandoah Collegiate Insti- 
tute in December, 1917. 



15G 



UNITED BHF:TfIREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



157 



BERRY: William R. Berry, second son of Archibald 
and Elizabeth Berry, was born near Mount Clinton Rock- 
ingham county, Virginia, and died at Dayton, July M) l.)(K). 
In 1870 he was converted at a camp meetmg held near 
Singer's (Hen. He was licensed in 1S71 and ordamed m 
1881 In 1878 he finished a two years' course of study m 
the Institute at Davton. Mr. Berry was in the mmistry 
twentv-eight years, serying Pleasant Valley, New Creek, 
South' Branch, Mechanicstown, Hagerstown circuit, Berke- 
ley Sprinas, Lacey Springs, Singers Glen, Dayton, and 
Frederick circuit. Ill health compelled him to locate, hi:t 
he liyed only a few weeks in a home of his own. Mr. Berry 
was a faithful minister, and few members of the Virgini-^ 
Conference were more highly esteemed. In 1882 he was 
married to Miss Margaret Taylor of Hampshire County. 

BOVEV: Henry A. Boycy was born near Leitersburg, 
Maryland, in 1831, \uui was converted on his twenty-second 
birthday. He was licensed in 1859, and in 18()1 was assigned 
to Hiiih'kmd circuit. In 1870-73 he was presiding elder of 
Hai:erst()wn district. In 1877 he removed to Westerville, 
Ohio, where three sons and three daughters graduated 
from Otterbein University. Mr. Bovey was a son of Adam 
I. Bovey, an active local preacher who preached in both 
Germaii and English. Jacob A. Bovey was another son. 
Still another was Daniel R., who did not enter the ministry 
until about 50 years of age. 

BRANE: Commodore I. B. Brane was born in Fred- 
erick, Maryland, Christmas Day, 1818. His father was poor 
and he had to help support himself. During the war he 
worked in the Bureau of Printing and Engraving at 
Washington. He was converted in 1870, licensed 1872, and 
ordained 1870. His fields in this conference territory were 
Potomac mission. New Germany, Berkeley Springs, and 
Dayton. He was presiding elder of the Shenandoah dis- 
trict, 1885, and in 1801 delegate to the Methodist Ecumeni- 
cal Conference. Mr. Brane has held other important posi- 
tions in the Church, and for a number of years was the 
Washington correspondent of the "Religious Telescope." 



Witliin 30 years of ministerial work he received about 
1000 members into the church. Dr. Brane died April 7th, 
1020, at Dayton, Ohio, where he was serving as associate 
editor of the "Telescope." 

BRASHEAR: Theodore F. Brashear, born about 1820, 
learneti the trade of shoemaker. He was a member of the 
VirL^inia Conference from 1848 until 1861, when he was 
sent to Elkhorn circuit in the Rock River Conference. His 
first work in the Virginia Conference was as a junior on the 
Hagerstown circuit. He was scrupulously honest, thor- 
oughly conscientious, and deeply sincere. His retentive 
nuiiiorv enabled him to improve rapidly, both in preach- 
ing and in general knowledge. He served some of the best 
charges in Iowa, and was many years a presiding elder. 
Mr. Brashear was an able preacher, but from his unsuspect- 
ing nature he could not see the point of a joke soon enougii 
to (lodge it, and in consequence was often victimized. It 
is said of him that while attending a quarterly meeting and 
staying Saturday night at the home of the steward of the 
church, he felt the need of having something more under 
his head. So he made a search in the darkness and used 
something he found hanging on the wall. After break- 
fast the two men started to church, taking a part of the 
elements with them and leaving the rest for the housewife 
to bring later. She failed to come because she could not 
find the dress she wished to wear, and believed some rival 
had stolen it. When it was too late to go to meeting she 
attended to the house work, and found the dress under 
the preacher's pillow. After leaving Virginia Mr. Brashear 
lived mainly at Vinton, Benton county, but .died in 
Nebraska, whither he had removed. 

I^RIDGERS: Lucius Cary Bridgers was born in 
Northamton county, N. C, and was educated at the Shen- 
ando:ih Collegiate Institute. He was converted in 1897 and 
licensed in 1018. He has been serving Ridgley five years. 

P>R1LL: James William Brill was born near Capon 
Sj) rings, W. Va., Dec. 13, 1859, and is a son of John A. and 



158 



UNlTP:n BRETHREN 



» 



CHURCH HISTORY 



159 



Eliza l^rill. Hv was licensed in 189 4, ordained in 11H)1, 
and has been an itinerant 25 years. He has served [.ost 
River, Pendleton, East Rockingham, Prince William, and 
Bayard. 

RRUNK: Jacob Hrunk, a Mennonite and the ancest(jr 
of the Rrunk family, came in 1795, from Maryland and set- 
tled near Pennington's store in Frederick county. Bishoj) 
Newcomer made his home a stopping place. George 
Brunk, a grandson, lived on Brunk's hill on the road from 
Brock's Gap to Broadway. 

BRINK: John Henrv Brunk, son of Hugh A. and Nancv 
(Heatwole) Brunk, was born in a log house seven miles 
west of Harrisonburg, Va., April 3, 1861. His education 
was gained in the state normal schools. He was converted 
in 1879, licensed the same year, ordained in 1900, and lias 
been an itinerant 22 years. His charges have been New 
Creek, Elkton, Singers Glen, Keyser, Harrisonburg, and 
Berkeley Springs. Mr. Brunk is a trustee of Lebanon \'a!- 
ley College, which gave him the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity in 1917, and was a member of the General Con- 
ferences of 1913, 1917, and 1921. He built churches at 
Antioch, Swift Run, Mount Hebron, and Singer's Glen, and 
a parsonage at Berkeley Springs. He began life as a car- 
penter, and taught 17 years in the i)ublic schools. L'ntil 
the age of eighteen he was a Mennonite. 

BURGESS: George Burgess was born at Laurel Dale, 
Mineral county, \V. Va., October 17, 1861, being a son of 
Edwin and Ellen Burgess. He was educated in the free 
schools, and in 1879 was converted under the preaching of 
Jacob Roderick. He was licensed at Lacey Springs and 
ordained at Keyser. His charges have been Mooretleld, 
South Branch, New Creek, and Elk Garden. Mr. Burgess 
spent two years as an evangelist. 

BIRTNER: Henry Burtner was born in 1800 in Cum- 
berland county, Pennsylvania, and came to Dayton in 1843, 
settling on a fine farm close to the southwest border of the 
town. He entered conference in 1820, but as his educatlo:i 



was wholly in German, he at length retired from active 
work in the ministry. Mr. Burtner was a prosperous 
farmer and a man of much business abilitv. He was a 
man of more than medium size, and had a fine countenance 
and a very penetrating eye. In his home he was pleasant 
and very hospitable. His preaching was of depth and 
power. He died at Dayton in 1857. 

BURTNER: William H. Burtner was a son of the Rev. 
Hem^y Burtner, and came to Dayton, Virginia with his 
father. He was converted early in life and gave the church 
of his choice a loyal support. He was progressive and ever 
ready to aid any worthy enterprise. Mr. Burtner was never 
an itinerant, yet did much preaching, especially in revivals. 
During a number of years he was an active trustee of Shen- 
andoah Institute. His home was a Christian home. At 
the time of his death, at his home near Mount Clinton in 
Rockingham, May 25, 1894, nine of his twelve children 
were living and were members of the church. Three of 
them were in the active ministry. These were L. (). Burt- 
ner, superintendent of our church on the west coast of 
Africa, N. \V. Burtner, pastor at Muscatine, Iowa, and O. 
\V. Burtner of the Virginia Conference. 

BURTNER: Luther O. Burtner, a son of William H. 
Burtner was born at Dayton, Va., December 9, 1858. He 
was a student at Union Biblical Seminary, 1885-87, joined 
conference, 1882, and was ordained 1889. He preached at 
Keedysville and Erederick before going to Africa as a mis- 
sionary, where he spent over six 3Tars. After his return 
he was presiding elder of Maryland Conference. 

BURTNER: Otto W. Burtner was born at Mount Clin- 
ton, Virginia, in 1873. He was licensed in 1893, and during 
the next six years served five charges, receiving 157 mem- 
bers into the church. 

BYRD: Rudolph Byrd was born near Ottobine, Rock- 
ingham county, in 1859, and was licensed in 1884. During 
the next 16 years he was on the Front Royal, Dayton, Edin- 
burg, Toms Brook, Berkeley Springs, Myers ville, and 



If.O 



I'NITED RHETHREN 



HaL'erstown ciuirges. In this time he built one ehurch and 
one parsonai^e, and received o75 into the churcii. 

CHILDRKSS: W. Loniax Childress, born in Roanoke 
county, Viruinia, in 1867, was converted while studying 
law in the citv of Roanoke. He first joined the Methodist 
Protestant Church and served three chari^es therein, be« 
sides being conference evangelist. In 1894 he joined the 
Virginia Conference, and served Dayton circuit, Lacey 
Spring, Berkeley Springs, and Rohrersville. In 1895 he was 
married to a daughter of William Rurtner and has several 
children. Mr. Childress has a poetic gift anci is the author 
(>f several volumes of verse. 

CLARY: William H. Clary was born in Frederick 
county, Maryland, July 22, 1834, and died at Deer Park m 
the same state, October 29, 1913. He was converted m 
1865, and was licensed by the Virginia Conierence in 18/0. 
After serving in a local capacity he was sent to the Deer 
Park charge in 1879. His subsequent circuits were West- 
ernport, Jones Springs, Toms Brook, and Elk Garden. Dr- 
spite limited educational advantages, Mr. Clary was a good 
preacher and very successful evangelist. He always saw 
the bright side of^ life, had an active mind, and possessed 
n determined will to succeed. His was the happy faculty 
of adapting himself to circumstances and making friends 
wherever lie went. He was married in 1863 to Eliza M. 
Wheat of Morgan county. West Virginia, and had ten chil- 
dren. In 15 years he built two churches and received (>2() 
members. 

CLIFFORD: Theodore K. Clifford was a free-i)()r!i 
negro who ran awav from home at the age of fifteen, and 
soon afterward enlisted in the regular army of the United 
States After the close of the war between North and 
South, he returned to Hardy county. West Virginia, and 
l)reached eleven years in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
But having lived among United Brethren people, and, 
realizing the pressing claims of the United Brethren CliLrch 
upon his race, he joined the Virginia Conference in 1887. 



CHURCH HISTOin 



IGl 



and served its freedmen's mission until the day of his 
(kath. He was a man above the average of his race, and 
so deported himself as to win the respect and esteem of 
the best people of both colors. His upright life was never 
cpiestioned, and he manifested his appreciation of genuine 
kindness in every i)roper way. He was a good preacher 
and singer. He always attended the sessions of the confer- 
ence, but never took part in its discussions unless called 
upon. His people were poor and backward, and his work 
required long drives to sparsely settled localities. Mr. 
Clitlord died in Harrisonburg, March 16, 1908, at the age 
of sixty-three, having been pastor of the mission twenty- 
five years. He had eight children and one of his sons took 
up his work. 

COLLIS: Joseph Romain Collis, son of John M. and 
Lucy M. Collis, was born in Berkeley county, W. Va., 
August 1, 1887. He was educated at the Shenandoah Col- 
legFate Institute, converted in 1903, and licensed in 1912. 
He has preached six years at Reliance and Singer's (den. 

COURSEY: \Villiam R. Coursey was born in Rocking- 
ham county and joined the Virginia Conference in 1833. 
He preached in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and 
Illinois. He died in Maryland while revisiting the East, 
July 2, 1881. As circuit preacher and presiding elder he 
wrought great good in the bounds of this conference. In 
1841 and again in 1849 he was a member of the General 
Conference! As a i)reacher, Mr. Coursey was eminently 
clear, logical, and convincing, kind, gentle, and enticing. 
His musical voice, and his countenance, such as one loved 
to look upon, gave a charm to his pulpit ministrations. 

CRABILL: Samuel A. Crabill, a son of Samuel and 
Mary Crabill, was born in Rockingham county, in 18()2, 
and was licensed in 1888. His early pastorates were Pen- 
dleton, Toms Brook, and Inwood. 

CROWELL: Charles Henry Crowell, son of John and 
Hester J. Crowell, was born in Clearfield county. Pa., 
May 14, 1850. He was educated in an academy at Church- 



162 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



ville, Va., was converted in 18()8, licensed in 1<S74, and 
ordained in 1(S82. He has been an itinerant U) years, serv- 
ing Rockbridge, Page Valley, Augusta, Myersville, Boons- 
boro, FLdinburg, Frederick, Harrisonburg and Dayton, 
Roanoke, Berkeley Springs, Lacey Springs, and Great 
Gacapon. Mr. Crowell was four years Presiding Elder of 
Winchester District. 

CI PP: N. F. A. Cupp, son of Daniel and Rebecca Cupp, 
Avas born near Mount Sidney, Va., September 22, 18()2, 
was a Lutheran until the age of fourteen, when he joined 
the United Brethren. He was licensed in 1885, ordained 
in 1887, and has been an itinerant 33 years, serving Singer's 
Glen, South Branch, Winchester, Frederick, Berkeley 
Springs, Edinburg, Lacey Springs, Elkton, Shenandoah 
City, Petersburg and Greensburg. 

DAWSON: S. D. Dawson was born near Keyser, West 
Virginia, in 1861, and was licensed in 18()2. His relation 
to the conference prior to 1900 was local. 

DAY: xVlbert Day was born and converted in Pendle- 
ton county. West Virginia. He was licensed in 1883 and 
traveled the North Fork mission for $50 a year, but con- 
sidered the exi)erience worth many times the money. Three 
years later he did very successful work on the Alleghany 
circuit, receiving four times his first salary. In 1892 he 
joined the Huntington Presbytery, passing a most rigid 
examination, and was pastor at Mannington, West Vir- 
ginia, and Marietta, Ohio. By 1900 he had been in synod 
and General Assembly, acting as moderator in some of the 
sessions of the latter. Mr. Day had four children. 

DONOVAN: John D. Donovan was born of religious 
parents in Rockingham county, Virginia, May 10, 1855. 
His call to the ministry was clear, and he entered it in 1877, 
being ordained in 1881. His pastorates were Bloomery, 
Dayton circuit, Boonsboro, Martinsburg, Berkeley Springs, 
Lacey Springs, Singers Glen, and Staunton mission. Also, 
he was seven years presiding elder of the Winchester dis- 
trict, and was twice in General Conference. Mr. Donovan 



CHURCH HISTORY 



163 



easily made friends, and among the railroad men he was a 
great favorite. He was an interesting preacher and untiring 
pastor, and a most successful evangelist. During the last 
months of his life, true to his wish to help others, he cared 
for an aged blind man in whose home he lived in Martins- 
burg, West Virginia, and where he died April 22, 1905. His 
wife was Miss Lillian V. Croft, of Staunton. He had an 
only son. 

EVERS: Abram M. Evers was born near Port Republic, 
Virginia, in 1837, and was converted in 1855. His circuits 
to 1900 were South Branch, Rockbridge, Keezletown, 
Boonsboro, Myersville, Hagerstown, Frederick, Martins- 
burg, and Churchville. After 1887 he was a member of 
the Maryland Conference. In this i)eriod he was seven 
years presiding elder, three times a delegate to the General 
Conference, and built four churches. A daughter married 
the Rev. D. E. Burtner of the Congregationalist Church. 

EWING: William O. Ewing was born July 13, 18()0, 
and died at Churchville, October 15, 1898. He joined the 
church when fourteen years old and the conference when 
twenty-three. His pastorates were Winchester, Vancleaves- 
ville. Singers Glen, Cross Keys, Dayton, and Churchville. 

FADELEY: Green B. Fadeley, son of Abraham Fade- 
ley, was born at Columbia Furnace, Shenandoah county, 
Virginia, March 3, 1859. He was converted at an early 
age and entered the Virginia Conference in 1886, his early 
pastorates being Bloomery, Elkton, Shenandoah, and Lacey 
Spring. In these fifteen years he built four churches, com- 
pleted two parsonages, and received 549 members into the 
church. He was married to Charlotte Shipp in 1878 and 
liad seven children. Mr. Fadeley has made a record as a 
good preacher, an industrious worker, a man loyal to his 
friends, who hold him in high esteem. 

FEASTER: Thomas J. Feaster was born near Mays- 
ville. West Virginia, November 23, 1864, and died in the 
parsonage at Pleasant Valley, Virginia, August 20, 1906. 
His i)arents were rehgious and he was converted at the age 



104 



UNITED RHETHHEN 



CHURCH HISTOKV 



105 



of sixteen. Three years later he was licensed to preach 
and a year later yet he bei^an teaching in the pubhc schools 
of Grant county. In 1898 he entered the Virginia Confer- 
( nee and was ordained in 1901. His circuits were Pendle- 
ton, West Frederick, Toms Brook, and Pleasant Valley. 
He was one of the most i)romising young men of the con- 
ference; a forcible preacher, an earnest Christian worker, 
and successful evangelist. In 1889 he was married to Miss 
Alverda Hott. Their children were four. 

FORD: John Henry F^)rd was born in Ireland in 18B9, 
and was educated at Dundee, Scotland. He was converted 
in 1888, licensed in 1903, and ordained in 1912. During 
eleven years he has served Edinburg, Churchville, Martins- 
bura, and Roanoke. Before joining the Virginia Confer- 
ence, Mr. Ford served two charges in Kansas. 

FRHKD: A. 1). Freed, son of the Rev. J. D. Freed, also 
(^f the Virginia Conference, was born October 15, 1850. and 
died in October, 1877. He was converted in 1867, and 
felt a call to i)reach, yet his ditlidence and a sense of being 
unworthy led him for a long while to keep back his con- 
victions from others. After two terms in Lebanon Valley, 
where he made commendable progress and occasionally 
preached, he was taken into conference, but the feebleness 
of his health compelled him to resign his work. 

FRIFS: William O. Fries was born near Winchester, 
Virginia, in 18H0, and was graduated with second honors 
froin Lebanon Valley College in 1882. Two years later 
he completed a full course at Union Biblical Seminary. He 
was given an exhorter's license in 1878, and joined confer- 
ence in 1881. After preaching at Hagerstown and Fred- 
erick, he was three years pastor at Buckhannon, West Vir- 
ginia, and ])rincipal of the academy at that place, becom- 
ing then a member of the Sandusky Conference. To the 
close of 1899 he had received about 600 members into the 
church. His wife was a daughter of the Rev. J. K. Nelson. 
F^our years he was a trustee of the publishing house at 



Dayi.m. Ohio. In recent years Dr. Fries lias been editor 
of 'the Sunday Scliool Hterature of the ehurch. 

GLOVIER: David Frankhn Glovier, son of Le5<rand and 
Luvernic E. (Frank) Glovier, Nvas born near Cherry Grove. 
Va October 19. 188!). was educated at the Harrisonburo 
Stale. Normal School, converted in 1902, and licensed n, 
191G. He has served the Aui-usta charije three years. 

GRIMM: .John W. Grinun was Ix.rn at Rohrersville. 
Maryland, in 18:59, licensed in 18(11. and his tirst work was 
as i;nn,or on Frederick circuit in 18ti2. H.s later heids 
were Churchville, South Branch. Fdinburj., I.accy Spruig. 
After 187.> his liehi were norlh of the Potomac. 

GRIMM: Jacob L. Crinun was born near RohrersvilKv 

\1-.rvl,Pd in 18r> He was of a family of six hoys and six 

J .?. r^n-;: of the former and their father were members 

tf the Virginia Conference. Jacob L. was licensed m the 

s toric lKU.se of Peter Kemp in IHtUi. an<i made li.s three 

rs course of readin, in two years. H.s onb^ pastora e 

n this territorv was Rocki.ij.ham ci.cu.t. 18b9-. . In KSo- 

\vas chose.;edit<.r of "The Weekly Iti.u ran and ma - 

ajrer of the EasKni Fnited H.-elh.vn Book and 1 ubhs!i,n.4 

House. 

GRE(i()RY: David Thomas Gre^o.-y. «"" '[^ Joseph i. 
..nd Sarah E (Fulk) Greiio.-y, was bor.i m Berkelev 

nty W n'i :. July ui IH^'."- He was educated at She.ia.i- 
d". Collegiate l.istitute a.id Bonebrake riieo lo,.cal Se.ii.- 

y, was co.iverte,l in a rev.val at Pleasa.it Plams Lmted 
Bre hre.i Chu.xli i.i Berkeley cou.ity, a.id was I'cense ial 
the annual conference of 1915. He was ordanied J . 
and has been four years an itine.-ant, serv.ng West 1 .c - 
c.rick, Jo.ies Sp.-i.i,^, a,ul Bethany, the last c.rcmt ben « .n 
Leba.ion county. Pa. The parents and S;""^!';'^"^^ °' ^' " 
Grei.ory were amonj- the most loyal ol Lmted Brethttn. 
their ho.nes being stopping places for Bishops Glossb.-e.uier 
and Hott, as well as others. 



!()() 



I'MTEI) BHETHHEN 



GROVK: Herman Jonas Grove was born at Mapleton 
l)ei)()t. Pa., Mareh 17, 1899, and is a son of John H. and 
Rlioda (Gerliart) Grove. He was eonverled in 1915. New 
Creek is his one circuit thus far. 

GRUVP:R: WilHani FrankHn Gruver, son of Jacob 1. 
and Anna M. Gruver, was born in Frankhn county, Penn., 
in 1865. He was converted in 1876, licensed in 1887, 
ordained in 1889, traveled Singer's Gk^i chari^e two years, 
Lacey Spring one year, Elkton one year, Edinburg three 
years, Dayton Circuit three years, Martinsburg Station 
eigliteen and a half vears. Assigned to Harrisonburg on 
September 19, 1921. Served as presiding elder three years 
and as Conference Superintendent three years, the two 
terms from March 19(Ki to March 1909. He was appointed 
Conference Superintendent again by Bishop Hell in Novem- 
ber, 1921. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was given him 
by Lebanon Valley College in June 1910. He married Miss 
Nellie M. Ruby December 24, 1889, and has three children, 
.Joseph, Pauline and Paul. • 

HAMMACK: Abraham Station Hammack was born 
near Stribling Springs, Va., his parents being Rev. C. B. 
and Mary E. Hammack. He was converted at the age of 
twelve, and finished his education at Union Biblical Semi- 
nary. He was licensed in 1887, ordained in 1890, and be- 
came an itinerant 'M) years ago. His charges were New 
Creek, South Branch, Augusta, Churchville, and Harrison- 
burg. He was then Presiding Elder four years, and for 
nearly thirteen years has been Conference Superintendent. 
Mr. Hammack was married in 1890 to Josie G. Huffman and 
has had six children. 

HARM AN: George Harman was a native of Pendleton 
coimty. West Virginia, where he was born July 11, 1828. 
His parents, Joshua and Elizabeth Harman, died while ho 
was still a youth, leaving him with little more than a good 
constitution and native talent. By dint of energy, efliciency, 
and hard work, he became wealthy and influential. In 1860 
he removed to what is now Grant county and purchased 
a pleasant home near the county seat. Soon after this 



CHURCH HISTORY 



167 



change of residence he was given ([uarterly conference 
license, and in 1869 joined the annual conference, being 
ordained in 1876. Although he did not enter the active 
itinerancy, he served to the end as a local minister, and 
in this field was very acceptable. He always commanded 
the attention of his hearers, and was often called upon to 
preach at funerals. In the political field he rose to local 
eminence and served in both houses of the legislature. At 
the time of his death he was serving as a member of the 
county court. He was a man of strong convictions and he 
had the courage to stand up for them. Mr. Harman was 
twice married, both wdves being daughters of Jacob Smitii 
of Pendleton county. He had five daughters and two sons. 

HANEY: John Haney was born in York county, 
Pennsylvania, April 10, 1807, and at an early age was con- 
firmed in the Reformed Church. In 1828 he was converted 
and joined the United Brethren Church, and the following 
year was licensed to preach. In 1833 he became presiding 
elder of the Virginia district. 

HARP: Joshua Harp was born in Frederick county. 
Maryland, in 1825, was licensed in 1860, and ordained in 
1864. He was a farmer of Washington county, Maryland, 
and his relation to the conference was local. 

HENSLEY: James L. Hensley was born at Harrison- 
burg, Virginia, January 24, 1833, and began preaching^at 
the age of twenty-three. He entered conference m 18o9, 
and at the solicitation of Bishop Glossbrenner at once trans- 
ferred himself to the Parkersburg Conference, in which he 
remained twenty-seven years, served with ability nine fields 
of labor. In 1885 he joined the Central Ohio Conference, 
and in 1900 was living at Marion in that state, holding 
a superannuate relation. During his ministry he built six 
churches, married 304 couples, conducted nearly 1000 
funerals, and received more than 1000 members into the 
church. In his youth his educational opportunities were 
limited Yet by studious habits he became a cultured man, 
and completed a medical course in 1867. He at length 



168 



IMTEI) BHETIIHEN 



beoaiiK^ a |)hvsician and as such was a incinlKT of several 
nudical societies. Dr. Hensley served in the lei^islatiires 
of b(jth West Virivinia and Ohio, and was a leader in secur- 
ini4 (lie sidjniission in the former state of a prohibitory 
iimt ndnient to tlie state constitution. His first wife was 
Ehza .1. Stonebauoh of Augusta county, by whom he had 
live chikhvn. 

HICKS: James W. Hicks was born in Frederick county, 
Virginia, January 20, bSf),"). He joined the Methodist Church 
in l<S(i!) and the United l^rethren in 1(S7(), at which time he 
was L'iven (juarterly conference license. In ISSO he was 
^ra(!uated from I'nion Biblical Seminary, and was ordained 
the next year. After servinu Westernport, Edinbursi, 
Churchville, and Myersville, he joined the Sandusky Con- 
ference in 1888. In 1893 he was a deleijate to the General 
Conference. He married Linnie C. Nelson at Martinshurg, 
West Virt>inia, and five children were born to them. 

HISKR: Carl William Hiser. son of William F. and 
Ida H. (Mouse) Hiser, was born near Petersburij;, W. Va., 
April 17. IIHH). and has studied at the Shenandoah Col- 
leifiate Institute and Lebanon Valley Collei-ie. He was con- 
vert d in 1<)12 and licensed in 1915. Mr. Hiser preached 
his first sermon in Staunton when only sixteen years old, 
and has done itinerant work three years. He was class 
valedictorian at Shenandoah Collegiate Institute in 1919. 
Graduated at L. V. C. 1922. 

}H)()VFR: A. Hoover was born March 10, 1839, and 
<]ki] at Roanoke. Virginia, February 10, 1901. He hecame 
an itinerant in 1870, and was ordained the year following. 
His circuits were Hagerstown, Rockbridge, Straight Creek, 
Pai.H' Valley, South Branch, and Lacey Spring. Ill health 
comi)elled him to quit the active ministry, but he h()i)ed to 
be able to enter it again. Mr. Hoover lived a life of Chris- 
tian consistency. He left nine children. 

HOTT: Jacob F. Hott lived eight miles north of Win- 
cliester, and the door of his comfortable home was eve r 
open to the ministers and laymen of his church. He was 



CHURCH HISTORY 



169 



a self-made man of excellent qualities and sterhng charac- 
ter For a number of vears he was a local preacher, but is 
beUer remembered as the father of several emment mem- 
bers of the Virginia Conference. Jane, the wife, was a . 
woman of deep piety and earnest devotion. Mr. Hott was 
converted at the age of fourteen, and joined the church at 
the same time with Jacob Markwood, whose name was 
often on his lips. He was soon licensed to preach, and m 
1857 he joined the Virginia Conference, sustaniing honor- 
ably a local relation the remair.der or his life. Though not 
an Uinerant, he traveled a wide Held, preaching m barns, 
ndlls, .roves, and private houses. Mr. H^tt was a n.an 
of social attractiveness and sparkling wit. His comtortab e 
]K>me was a hospitable one. He was deservedly popular as 
a preacher. He never left the commanding heights ot 
writt^Mi revelation for the low grounds of unmspired 
tbou^ht, and evcTy pulpit etVort was earnest work tor Go(k 
He was not a man of strong physique, and at the time ot 
his death, August 'M. 1881, he had not cpiite completed his 
sixty-fourth year. 

HOTT: John H. Hott, a son of Peter and Tamson 
(Scott) Hott, was born in Frederick county, \ irgima, in 
18?>r> but about ten years later his parents moved to what 
1; ;^ Grant county. West Virginia. In 180 he was con- 
verted and took up Christian work. Before bemg licensed 
bv his quarterlv conference, but with the sanction of several 
n^inisters, he held several successful revivals and estab- 
lished a number of churches. These congregations still 
endure Mr. Hott entered Conference m 18// and was 
ordained in 1881^. His circuits prior tc, /^^^^ :-'^- ^^»^^^;;;^. 
erv Hlkton. Madison mission, Rockbridge, krankhn, and 
South Branch. He died in Augusta county, ^^^^^^^^ j- 
V)H\ While somewhat short in scholarship, Mr. Hott xNas 
a hard worker, a good speaker, and a pleasant companion. 
He was three times married and had eight children. 

HOTT- George P. Hott, a brother to Bishop Hott, was 
one of the four preacher-sons of Jacob F. Hott. and was 



170 



UNITED BRETHREN 



born March 13, 1854. After leaching three years in his 
native county of Frederick, he entered the United Brethren 
School at Dayton, Virginia, passing to Dayton, Ohio, w here 
he iiraduated in 1882 from Union Hibhcal Seminary. He 
was given the honorary degree of Master of xVrts by 
Lebanon Valley College. Mr. Hott was converted at the 
age of fifteen, was licensed as a preacher in 1877, and 
entered Conference in 1879, serving for twenty-seven ytars 
a number of charges in Virginia and West Virginia. He 
was six years a presiding elder, and thirty years the secre- 
tary of the Virginia Conference. Four times was he sent 
to the General Conference. 

In 1890 he published "Christ the Teacher," which has 
had a large sale and is in the course of reading for licen- 
tiates. As a writer of hymns he possessed much ability, 
writing nearly five hundred religious songs and a number 
of melodies. Nearly all of these have appeared since 1900. 
For manv of his hvmns he wrote both the words and the 
music. Perhaps the best known is 'Tilory Gates." He also 
comi)osed programs for Sunday school entertainments. 

For eleven years he was principal of Shenandoah Col- 
legiate Institute, and for twenty-five years a trustee. To 
him much credit is due for the success of that school. Mr. 
Hott died at Dayton November 28th, 1914, having been in 
feeble health several years. His wife was Carrie M. Robin- 
son, also of Frederick. He left a son and a daughter. 

HOWE: George W. Howe was born in Ra])pahannock 
county, September 14, 1831, and died at Mount Clinton in 
Rockingham, March 10, 1889. He joined the church in 
1867, and became at once an active and earnest worker. 
In early life he was a teacher. His circuits were Berkeley 
Springs and Winchester, and in both were extensive re- 
vivals. In 1869 he was married to Sarah J. Ryan of Augusta 
county. During the last fifteen years of his life he was an 
invalid. 

HOWE: John W. Howe was born in Rappahannock 
county, Virginia, December 4, 1829, and died at Dayton^ 



CHURCH HISTORY 



171 



Virginia, June 17, 1903. WTien a youth of fifteen he was 
bound to a man who was ever afterward his friends. This 
was Samuel Crabill, then living near Strasburg. He re- 
mained with Mr. Crabill until he was of age. During these 
years young Howe was strong and willing, but wild and 
reckless. When twenty-two years old he married Julia 
Stickley of the same neighborhood. Soon afterward he 
was converted and then became a colporteur and student. 
In 1858 he was licensed as a preacher. The next three 
years he preached in Augusta, Highland, and Pendleton 
counties, building one good country meeting house and 
receiving a large number of persons into the church. After 
the Civil War broke out he was transferred to Shenandoah 
county. Our denomination was then badly disorganized, 
but Mr. Howe preached to his i)eople and the soldiers as 
opportunity ottered. After the return of peace he devoted 
himself zealously to the task of rallying the scattered mem- 
bership, particularly with the help of revivals and camp 
meetings. In these efl'orts he was very successful. 

In 1868 he was made a presiding elder and served in 
this capacity seventeen years, although he was on several 
circuits between the various terms. In Staunton he 
organized a congregation and built a church. This was 
his last charge. He believed in the itinerancy and would 
not consent to serve longer than four years at one time 
as elder or pastor. Beginning with 1869 he was in every 
General Conference, and in that body he was a great 
worker, especially on committees. F'inance was his strong 
point, and when he was present the taking of a collection 
fell upon him. He was several times offered important 
places in the financial work of the Church, but preferred 
staying in Virginia. 

His home for some years after the war was at Singers 
Glen, and being himself a good singer, he was there in 
touch with kindred spirits. He used new and popular songs 
with great effect, and helped to get up a small song book 
for use in camp meetings. It took well and a large and 
better printed book was called for. A company was formed 



^72 unitp:i) bhethhkn 

for tho publication of a new book, which sold at a profit. 
Thus started the publishing house of the Ruebush-Kiefter 
Company, Mr. Howe being a member, and derivmg from 
the business a considerable income. He was a good busi- 
ness man, and even under trying conditions he was re- 
sourceful Twice his home burned during his absence, yet 
he would at once set about recouping the loss. He always 
saws success ahead. Withal, he was liberal, and m the 
last twenty years of his life scarcely a church or parsonage 
^vas built hUhe conference to which he did not contribute. 
Mr Howe was always a friend to Shenandoah Collegiate 
Institute, and was one of the first men to contribute $M)0 
toward the purchase of the school by the Church. It was 
through his counsel and help that the Howe Memorial 
Building was erected in front of where he lived. He was 
a leader in his conference for many years, and during this 
lime nearly every important selection of men was made 
Avith his approval. Mr. Howe was a leader of men, a fine 
oroanizer, and a tireless worker. He was as competent 
to' manage a state as a conference. It is to him more then 
any other one man that is due the recovery ot the Church 
f nim the disasters of the war. His second wife was Rebecca 
Hancher of Frederick county. There was five daughtei-s 
by the first marriage. 

HUFP'MAN- George Huffman died at Ins home at 
Mount Zion! Augusta county, October 22, 1888, aged about 
eightv-two years. ^X^ncle George," as he was familiarly 
cahed, had been a number of the Conference .fifty-mne 
years and at its special invitation he gave a talk at the 
close of a half-century of ministerial life. His early experi- 
ences and memories were such as the United Brethren, 
even of thirty years ago, were rarely privileged to meet. 
In the permanent growth of the denomination, he watched 
with a jealous eve every departure from established cus- 
toms and habits^ He always took sides and was strong 
in his convictions. Everybody knew where to find him. 
Yet he sometimes chose his friends from among those 
who ditfered with him. He selected for his funeral text. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



173 



'Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death 
I will fear no evil; thy rod and thy staft' they comfort me.'' 

HUFFMAN: Sylvester J. Huffman, a son of John R. 
and Mary P. HufI'man, and grandson of the Rev. John W. 
Howe, was born in Staunton, Virginia, in 1869. He went 
to Iowa in 1885, joined the Des Moines Conference in 1891, 
and was ordained 1895. 

HUTZLER: Charles W. Hutzler was born at White- 
hall, Virginia, in 1853, and was licensed in 1877. Berkeley 
circijit was his only charge in this conference. 

JONES: Henry Jones died at his home at Va\s[ Point, 
Rockingham county, Virginia, August 23, 1889, aged nearly 
fifty-three years. He entered Conference in 1875, and 
labored on F^lkton, Front Royal, and Dayton charges, and 
was for a while agent for Shenandoah Institute. Failing 
health caused him to retire from active work. He was a 
man of strong convictions, and would make no compromise 
with what he looked upon as evil. 

JONES: William O. Jones was born in Madison county, 
Virginia, in 1874, and was educated at Lebanon Valley 
College and Shenandoah Collegiate Institute. He was 
licensed in 1894, and his early fields were Berkeley Springs, 
Prince William, and Churchville. He is now serving in the 
Nebraska Conference. 

JUDY: Ida MaHelle Judy, daughter of Joel and Ellen 
Jiuiv, was born near Petersburg, W. Va., June 19, 1873. 
She was educated at the Fairmont Normal School, the 
Shenandoah Collegiate Institute, and the Moody Biblical 
Institute. Miss Judy was converted in 1895, licensed in 
1891», ordained in 1901, and has been seven years an itiner- 
ant. Her charges have been Franklin, Westernport, Day- 
ton, and Petersburg. She has for some time been a mem- 
ber, of the faculty of the Shenandoah Collegiate Institute. 

KETTF:RMAN: J. G. Ketterman died at his home on 
Lost River mission, December 11, 1884, aged fifty years. 
After the close of the war of 1861 he was given quarterly 



174 



UNITED BHETH1U:N 



conference license, and was a faitliful itinerant tlie rest 
of his life. He was a sound and forcible preacher, and was 
loved and respected by all. 

KIR\COFF- J \V. Kiracofe was born near Slriblinji 
Springs'. Virginia, and died at Hagerstown, Maryland. Sep- 
tember 2i», 1914. ajied seventy-three years. Hve ol Ins six 
brothers were also nnnisters. He entered conterenee n, 
18fi.4. and i.reached in Hij^hland. Rockinghan., Rocklmdge, 
and Frederick counties. After the formation ot the Mary- 
land Conference, he was i.astor of some ot the largest 
churches in its territory, such as Hagerstown. Boonshoro, 
Frederick. Keedvsville, Boiling Springs. Newville, Mec.ian- 
icstown. l>otoma"c. and Moimt .\lto. In 1912 he retired and 
made his lu.me in Hagerstown. He was an able pulpi 
orator and long a powerful factor in the church. H. iu.d 
eight children. 

KIR\COFE- Nimrod A. Kiracofe was born at Stril)lini> 
Springs; Virginia, April 17, 1850. He was ---^tc^ - 
18()8, licensed 1872, and jonied conference ni 188b. Atlci 
serving West Au-usta and Soutb River missions. Lost 
River circuit, Williamsport mission. Deer Park circuit, and 
Rockbridge circuit, be joined tbe Pennsylvania Conference. 
During tbe 14 vears after admission be built tbree cburclies, 
and in one mt^^ting bad 93 conversions to rei)()rt. Ou one 
occasion be baptized 10 persons. 

LAWRENCE: P. J. Lawrence was born in Loudoun 
countv, Virginia, in 1859, was licensed in 1879, and joined 
conference in 1882. He served Hloomery circuit seven 
and one-balf years as bis first cbarge. Tbe member* 
taken into tbe cburcb in 18 years were about 150. 

LUDWIG: S. R. Ludvdg was born at Rio, West Vir- 
ginia, in 1859. After serving Soutb Brancb and Lacey 
Springs, be joined tbe Miami Conference. 

LUTZ: Lewis W. Lutz was born near Middlet(A\ n, 
Maryland, in 1872, and graduated in 1897 from Ottcrbein 



CHIKCH HISTORY 



175 



University, joining tbe W\^st Virginia Conference tbe same 
year. His first work in tbis conference was Soutb Hrancb. 

MAIDEN: Artbur Lee Maiden, son of Rev. J. W. and 
Polly A. Maiden, was born near Elkton, Va., August 31, 
188H, was converted in 1899, licensed in 1905, and ordained 
in 1912. He bas been five years on tbe Sbenandoab, 
Prince William, and Western})ort cbarges, graduating 
from Ronebrake Tbeological Seminary 1922. 

?kIAlDEN: Jobn William Maiden, son of James G. and 
Mary A. (Wyant) Maiden, was born in Rockingbam county, 
Va., November 19, 1844. He was converted in 1869, 
licensed in 1875, and subsequently ordained. He bas 
preacbed 40 years, serving Rockbridge, Pleasant Valley, 
Albemarle, Sbenandoab, Cburcbville, Wincbester, Tonvs 
Brook, Great Cacapon, Potomac Fountain, and otber 
cbarges. 

:\1ANN: Andrew Brown Mann was born in tbe sbire of 
Linlitbgow, Scotland, of Presbyterian parents, and was 
educated in bis native country. He was licensed in 1911 
and ordained in 1918. His cbarges bave been Bayard, Soutb 
Brancb, and Staunton. Mr. Mann spent tbree years in 
Y. M. C. A. work, and one year in Canada in special mis- 
sion work. 

:MARTIN: William L. Martin was born near Tburmont, 
Maryland, in 1845, and was licensed in 1871, joining confer- 
ence in 1881. His pastorates to 1900 were Clarke, Mecban- 
icstown, Frederick, Myersville, Williamsport, Boonsboro, 
and be built a cburcb at Myersville. 

McMULLEN: Edgar W. McMullen was born near 
Singers Glen, Virginia, February 5, 1863, and died at Day- 
ton!^ Virginia, December 11, 1917. He was graduated from 
Otterbein University, wbicb conferred on bim tbe degree 
of Master of Arts. He was ordained in 1889, but because 
of a weak constitution and poor bealtb be never entered 
tbe active ministry. His pulpit was bis class room in Sben- 
andoab Collegiate Institute, wbere he was one of tbe faculty. 
His life was a beroic figbt against physical odds. 



176 



UNITED BRETHREN 



McNEIL: William Grady McNeil was born in Mississippi, 
in 1881). He was converted in 1907, licensed in 1908, 
ordained in 1913. His fields have been Fountain, Elkton, 
and Franklin. 

MESSIGK: Lewis Henry Messick, son of William R. 
and Marv E. (Hartman) Messick, was born at Mount Clin- 
ton, Va.,'june 13, 1883, and was educated at Bridgewater 
and Dayton. He was converted in 1902, licensed in 1907, 
and has been an itinerant seven years. His charges have 
been West Frederick, Elk Garden, Swoope, and Manassas. 

MILES: James W. Miles was born in Frederick county, 
Maryland, in 1818, was converted in 1835, and was licensed 
in tiie Methodist Episcopal Church in 1841. He joined 
the United Brethren Church in 1843 and its conference the 
next year. He was ordained 1840 and in 1850 was presid- 
ing elder of the territorv that becanu' the Parkersburg Con- 
ference, with which he was identified after its organiza- 
tion. His second wife, Mary E. Jackson was a cousin to 
Stonewall Jackson. 

MILLER: Charles Miller was born in York county, 
Pennsylvania, December 6, 1824. He professed religion at 
the age of seventeen and joined the Evangelical Association. 
In 1850 he was ordained. Some time earlier than this he 
was sent to Virginia as a missionary. He located at Pur- 
gitsville, Hampshire county. West Mrginia, where he was 
married to Miss L')uisa High of that i)lace and reared a 
large family. Soon after coming here Mr. Miller connected 
himself with the United Brethren, and in 1874 became 
an ordained elder. He was an exceptional man. Although 
a local preacher, he frequently traveled a circuit thus serv- 
ing several large charges in reach of his home. As a 
preacher he was clear, logical, and scriptural. As a lay- 
man he was much respected and wielded a good influence. 
He provided well for his family, yet gave a tenth to the 
cause of the Church. He was forty-five years a minister. 

MITCHELL: William Davis Mitchell was born in Mont- 
gomery county, Va., was educated at Roanoke, converted 



CHURCH HISTORY 



177 



in 1894, and licensed in 1905. He has been an itinerant 14 
years, serving Roanoke, Staunton, Harrisonburg, Cumber- 
iana, and Inwood. 

NEGLEY: J. A. Negley was born at White Hall, Vir- 
ginia, December 23, 1831, and died at Arthur, Grant county. 
West Virginia, December 27, 1898. He was converted when 
about twenty-three years old, and joined the Virginia Con- 
ference in 1872. His circuits were Clarke, New Haven, 
Berkeley, Front Royal, Lost River, Moorefield, and Frank- 
lin. His education was meager, yet he often preached with 
great power, the plainness and simplicity of his utterances 
being readily understood by his hearers. He therefore 
often succeeded where others might have failed. His last" 
year in the ministry was perhaps his best, since there were 
more than one hundred conversions to report. As a token 
of its appreciation the Conference ordered that a monu- 
ment be placed over his grave at Mount Carmel church. 
Grant county. 

NIHISER: J. W. Nihiser was born in Shenandoah 
county, and died at Keedysville, Maryland, February 26, 
1893, aged sixty-six years. He was a brother to the Rev. 
Richard Nihiser, and it was through the influence of the 
latter that he joined the church. Very early in life he 
took an active part in the work of his class. He was a fine 
singer at revival meetings and was powerful in prayer. As 
an exhorter he was surpassed by few. He traveled South 
Branch, Alleghany, New Creek, Franklin, Augusta, Dayton, 
and Winchester circuits, on most of which he had exten- 
sive revivals. For several years he had been on the super- 
numary list, making his home with his son. Dr. W. M. 
Nihiser. 

OBAUGH: William B. Obaugh, son of Mr. and Mrs. S. 
H. Obaugh, was born near Churchville, Va., December 6, 
1892, and studied at the Shenandoah Collegiate Institute 
and Bonebrake Seminary. He was licensed in 1916, has 
spent three years on Fountain and Edinburg circuits, and 
was graduated from Bonebrake Seminary 1922. 



178 



UNITED F5HETHREN 



PERRY: John W. Perry was born at Chewsville, Mary- 
land, in 1825, studied at Mount Pleasant College, and 
joined eonference in 1850. He was a member of the Park- 
ersburi> Conferenee from 1857 to 1889, when he removed 
to Philadelphia to be with his son. 

RACP'.Y: Calvin Jaekson Racey, son of Mori>an and 
Rebecea Racev, was born at Oki Fields, Hardy county, 
W. Va. He studied two years at the Shenandoah Collegiate 
Institute, was converted in 1883, licensed in 1905, and 
ordained in 1912. Mr. Racey taut>ht 12 years in his native 
county, holding a Number One certificate at the age of 
eighteen. He has been an itinerant 18 years, having served 
West Frederick, Winchester, Swoope, Pendleton, FJk Gar- 
den, and Westernport. His wife was Cora S. High, and 
he has four children. 



RACFY: Lee Allen Racev was born near Moorefield, 
W. Va., March 28, 1869, and is a son of Morgan and 
Rebecca Racev. He was ordained in 1903, and has been 
an itinerant 23 years. He has served Prince William, Elk 
Garden, Franklin, Tom's Brook, South Branch, Pleasant 
Valley, Winchester, Bayard, Great Cacapon, and Inwood. 
He relates that he was reared in a Christian home, and 
does not remember the time when he did not consider him- 
self a member of the church. 

RAl : William Samuel Rau, son of John V. and Sarah 
E. Rau, was born August 19, 1858, at P^dinburg, Va., was 
converted in 1876, licensed in 1900, ordained in 1908, and 
has been an itinerant 20 years. He has served Albemarle, 
Rockbridge, Elk Garden, Bayard, Augusta, Elkton, Lacey 
Spring, and Shenandoah. He has built several parsonages 
and remodeled still more. 

REXROAD: George W. Rexrode was born in Pendle- 
ton county. West Virginia, January 4, 1821, and died near 
Port Republic, Virginia, March 25, 1898. He joined the 
Virginia Conference in 1858, and was a member of it forty 
years, generally occupying a local relation, and preaching 



CHLHCH HISTOHY 



179 



mostly in his native county. He supported his large family 
by following the trade of shoemaker. He was a consistent 
Christian and exerted a good influence. In Bible doctrines 
he was well informed and he was powerful in prayer. 

RICHARDSON: Harvey Eugene Richardson was born 
at Buckeystown, Md., June 22, 1865, and is a son of James 
A. and Margaret E. Richardson. He was converted when 
tw enty-one, licensed in 1891, ordained in 1898, and has been 
an itinerant since 1893. His charges in the Virginia Con- 
ference are Berkeley Springs, Great Cacapon, Rockbridge, 
West Frederick, Bayard, and Winchester. Mr. Richard- 
son has served several charges in Maryland and Iowa. He 
had to begin making his way at the age of twelve, and his 
has been largely a self-education. He has made quite a 
name as a pulpit orator. 

RIDENOUR: Jacob R. Ridenour was born near Myers- 
ville, Maryland, in 1849. He was the first student to enter 
Lebanon Valley College from south of Mason and Dixon's 
line, and he pursued the scientihc course to the senior year. 
He was licensed in 1874, and joined conference the next 
year. In 17 years of pastoral work he served New Creek, 
South Branch, Hagerstown, Winchester, Berkeley Springs, 
Keedysville, Martinsburg, and Dayton, and was two years 
presiding elder of the Winchester district. In 1893 he took 
a superannuate relation because of failing health. 

RODERICK: Lewis Roderick was a Dunkard preacher 
who came to what is now Grant county. West Virginia, 
from Frederick county, Maryland. This was about the 
close of the Revolution, and he was accompanied by his 
brother-in-law, Nicholas Leatherman. He moved on to 
Coshocton county, Ohio, and died there at the age of ninety- 
six. His son Peter came back to visit his uncle, married 
in 1816, and remained. Jacob M., son of Peter, was born 
in 1817 on a farm near Burlington, West Virginia. When 
eighteen years old he began teaching in the winter season, 
still working on the farm in the summer. He was con- 
verted in 1843, under the preaching of John Ruebush, and 



180 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



was ordained in 1861. Alleghany mission had just been 
formed to favor some thirty or more members who had 
moved into Garrett county, Maryland, mostly from Somer- 
set county, Pennsylvania. Benjamin Stickley was i^iven 
^50 in missionary mone\' and sent to travel it six months. 
Mr. Roderick then took charije, finding fifteen appointments 
and 210 miles to travel each month. He added two appoiiil- 
ments. His salary was $52 for the first six months, $500 
for the fourth year, by which time there were 400 mem- 
bers. He then served Alleghany, Bath, New Creek, and 
l^loomery circuits. Though not a born orator, he was a 
revivalist of some note, and several of his converts became 
ministers. It was a maxim with him that ''the fear of 
hell never hel])ed anyone very far on the road to the Kin<4- 
dom.'' He had a fine education and was an authority on 
ancient and biblical history. When asked by Bishop Hott 
to be examined at Union Biblical Institute for the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity, he replied that he could do more for 
the Master as I'ncle Jake than as Dr. Roderick. In 1861 he 
was secretary of a mass meeting that was instrumental in 
l)lacing the boundary of West Virginia east of the 
Alleghanies. This action cost the chairman and one other 
member their lives, but Mr. Roderick was never molested. 

ROUDABUSH: George J. Roudabush was born at 
Seville, Virginia, December 1, 1846, and died December 
17, 1916. He was converted at Shadv Grove, Rockini^ham 
county, in 1866, and was licensed in 1868. Despite the 
limited educational advantages of his early years, he read 
many books and was considered a minister of splendid 
ability. He traveled East Virginia mission, Elkton, Lacey 
Springs, Augusta, Dayton, Mechanicstown, and Boonsboro, 
built three churches and two i)arsonages, and received 
about 500 members into the church. For several years he 
was presiding elder of the Mar\4and Conference. 

RUEBUSH: John Ruebush was born in Augusta 
county, Virginia, in 1816, was converted in 1834, and in 
the year licensed by a (juarterly conference. He joined 
the Virginia Conference in 1841, and in 1844 traveled in 



CHURCH HISTORY 



181 



the section of the state beyond the Alleghanies, opening n{) 
new work. In 1850 he became a presiding elder, the boun- 
dary line of his mountain district being pressed weslwaid. 
Mr. Ruebush was a born leader, fearless, energetic, and 
enterprising, and of broad vision. While not a proloiaitl 
thinker, he loved and apprehended the truth of the F)ible 
and the ways of (iod. He knew the lessons of love, idilh, 
and obedience, and preached and enforced them with 
power. When in 1856 the Virginia Conference decided to 
open a mission in East Tennessee, Mr. Ruebush was choseit 
to lead the entrprise. In his first report he says: "I have 
found thirteen members scattered over a large lerriic^iy. 
My congregations are very large and attentive. 1 have my 
work arranged in the form of a three weeks' mission cir- 
cuit. Last Sabbath I preached in the woods to a large c(.n- 
gregation; in the afternoon at a Methodist church, but tiie 
people could not all get in the house."' He soon announced 
that he had more calls than three men could fill. His 
preaching was mainly in the counties of Washingloi', 
Greene, and Johnson. His success closed the doors of other 
churches to him. He was advised to leave the state on 
pain of personal violence, and though subjected to much 
annoyance because of the anti-slavery record of his churclu 
he remained in his field until the war of 1861 had broken 
out. He then said that "as soon as the war is over tlu re- 
will be a ripe harvest for the United U>rethren Church in 
East Tennessee.' He did go back after the return of peace, 
and in November, 1866, the Tennessee Conference was. 
organized bv Bishop Glossbrenner. Mr. Ruebush and two 
other ministers were present. ITiere were only 200 mem- 
bers, but in 1908 there were 5000 in Tennessee, Georgia, 
and Louisiana. In 1860, Mr. Ruebush returned to Virginia, 
served Lacey Springs and Edinburg, and in 1874 he was 
made a presiding elder. He was afterward on the Boons- 
boro and Myersville circuits, but after being transferred 
to the Hagerstown circuit, he died at Leitersburg, Mary- 
land, in 1881. He was strong as a revivalist, and few 
ministers had so much power over an audience. 



182 



UMTEI) BHETHREX 



RUPFKNTHAL: Harry Preston Rii|)i)enthal, son of 
Henry M. and Ida C. Ruppenthal, was born at Berkeley 
S{)rini>s, April 27, 1893. His education was completed at 
Lebanon Valley College. He was converted in 1905, licensed 
in 1920, and his one charge thus far is Shenandoah City. 
During the recent war he was in radio wireless service at 
Richmond, Va. 

SALT: Michael A. Salt was born in Powroun, England 
in 1841. While yet a boy he became a sailor and during 
his nine years on the sea had many thrilling experiences. 
He was converted at 18 and united with the Wesleyans. 
He had an impression that he should preach, and once 
dreamed that he was preaching in a strange land. The 
dream was fulfilled 21 years later at a camp meeting in 
Augusta county. In 1871 he came to America and in 1880 
joined the N'irginia Conference. 

SAMPSELL: William Hamilton Sampsell was born in 
Stephens City, Va., January 13, 1850. He is a son of 
Xicliolas and Margaret A. Sampsell. He was licensed in 
1879, ordained in 1885, and has been an itinerant 41 vears. 
He has served Franklin, Elkton, South Branch, New Creek, 
Cross Keys, Frederick, Churchville, Edinburg, Berkeley 
Springs, Tom's Brook, Jones Springs, Pleasant Valley, 
Klkton, Lacey Spring, Winchester, West Frederick. 

SCOTT: Snowden Scott was born in Loudoun county, 
Virginia, December 3, 1821, and died at Seymoursville, 
West N'irginia, Mav 2, 1901. He was converted at the age 
of fourteen years, and was transferred to Mount Hebron, 
Grant county. West Virginia, seven years later. His 
relation to the conference was that of local minister. Be- 
cause^ others could not afford to work there, he built a 
cliLirch at Mount Olivet, Hardy county, and preached in it 
regularly many years. Possessing good judgment and 
strong convictions, Mr. Scott was an invaluable counselor 
to the young minister. In his hospitable home the pastor 
always received a royal welcome. One of his daughters 



CHURCH HISTORY 



183 



is the wife of the Rev. A. J. Secrist. His wife was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the Rev. Adam I. Bovey. 

SCOTT: John D. Scott was born in Floyd county, Vir- 
ginia, February 29, 1829, and died at Roanoke, Virginia, 
December 28, 1907. He was converted in early life, and 
received his first license to preach from the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. In 1874 he united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and was ordained in 1879. 
In 1890 he established his home in Roanoke, and in 1905 
was received into the United Brethren conference as an 
ordained elder. He was active and useful as a local 
preacher, assisting the pastors in their work and often 
having preaching places of his own. His breadwinning 
profession was that of physician and dentist, in which he 
was very skillful. He administered to the poor, regardless 
of the matter of compensation. He was consistent in his 
life and diligent and earnest in the performance of all 
duties. 

SECRIST: Arthur Jacob Secrist, son of Thomas J. and 
Frances V. (Hawk) Secrist, was born February 13, 1872 
in Grant county, W^ Va. His education has been that of the 
free schools and the Shenandoah Collegiate Institute. He 
was converted in 1891, licensed in 1893, and ordained in 
1890. Mr. Secrist has been in the ministry 28 years, and 
has served the charges now known as Hardy, Elkton, 
Churchville, Pleasant Valley, New Creek, Inwood, Cumber- 
land, and Dayton. He built churches at Cumberland and 
Pleasant Grove, and a parsonage at Cumberland. Previous 
to entering the ministry, he taught five years in Grant 
county. He was married in 1895 to Leona C. Scott and has 
two living children. 

SENSENY: Dr. Peter Senseny came from York, in 
Pennsylvania. He was walking in a field in his riding 
costume, while Bishop Boehm was preaching, and heard 
these words, which were suggested by his presence: "Some 
sinners are going to hell with boots and spurs on." He 
was converted and became a preacher. He died in 1801. 



184 



UNITED BRETHREN 



SHUEY: George A. Shiiey was born near Church ville, 
Virginia, June 7, 1815, was educated in a classical academy 
at Staunton, and was married to Martha Goldsmith, whom 
he met in a camp meeting in Franklin county, Pennsylvania. 
He had six children, of whom Theodore F. was chief steno- 
gra])her in the Senate of the United States. John Ludwiiv 
Shuey, grandfather of George, was born in Bethel town- 
ship, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and came to Middle 
River, 1795. Like his ancestors, who came from the Pala- 
tinate, he was of the Reformed Church. Of his nine chil- 
dren, John, born 1787, married Catharine Funkhouser and 
moved to New Goshen, Indiana. Christian, born 1792, died 
1802, married Catharine, a niece to George A. Geeting. 
One of his four children was the Rev. George A., mentioned 
above. Another was Maria, wife of Bishop Glossbrenner. 
For several years Mr. Shuey was an etlicient itinerant, but 
at length chose to become a local preacher. As a counselor 
he was prudent and safe, and was often in oflicial position 
in his church. His home near Churchville was one ot 
extended hospitality. 

SKELTOX: Silas D. Skelton was born at Mount Craw- 
ford, Virginia, in 1860, and was converted when thirteen. 
After teaching seven years, he joined conference in 1885, 
and in 14 years built two churches and took 728 persons 
into the church. In 1914 he was granted a local relation and 
lived in Dayton and now is serving Manassas charge. He 
was married to Maggie C. Heatwole in 1882. In 1907 he 
attended the 5th World's Sunday School Convention, wliich 
met in Rome, Italy, and finished up the trip by a tour 
through Central and Northern Europe. 

SMITH: William Henry Smith, son of H. W. H. and 
Flora \. (Rockwell) Smith, was born at Great Cacapon, 
September 5, 1886. He studied at the Shenandoah Col- 
legiate Institute, was converted in 1912, and licensed in 
1914. His charges have been West Frederick, Davton, and 
Singer's Glen. 

SNYDER: Josiah ¥. Snyder was born at Keedysville, 
Maryland in 1866, and licensed in 1888. His first pastorates 



CHURCH HISTORY 



hsr) 



were Lost River, Bloomery, Augusta, Berkeley, Martins- 
burg, Edinburg, and South Branch. 

STATTON: Isaac K. Statton was born in Hampshire 
county, Virginia, December 25, 1830. He was a son of 
Jacob, who in 1812 married Margaret C. Highof. Their 
children were James H., John F., Nancy J., George W., 
N. Green, Amelia, Isaac K., David E., Margaret C, Mary 
C, and Elizabeth. Isaac K. grew up as free as the fowls 
of the air or the deer of the forest. He worked on the 
farm, and at times with his father and an older brother 
at carpentering, this making him a fairly good mechanic. 
His educational opportunities were limited, yet his brother 
John finished an academic course without a teacher and 
with only a final examination. I. K. entered the Virginia 
Conference in 1850 and was ordained in 1853. He was 
first placed on the Hagerstown circuit as junior. Next year 
he was on the Winchester circuit. Sixteen appointments 
were fdled every five weeks by each preacher, and though 
the work was hard, there was the beginning of a useful life. 
Mr. Statton then served Mason, Buckhannon, Churchville, 
and Meyersville. He was next ap|)ointed a missionary to 
Kansas and solicited donations to build a church in that 
new country. The appointment was reconsidered because 
of political excitement and border warfare. For the rest 
of the period before the civil war his fields were Frederick 
and Hagerstown. 1858 was a banner year on the Frederick 
circuit, there being 150 conversions and over 100 acces- 
sions. Late in March, 1861, he took a train for Le Harp, 
Illinois, and in July bought forty acres at St. John, Missouri, 
intending to retire from the ministry. Before reaching 
their destination the family ran upon small squads, both 
of Confederates and Unionists, and w^ere comi)elled to turn 
back, leaving much of their effects in the road. After sun- 
dry discomforts and some experiences with bills emanating 
from broken banks, they got back to Le Harp, their per- 
sonal effects now reduced to one trunk and one small box. 
Jose])h Watson, an old friend, sent him an invitation to 
tak^^ Pine Creek circuit. Rock River Conference. Mr. Stat- 



180 



UNITED HHETIIHEN 



toil accepted at once, but the elder had i^iveii the place to 
another nian. He then worked in the harvest field, and 
three months as a supply for a minister smitten with sore 
eyes. For the latter service he received ii\c dollars in 
money, one ham, a few potatoes, and one sack of flour. At 
the conference Bishop Markwood replenished his em[)ty 
purse, and had him put on Princeton station, where there 
were nine members and a debt of $1,000. Hut he had a 
i^ood year and the largest salary he had yet enjoyed, — $400. 
He remained in the West, preaching in Illinois, Iowa, and 
California. In a ministry of almost fifty years, he had 
preached over 6000 times, married 815 couples, and con- 
ducted 1,027 funerals, some of suicides, and some of men 
killed in battle. He built five churches and i\\c parsonages. 
He had moved twenty-three times, was Vwc times in Gen- 
eral Conference, and entertained that body once, — at Lis- 
bon, Iowa. Mr. Station remarks in his letter that if all the 
people to whom he had preached were "gathered in one 
congregation, he would certainly be overwhelmed with 
awful thoughts of his resi)onsibility." 

STOVKR: George Washington Stover, son of Joshua 
H. and Frances. M. Stover, was born near Mount Pisaah 
Church, Augusta county, Va., June 5, 1862. He studied 
two years at the Augusta Military Academy, was converted 
in 1892, licensed in 1893, ordained in 1896, and has been 
an itinerant since 1896, serving Prince William, Jones 
Springs, Staunton, and Winchester. Mr. Stover studied 
medicine and passed an examination in 1893. 

TABB: Theodore B. Tabb was born near Hedges ville. 
West Virginia, and was drowned June 17, 1909, while bath- 
ing at a seabeach in Japan. He was converted at the age 
of fourteen, and was graduated from the Shenandoah Col- 
legiate Institute in 1901. He then began to preach, having 
been licensed 1899. In 1907 he was graduated from \^an- 
derbilt University. While studying here he felt it his duty 
to labor in Japan, and volunteered for that field a few 
weeks after his graduation, sailing for Yokohama in July 



CHUHCH HISTOHY 



187 



of the same year. He was installed as teacher of Knglish 
in Hagi, a city of 20,000 on the north coast of the princi])al 
island. He taught here two years meanwhile conducting 
Bible classes among the students. His only white ac(fuaint- 
ances in the city was an old French Catholic i)riest who be- 
came greatly attached to him. About one month before 
his untimely death he accepted the principalship of a large 
school in Korea. By the Japanese he was held in high 
esteem, and the impression he made on them was excellent. 

TALLHELM: Henry Tallhelm died May 30, 1902 at 
the age of seventy-eight. He joined the Virginia Confer- 
ence in 1851, and a year later was appointed to Berkeley 
S])rings circuit. His next charges were Woodstock, Lacey 
Springs, Rockingham, Pleasant Grove, Frederick circuit, 
Tuscarora, FLast Virginia. In 1871 he was granted at his 
own request an honorable dismissal from the church and 
conference. He then entered the ministry of the Beformed 
Church, but in 1900 he returned to the denomination of 
his first choice, spending his last years at Fdinburg, Vir- 
ginia. In 1859 he was married to Marrv K. Koontz. Mr. 
Tallhelm was good, humble, i)eaceable, and faithful. 

THOMAS: P. H. Thomas was born in Frederick county, 
Maryland, February 25, 181o, and died near Jones' Springs, 
W. Va., February 13, 1889. Between 1867 and 1877, he 
served successively, Winchester, Martinsburg, Singers (ilen. 
Back Creek, and Opequon. Being subse([uently in feeble 
health, he took a local relation. 

UMSTOT: Zimri Umstot was a native of what is now 
Mineral county. He was converted when about twenty 
years old, and received (|uarterly conference license in 
June, 1863. He was kind and persuasive, a good man and 
fine preacher. He was of fine judgment and firm in his 
opinions. Mr. Umstot died August 26, 1883 at the age of 
forty-three. 

UNDERWOOD: I. M. Underwood was born in Tykr 
county, West Virginia, in 1851, converted in 18()7, and in 



188 



UNITED BRETHREN 



the same year licensed. He entered the Parkersburi^ Con- 
ference in 1870 and three years later was transferred to 
this conference. Mr. Underwood made himself a record 
as a firm prohibitionist, and as a congressional candidate 
of the Prohibition party in 1890 received a majority of the 
votes in the town where he was living. 

WALTKRS: J. William Walters was born at Lnray, 
Virginia, August 18, 1812, and died in his native county, 
July 12, 1910. He was converted late in life, but soon was 
given a ([uarterly conference license, and sometimes had 
charge ot" a circuit. He was a tluent sj)eaker, but was 
guarded in his social conversation. Also, he was a tireless 
worker and built two churches, one in Page comity and 
one in Warren. In 189,'^ he joined the Virginia Conference 
and was ordained before completing his course of reading. 
But though old and feeble, he kept his i)romise and at the 
last conference he attended he presented his ])a])ers on 
the fourth year's course of study. 

WALTON: Arthur P. Walton was born near Mount 
Solon, X'irginia, in 187(), and converted at the age of six- 
teen. He was licensed in 189() and in the next three years 
had built three churches. 

WELLER: P. W. Welter was eight years a member of 
lliis conference, and was held in great esteem by its other 
mem])ers. He was a voung man of earnest and faithful 
piety and high ideals. His elevated purpose led him to 
enter Lebanon \'alley (^.ollege, and then to continue^ his 
studies in Westtield College in Illinois, where he supported 
himself by teaching music. He died a member of the 
senior class in the spring of 1880. The Virginia Conference 
made an appropriation to place a tombstone over his grave. 

WIDMF^YER: Joseph E. Widmeyer was born July 21, 
185t), and died May 8, 1881^. He was converted at the age 
of fifteen and became a member of this conference in 187(). 
His fields were Alleghany, Highland, and South Hranch 
circuits, and Westernport and Martinsburg stations. His 



CHERCff HISTORY 



189 



last year was the most successful. In 1879 he was married 
to Miss Belle Howe. 

WILT: William Abraham Wilt was born in Snyder 
coLinly, IV'iiii., September 1, 1888, his parents being John 
D. and Susan (Hirkhart) Wilt. He completed his educa- 
tion at Sus([ueliamia I'niversity and Honebrake Theological 
Seminary, graduating from the latter in 191,"). He was con- 
verted in 1901, licensed in 1912. ordained in 191."). and has 
been four v(*ars an itinerant, serving Harrisonburg and 
Keyser. 

WINE: Samuel K. Wine was born in west Rockingham 
in 1852, and died at Eayettesville, Penn., .lanuary 21, 1911. 
In 1875 he graduated from Lebanon Valley College, but 
studied also at Otterbein and Princeton univc^rsilies. Among 
his charges in this conference were ()tt()l)ine. Mount CJin- 
ton. Dayton, Harrisonburg, Strasburg, and Winchestei*. 
After removing to Peimsylvanit he served several charges 
there. Mr. Wine married Miss Lizzie Keys, of Nc^w P^n^c- 
tion and had three children. 

YOUNG: Rolx'rt Newton Young was born at Wolver- 
hampton, England, Augusta 18, 188.'), and was educated 
in Scotland. He was licensed in 1912 and ordained in 1921. 
His charges have been South Branch, Rayard, Edinburg, 
Reliance, and Churchville. The wife of Mr. Young is a 
native of Scotland. Their three living children were born 
in the United States. 

ZAHN: John Zalin was a member of the (ieiieral Con- 
ference of 1829, and was present in the Virginia ConfiM'- 
ence when the whole Church in the East was embraced 
in the Hagerstown Conference. He i)reached at the funeral 
of P>isho]) Newcomer. When the church in the East was 
all in one conference he was one of its most i)romising 
ministers. At the time of his death,— April 11. 18()l,--he 
was one of the oldest preachers in the church. 

ZEHRUNC: Samuel Zehrung, born May 9, 1812, diid 
June 6, 1849, was buried in the Funkhouser burying grounti 
on Mill Creek near Mount Jackson. 



CHAPTEH XXI 
EARLY DEATHS AMONG MINISTERS 

The proverb that death loves a shinint^ mark seems 
aj)pHcable to the early deaths of those of our number whose 
lii^ht bei^an to shine in early life. 

Peter Whitesel, whose father's house in Rockingham 
^vas one of the first preaching places of the German evange- 
lists, became a comi)anion of the early ministers, married 
a daughter of Hishop Brown of Pennsylvania, and after 
seven years of service laid down his life. His father gave 
the land for Whitesers church, the first house of worship 
built bv the I'nited Brethren in Virginia. 

John Gibbons, a young, bashful boy, embraced religion 
at a camp meeting on the land of Peter Ruebush, near his 
home in Augusta, and immediately responded to the call 
to preach. This was in opposition to the wish of the family, 
who were not of the church he joined. Young Gibbons 
could preach from the start, and a most promising career 
appear to lie before him. Yet after only three years of 
ministerial service he died at Burlington, W. Va. Almost 
fifty years later the Conference placed a monument over 
his grave at the old stone church. 

In the same year, — 1847, — Richard Nihiser died a most 
triumphant death at Chewsville, Maryland. We was reared 
and converted near Mount Hebron, Shenandoah county. 
He was great in prayer and song, pious and studious. His 
bodv was interred in the churchvard at St. Paul's, Hagers- 
town, Maryland, but was removed to help make room for 
the new church now covering the spot. 

Jacob A. Bovey, a West Virginian, fell a victim to 
typhoid fever, and was buried at Edinburg, Virginia, in 
November, 1859. His dying message was, "Say to my 
brethren I die in the faith I have preached." 



CHURCH HISTOHV 



191 



Samuel Evers died in June, 18(31, just as the war-clouds 
were gathering. He was undertaking an important work 
as teacher, and it had been only two years since joining 
conference. His health had been undermined in his ett'orts 
to secure a college education. He was buried in the ceme- 
tery of the Union Presbyterian church at Cross Keys. 

Under privations and with much toil, P. W. Weller was 
])reparing for a career full of promise. Yet within a few 
weeks from the time when he was to receive a diploma 
from the college at Westtield, he was called to his long 
home. 

Dorsey Freed, son of the Rev. John I). Freed of Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, spent several years in college, only Jo 
leave his first charge and die at his father's home in 1876. 

Charles M. Hott, the brightest of a bright family, an 
eloquent i)reacher and charming singer, a young man of 
splendid ability and great character, served but one pas- 
torate. He was then called to become a college preacher 
in California, but after a few months was called home, 
leaving a wife and two children. 

.Tames E. Whitesel, son of Simon Whitesel, and born 
in 1851, was a most conscientious and loyal Christian. He 
began a university course while yet in his teens, and after 
good work on several charges was sent to Churchville, 
where he built a church that was the best in the conference 
at the time. But overworking himself, his promising career 
was cut short at the age of twenty-seven by typhoid fever. 
His body rests at Whitesel's chapel. He left a noble wife 
and three little children. 

At the same place and in the same house, almost exactly 
twelve years later, died William O. Ewing, a victim to the 
same scourge. He also left three little children. His most 
estimable wife was a daughter of David Hott. 

J. E. Widmeyer, after being six years a member of the 
conference, fell asleep at Newtown, Virginia, and is buried 



192 



UNITED BRETHREN 



at Winchester. Never strong, he could not resist the 
insidious attack of disease following a winter of earnest 
revival work. His wife, a daughter of the Rev. John W. 
Howe, and two little children were sorely hereft. 

Kingsley F'uiik, son of R. \V. Funk, of Singers Glen, was 
one of our hrightest j)rosj)ects for the ministry in later 
years. Hut while still in scliool lie fell a victim to influenza 
and died a triumphant death in H)1(S. 

In contemplating these short careers one instinctively 
asks the question: Why these untimely deaths? Although 
the veil cannot he pierced to learn the answer, the labors of 
these men were not without result. "Their works do fol- 
low them." 



CHAPTER XXn 
CHURCH DEDICATIONS 

Note: "Built by" refers to the minister in whose pas- 
torate the church was built. "Built through" refers to the 
person or persons mainly instrumental in effecting the 
work. 

Alpine, Berkeley Springs circuit: built by C. D. Bennett; 
dedicated August 6, 1905, by A. S. Hammack; cost, $550. 

Antioch, on New Creek circuit; built by J. H. Brunk, 
1899, dedicated by Bishop Weaver; cost, $1,000; a school- 
house previously used forty years. 

Bayard: built by W. S. Rau; dedicated by H. H. Fout, 
November 19, 1906; cost, $2,100. 

Belmont: dedicated 1884, by A. P. Funkhouser; cost, 

$1,000. ^ ^^^ __ 

Berkeley Springs station; frame; built by G. W. Howe, 
1869; dedicated 1870 by Bishop Weaver; cost, $1,000; 
second church (concrete block) built by Geo, P. Hott; dedi- 
cated June, 30, 1907, by Bishop J. S. Mills; cost, $6^78.84; 
parsonage (concrete block) built 1903 by E. E. Neff ; cost, 

$4,200. , ,, 

Bethel, on Toms Brook circuit; built by Henry Jones; 

cost, $800. r i,ii r:^ 

Bethel, on Lacev Springs circuit; built by J. M. Eavy; 
built through A. C. Long and Betty Flook; dedicated by 
J W. Howe about 1889; cost $1,000; preaching for many 
years previously in the old school Lutheran near by. 

Bethlehem; brick; built through the Shueys; dedicated 
by Bishop Glossbrenner, cost, $1,300; one of the first 
preaching points in the valley; at this place during the 
Annual Conference in 1852 Bishop Glossbrenner took the 
first missionary offering ever taken in the denomination. 
Bishop Erb presiding; second church ^^"^1* ^^ i^' A; ^7^" 
Guire; dedicated by A. S. Hammack September 21st, 1918; 

cost, $7,320. 



194 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Big Pool: built by M. D. Mayselles; built throui>li N. E. 
Funkhouser; dedicated August, 1911, by A. S. Haiiimack; 
cost, $1,500. 

Blairton: built by J. H. Ford; dedicated April 14, 1918, 
by Bishop W. M. Bell; cost, $12,000. 

Bluff Dale, Albemarle circuit; dedicated by J. \V. Howe. 

Bridgewater: originally the private property of 

Hoover, with entrance at rear; after Hoover was drowned, 
bought from executors about 1858 with money raised by 
J. Markwood and wife; never much congregation; sold by 
quarterly conference and Act of Assembly through J. \V. 
Howe; of proceeds, 40 per cent given to Augusta circuit 
parsonage at Spring Hill, 60 per cent to district parsonage 
at Dayton, the first and only presiding elder parsonage; 
cost, $500. 

Broadway: built by C. D. Helbert; dedicated by Bishop 
Dickson, 1891; cost, $1,500. 

Buckhall, Prince William circuit: built by A. V. Van- 
dersmith; dedicated by A. S. Hammack, February 18th, 
1905; cost, about $1,000. 

Buck Hill, Jones Spring circuit: built by J. G. Ketchem; 
dedicated July, 1911, by W. F. Gruver; cost, $600. 

Cabin Run, West Frederick circuit: weatherboarded and 
plastered; built probably by B. Stickley; improved by W. J. 
Miller about 1875; cost, $600. 

Cedar Grove: dedicated by J. D. Dona van, about 1888; 
cost, $500. 

Cherr>^ Grove: built by W. F. Gruver and J. D. Dona- 
van; dedicated about 1890 by J. N. Fries; cost, $600. 

Cherry Run: built by D. G. Brimlow, 1914; dedicated 
November 1st, by A. S. Hammack. 

Church ville: built by J. E. Whitesel, 1878; dedicated by 
Z. Warner; cost, $3,500; old church built in partnership 
with the Methodists. 

Clay Hill, Rockbridge circuit: built, 1856; dedicated by 
Bishop Glossbrenner; cost, $600. 

Claysville, New Creek circuit: built by William Fout, 
about 1850-55. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



195 



Colvinstown, Edinburg circuit: built by J. D. Freed, 
1872; dedicated by Bishop Weaver; cost, $1,500. 

Crabbottom, Pendleton circuit: dedicated 1902, by 
A. P. Funkhouser. 

Cumberland: built by A. J. Secrist; dedicated December 
20th, 1908, by W. F. Gruver; cost, $6,604.81. 

Dayton: dedicated June, 1878 by BiJiops Glossbrenner 
and Hott; cost, $2,500; built by A. P. Funkhouser; burnt 
down 1904; second (brick) dedicated 1904, by Bishop W. 
M. Weekley; cost, $6,100; addition dedicated by Bishop 
W. M. Bell April 14th, 1918; cost, $5,000. 

East Point: dedicated about 1895 by J. W. Hicks; cost, 
$1,000; preaching in free church near by for at least forty 
years; Noah Shuler (?) a member of first congregation. 

Edinburg: built 1850; cost, $500. 

Fountain: built by C. P. Dyciie; dedicated May 6th, 
1906, by George P. Hott; cost, $i,495. 

Fern Hill, Swift Run circuit: built by Carl W. Hiser 
and E. E. Miller, 1919; cost, $1,350. 

Fairview, at Laymansville: built by J. F. Snyder, 1900; 
dedicated by H. H. Fout; frame; cost, $1,200; seating 
capacity, 300. 

Fairview: built, 1869 by P. H. Thomas, dedicated by 
Bishop Glossbrenner; cost, $1,000; class now disbanded. 

Fairview: built by W. L. Childress, 1896; dedicated by 
A. P. Funkhouser. 

Friendship: first church built 1867 by J. W. Howe (?), 
cost, $800; second by C. H. Crowell about 1890; cost, $1,000. 

Friendship, Inwood circuit: built by W. J. Lower, 1868; 

cost, $1,000. 

Greensburg: first church (brick) built about 1878 by 
J. W. Kiracofe, cost, $1,500; second, built 1889 by W. F. 
Gruver; dedicated by J. D. Donavan; cost, $2,500; pre- 
vious preaching in a log church burned during the war; 
brick parsonage built by J. W. Howe, 1874, at cost of $1,500. 

Greenway: built by S. K. Wine, 1899; dedicated by Dr. 
Carter; cost, $1,200. 



19G 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



Grove Hill: dedicated by J. W. Howe about 18()7; new 
church dedicated 1894; cost, $1,000. 

Harrisonburg: first church built 1896-97; second church 
(stone) built 1917-18; dedicated June 1st, 1918, by Bishop 
W. M. Weekley; cost, $93,000; construction nianat>er, E. C. 
Wine; buildini,^ committee, F. W. Liskey, J. R. Liskey, 
D. H. Liskey, W. I. Good, and J. K. Pifer; parsonai^^e built 
1911; cost, $3,600. 

Herwin Chapel: built near Linville by G. B. Fadeley; 
dedicated by W. L. Childress, 1899; cost, $800. 

Hazlewood, on Prince William circuit: boui^^ht 1895 
from Presbyterians for $120. 

Hishman, Hardy circuit: built by G. A. McGuire, and 
T. J. Coffman; dedicated August 18th, 1917, by A. S. Ham- 
mack; cost, $1,300. 

In wood: built by P. B. S. Busey, 1895; dedicated by 
Bishop Kephart; cost, $1,500; parsonage built by Busey, 
1897, at cost of $1,000; practically rebuilt 1915. 

Jenkins Chapel, Hardy circuit: struck by lightning and 
burned to the ground 1918; no insurance; restoration be- 
gun by T. J. CoHman; built bv B. F. Spitzer; dedicated bv 
\\. G. Clegg 1920; cost, $1,500. 

Johnsontown, W. Va., Christian church bought and re- 
modeled under leadership of I. Summers; dedicated June 
25th, 1916. 

Keezletown: built about 1850 on land given by Amos 
Keezle; second church by S. L. Baugher; dedicated by A. S. 
Hammack, November 25, 1917; cost, $1,100. 

Keplinger Chapel in Brock's Gap: log, built through 
George Keplinger; dedicated by Bishop Markwood about 
1858; cost, $500. 

Kessell, South Branch circuit: built by J. W. Wright, 
1917; dedicated by A. S. Hammack; cost, $2,300. 

Keyser: first church (frame) dedicated August 7th, 
1904, by Bishop W. M. Weekley; cost, $5,350; built by S. 
R. Ludwig; second church corner stone laid September 4th, 
1921; to be built of white vitrified brick; to cost $60,000; 
W. A. W^ilt, pastor. 



CHURCH HISTOHY 



197 



Lacey Springs: built through A. C. Long; dedicatea 
about 1877; cost, about $3,800. 

Marlinsburg mission station begun 1867, worshiping in 
Ridenour's stone house till a church was completed the 
same year, and with Smoketown, Greensburg, and Friend- 
ship as outside appointments; the old churcli followed by 
a new; pastors— W. J. Lower (1867-70), J. W. Howe 
(1871-5), A. M. Evers (1875-6), J. K. Nelson (1878-80), .1. 
E. Weidmeyer (1880), J. M. Underwood (1881), ,1. I). 
Donovan (1882), M. F. Keiter (1883), M. D. Maysdles 
(1884), J. R. Ridenour (1885-9), .1. B. Chamlxriain 1891- 
95), (). W. Burlner (1895), J. F. Snyd-r (189()), W. F. 
Gruver. New church dedicated October 8, 1912 by Bishop 
T. C. Carter; built by W. F. Gruver; cost, $21,000. 

Manassas: church and parsonage bought of the Metho- 
dists through efforts of L. C. Messick, 1917. 

Midland in Prince William county: built by G. \\'. 
Stover; dedicated by A. P. Funkhouser about 1893; cost. 
$1,000. 

Mount Bethel, Augusta circuit: built by G. W. Rexroad 
1890; dedicated by A. P. Funkhouser; cost, $1,000. 

Mount Carmel: built by J. W. Hicks in second year of 
his pastorate; cost, $800. 

Mount Carmel: built 1873 by James Whitesel, dedicated 
by Bishop Edwards; brick; cost, $2,000; seating capacity, 

350. 

Mount Carmel in Brock's Gaj): built by M. F. Keiter; 

dedicated about 1877 by J. K. Nelson; cost, $300. 

Mount Clinton: built by J. W. Howe; dedicated by 
Bishop Hott, October, 1880; cost, $1,300. 

Mount Hebron, Toms Brook circuit: built by J. Rue- 
bush about 1846; dedicated by Bishop Glossbrenner; cost. 
$1,000; preaching for many years in Bhnd's log school- 
house near the church, on the land of Jacob Funkhouser. 
father of G. W. Station's first wife; third church built 1897, 
by L. W. Lutz, dedicated by J. D. Donavan,— a frame build- 
ing seating 250 and costing $650; remodeled by F. B. Chubb 
1915; cost, $2,250. 



198 



UNITED BHEJHKEX 



Mount Hebron, West Frederick circuit: built by George 
McGuire; dedicated by A. S. Hammack, July, 1911; cost, 
.$700. 

Mount Hernion, Edinburg circuit: built by J. W. Hicks; 
cost, $800. 

Mount Horeb: built through M. G. Jones; dedicated by 
Bishop Edwards, 1878; cost, $1,500. 

Mount Ohve: built 1885 by Snowden Scott, dedicated 
by J. \V. Hicks; frame; cost, $1,000; seating capacity, 250. 

Mount Olive: built 1869 (?) by J. K. Nelson; cost, $800; 
])reaching many years in Jenkins' schoolhouse. 

Mount Pisgah, Augusta circuit: log church built by 
Jacob C. Spitler about 1850; cost, $500; second by S. K. 
Wine, 1881; cost, $1,200; dedicated by C. I. B. Brane. 

Mount Pleasant station: built by H. Tallhelm about 
1870; dedicated by Bishop Weaver; cost, $1,000. 

Mount Pleasant, Berkeley Springs circuit: built 1870; 
cost, $500. 

Mount Pleasant, West Frederick circuit: built about 
1857 by I. Baltzell; cost, $500. 

Mount Solon, Tom*s Brook circuit: built by F. B. Chubb; 
dedicated by A. S. Hammack, May 28th, 1916; cost, $1,250. 

Mount Tabor: built before Lacey Springs. 

Mount Tabor, Berkeley Springs circuit; re-dedicated by 
A. S. Hammack, September Pith, 1909; S. D. Skelton, 
j)astor. 

Mount View, Churchville circuit: dedicated August 4th, 
1901; cost, $850. 

Mount Vernon, at Shendun: log; built through 

Spitler, 1828; second, dedicated by Bishop Glossbrenncr, 
1878; cost, $1,000. 

Mount Zion, Elkton circuit: dedicated by J. W. Howe 
about 1870; cost, $300; new church dedicated by C. I. B. 
Brane, 1898; cost, $1,000. 

Mount Zion: built by Levi Hess, 1855; dedicated by 
Bishop Markwood; cost, $1,000. 

Mount Zion, New Creek circuit: built by W. J. Miller 
about 1875; dedicated by Bishop Weaver; cost $1,000. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



19» 



Mount Zion above Mount Solon: dedicated by J. Mark- 
wood 1849, a great revival immediately following, con- 
ducted bv W. Knott and G. Huil'man; cost, $800. 

Mount Zion, Rockbridge circuit: dedicated by A. S. 
Hammack June 1903; construction begun by W. S. Ran, 
completed by brethren of the api)ointment, led by C. S. 
Yago; cost, $1,000. 

Naked Creek: built about 1875; dedicated by J. W. 
Howe; cost, $500. 

"""Otterbein: built about 1834 on land donated by David 
Whitmore; Jacob Miller, carpenter. 

Otterbein, Albemarle circuit: built 1875 (?); cost, $300. 

Otterbein: first church built by W. J. Miller, 1870; cost 
$600; second by W. H. Sampsell 1898: cost, $1,000. 

Otterbein: Edinburg Circuit; old time church; first 
building built about 1840; second church built by F. B. 
Chubb; dedicated by Dr. J. A. Funkhouser, September 9th. 
1914. Mr. (). Funkhouser gave the pipe organ; total value, 

$6,000. 

Petersburg, W. Va.: built by J. W. Stearn; dedicated 
June 18th, 1917, by Bishop W. M. W\^ekley; G. H. WHiitesel, 
construction manager; cost, $9,750. 

Pikeside, Inwood circuit: built by W. D. Mitchell, dedi- 
cated August 10th, 1913. 

Pleasant Grove: built 1838, and $300 raised the day of 
dedication; logs hewn in the woods near by, those for the 
south side being given by the father of FLlijah Huffman, 
those for the east by Jacob and Peter Whitesel, those for 
the west by Abram Funkhouser, those for the north by 
Jacob Pifer; each party gave six of the 24 benches; dedica- 
tion by Reeser; pulpit at first on north side; Pifer a car- 
penter and worked on the church; George Huft'man and 
William Knott had a great revival here; new church built 
by A. J. Secrist; dedicated 1915 by A. S. Hammack; L. W. 
Swank a leader in the work; cost, $2,400. 

Pleasant Hill, Jones Spring Circuit: dedicated by Bishop 
Weekley, August 1st, 1915; built by D. G. Brimlow; cost, 
$1,200. 



200 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Pkasant Plain, Inwood circuit; built by J. R. Ridenour, 

i88r). 

Pleasant Valley: first church built 1860; burned 1862; 
second built by P. H. Thomas, 1868; dedicated by Bishop 
(ilossbrenner; cost,, $1,000. 

Prize Hill, Albemarle circuit: finished by W. S. Rau, 
1806; dedicated by A. P. Funkhouser; cost $700. 

Red P>ud, Inwood Circuit: built 1882 by John M. Hott; 
cost $1,000; reopened by J. W. Howe, 1806. 

Reed's Creek, Franklin circuit: built by A. P. Walton 
1808; cost, $500. 

Ridings Chapel: built about 1888; cost, $1,000. 

Riverton, W. Va.: built by J. W. Prill, 1000. 

Ridi>ely: built 1016 throui^h the instrumentality of the 
Viriiinia C. E. Society; cost, $3,000. Tabernacle built by 
H. ¥.. Richardson and dedicated by A. S. Hammack. 

Ridings Chapel. Frederick circuit: built by J. C. S. 
Myers; dedicated September 6th, 1008 by A. S. Hammack; 
cost, $1,802. 

Roanoke: first church built by S. L. Rice, 1805; a second 
church was built in X. \V. Roanoke, and discontinued in 
1006; a new church was re-located and built by C. H. 
Crowell; dedicated September 20th, 1007, by Dr. Parrett; 
cost, $15.:i72. 

Salem, near Singers Glen: built during civil war and 
dedicated by Rishop Glossbrenner; probably the only United 
Brethren church built within the Confederacy; old Metho- 
dist Episcopal church at Green Hill bought and moved 
to Salem; built bv J. W. Howe and W. J. Miller; cost, $500. 

Salem, Klkton circuit: built by J. H. Brunk; dedicated 
November 16th, 1002; cost, $800. 

Salem, Inwood circuit; built 1870; reopened October 
i:3th, 1007, by W. F. Gruver. 

Shady Grove: dedicated by Bishoi) Weaver about 1870, 
after payment had been hanging so long that Presiding 
Folder Howe had the quarterly conference authorize a sale; 
debt paid by new subscribers; cost, $1,000. 

Shiloh: built by W. H. Clary about 1844; cost, $800; 
second church built 1017 by F. B. Chubb; cost $1,400. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



201 



Singers Glen: built jointly by United Brethren and Bap- 
tists, the Baptist interest being afterward purchased; dedi- 
cated about 1881; cost about $1,000; second church (brick), 
Dona van Memorial, built by J. H. l^runk; dedicated May 
27, 1006 by E. U. Hoenshell; cost, $5,650. 

Sir John's Run: built by W. L. Childress 1807; cost, 
$1,000. 

South Mill Creek, Franklin circuit: built by A. P. 
Walton, 1800; cost, $550. 

Smith's Creek, Franklin circuit: built by A. P. Walton, 
1800; cost, $800. 

St. John's, Franklin circuit: built by J. W. Stearn; dedi- 
cated by A. S. Hammack, 1006. 

Staunton: First church sold to Church of the Breth- 
ren; second bought of the Baptists, 1004; cost, $4,000; re- 
modeled 1005; valued at $16,000. 

Stokesville, Churchville circuit; built 1005; cost, $600; 
dedicated by A. S. Hammack. 

Swift Run; dedicated 1870; log; cost, $300; second by 
J. W. Brill; built about 1000. 

Sharon, at Reliance: first church built by P. H. Thomas 
18(i0 at cost of $700, dedicated by J. W. Howe; second, by 
J. E. Hott, 1887; cost $1,000; first preceded by partnership 

church. 

Shenandoah City: dedicated 1806; cost, $1,500. 

Spring Hill, Augusta circuit: built through William Pat- 
terson, about 1828; cost, $1,000. 

Sunrise: built 1885; cost, $1,000. 

Tabor: built 1854; cost, $600. 

44iompson (?): built by W. J. Miller; dedicated about 
1875; log; cost, $300. 

Toms Brook: built by M. F. Keiter about 1875; cost, 
$1,500; parsonage built by R. Byrd about 1801; cost $1,000. 

Tye River, Augusta circuit: built by A. Hoover, dedi- 
cated bv J. W. Howe, 1870; log; cost, $300. 

Union Chapel: built through D. W. Brenneman about 
1885; cost, $1,000. 

Union Chapel: built by W. R. Berry, 1888; dedicated 
by J. W. Howe; cost, $1,000. 



202 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Verona; dedicated by J. W. Howe 1890; cost, $800; 
second church built by J. C. S. Myers and W. S. Rau; dedi- 
cated by W. F. Gruver, May 31st, 1908; cost, $3,250. 

Walker's Creek: built 1852; the Presbyterian half- 
interest bought out. 

Westernport: built by I. M. Underwood, about 1879-80. 
Rebuilt. 

Whitesel's: built about 1824; deed made some years 
later by Peter Whitesel to George Whitesel, Simon Wliite- 
sel, and George Lutz; this log church rebuilt after a great 
revival, the first meeting being led by C. W. Stinespring, 
about 1874 at cost of $500; weatherboarded, new windows, 
change of pulpit and benches; Daniel Sandy (?) one of the 
principal movers in this; new church built about 1891) and 
dedicated by Bishop Hott; cost, $1,000. 

Winchester: built by G. W. Howe, 1872; dedicated by 
Bishop Edwards; cost, $2,500; parsonage built by J. R. 
Ridenour during his second year's pastorate; at cost of 
$1,000. 

Yocum, Franklin circuit: built by J. W. Stearn; dedi- 
cated September 13th, 1914, by A. S. Hammack; cost, 
$1,200. 



CHAPTER XXHI 



SKETCH OF ABRAM PAl L FUNKHOl SER 

In our ])resent sketch we find a life so varied and a 
character so full of the desire to helj) humanity that no 
mere statement of facts can convey |)roperly the far-reach- 
ing influence of his life. Imbued with an intense interest 
in his fellow-men, he strove in every i)ossible way to aid 
in their moral and mental ui)lift. Into the brief outline 
of his life which follows must he read the ambition of a 
far-seeing man to be a worth-while citizen. 

Abram Paul Funkhouser was born December 10. 1853 
near Dayton, Virginia. His mother was Elizabeth Paul; 
his father Samuel Funkhouser. In his youth he attended 
private schools and afterwards was graduated from Otter- 
bein University, where he received his Bachelor's de^ri'e. 
Later he received the Master's degree from Lebanon College 
and Doctor of Divinity from York College. 

Immediately following his graduation, he founded Shen- 
andoah Institute at Dayton, Virginia, and for several years 
was president of this school. During four years he was 
superintendent of public schools in Rockingham and 
brought the educational interests of the county to a high 
state of efficiency. Later he was president of Leander 
Clark College of Iowa and of Lebanon Valley College at 
Annville, Pennsylvania. For two years he acted as assist- 
ance to President Forst of Berea College, Kentucky. Into 
this work he entered with the greatest enthusiasm, fulfill- 
ing as it did his own ideas in regard to vocational training. 
At the time of his death he was financing a student at Berea. 

By nature Dr. Funkhouser was deeply religious imd at 
an early age was converted and joined the United Brethren 
church. Shortly thereafter he became a member of the 
Virginia Conference. He was known as the ''Boy Preacher" 
at the aae of sixteen when he delivered his first sermon 
at Mt. Solon, Virginia in 1869. Subsequently he had charge 



204 



UNITED F3RETHREN 



of several circuits in the Virginia Conference, displaying 
eiTiciency and executive ability. He then became presiding 
elder of the South Branch District and was one of the most 
conspicuous delegates in the General Conference. For 
years he was a trustee of the United Brethren Publishing 
Board. In 1897 he was chosen associate editor of the 
**Religious Telescope." 

The activities of Dr. Funkhouser found expression in 
political and civic interests as well as in the spheres of 
religion and education. In 1883 he moved to Harrisonburg, 
Virginia, and began issuing 'The People," which name was 
later changed to^Tlie State Republican." This journal was 
one of tlie leading state j)apers of Virginia, taking for its 
chief issues prohibition and clean politics. When the Read- 
juster party arose, he began taking a prominent part in the 
pohtics of his native state, allying himself with the Republi- 
can i)arty. In 1887 when General Mahone was candidate 
for governor of Virginia he canvassed almost the vui'wc 
state^in his behalf and also did a great deal of editorial 
Avriting. In another cami)aign he made a race for a seat in 
the state senate and though the odds were greatly against 
him. he was defeated by fewer than ninety votes. 

In 189() Dr. Funkhouser originated the idea of a C()n- 
federate excursion to Canton, Ohio, the residence of Wil- 
liam McKinley, then the Republican nominee for President. 
Though almost unaided in his plan, he chartered three 
trains and these carried two thousand veterans and their 
sons to the Republican Mecca. It was during this presiden- 
tial campaign that Dr. Funkhouser was mentioned strongly 
for the position of Postmaster General in McKinley's cabi- 
net. In 1897 he became postmaster of Harrisonburg, Vir- 
ginia, and filled this position for eight years. In his term 
and because of his efforts Rockingham was the first county 
in the United States to be given a complete system of free 
rural mail delivery. 

His civic spirit is shown in his purchase of the prooei tv 
that became the Assembly Park. Under his leadership a 
tabernacle and (;ottages were built and the first Chautauqua 
in this part of Virginia became a successful enterprise. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



205 



His talent and ability qualified him for adventure in 
various forms of important enterprise, and with energy 
and enthusiasm he aspired to reach the limit. He con- 
side red no discouragement, paused at no obstacle, waited 
for no council, and listened for no applause. Under the 
lash of criticism he refused to wince and whine. He was 
a preacher, educator and organizer, with power to com- 
mand recognition. His mind was brilliant, and it was a 
])l(asure to hear him speak. 

Tlie wife of Dr. Funkhouser was Miss Minnie King, 
from Westerville. Ohio. Their children are Mrs. Jessie 
P. Roudabush, Samuel K. Funkhouser, Mrs. Mary W. 
Rouers, and Fdward K. I'lmkhouser. He was a kind hus- 
band and father and the Funkhouser home was a hapj)y 
f)ne. 



* 



As specimens of Dr. FunkhouseFs literary efforts, we 
present his address on '*()ur (Tiurch Centenary," delivc^red 
at Lebanon Valley College, December 10, 187.'^, while yiT 
a college student, and his fraternal address to the Genenil 
Conference of the Methodist Protestiuit Church, May 
24, 1912. 

OUH CHIHCH CENTENAIU' 

One hundred years ago, the blessings of civil and religi- 
ous liberty did not crown our country as they do to-day. 
Washington, — the greatness of whose character every one 
knows, — had not yet led the American army to victory. 
The galling yoke of oppression bore heavily upon our 
ancestors. The republic had not yet been established. 
Everywhere, the people were rising against tyranny, and 
our political horizon was dark. Nor was this darkness 
coniined alone to the political aspects of the country. In 
a great measure, the Church had lost her original purity; 
form had taken the place of power. F^xperimental religion 
was unknown even to many leading members of the 
Church. Yet there were some worthy exceptions. Noble 
men and women, in dift'erent [)arts of the land, were 



206 



UNITED 13HETHHEN 



endeavoriiii^ to arouse and awaken the Cluirch from her 
lethargy. 

Prominent amoni^ these ilhistrious workers were found 
Wilham Otterbein. Martin Hoehm, George Geeting, and 
others, wlio by tlieir zeal in good works and their untiring 
energy brought many souls to Christ and thus laid the 
foundation of the Chureh of the United Brethren in Christ 
And now we are about to be ealled upon to celebrate prop- 
erly the one hundredth year of her existence. 

Let us take a glance at her history up to the present 
time. For years Otterbein and his co-laborers directeci 
tlieir eti'orts alone to the conversion of souls. Consecpieiitly 
most of the converts were gathered into other churches. 
Hut from the time Otterbein clasi)ed Hoehm in his arms 
and exclaimed. "AVe are brethren," they looked forward 
to organic union. Hut this was not attempted until years 
after. At the great meeting at Isaac Long's, God i)()ured 
out his spirit upon the vast assembly, composed of mem- 
bers of many churches and of as many different opinions. 
From this meeting the revival intluence spread in many 
directions. A few |)reachers were raised up, who carried 
the gospel into the states of Maryland and Virginia. Some 
of their earnest workers emigrated to Ohio and soon raised 
the gospel banner in the then Far West. Large meetinuis 
were held in many places, and hundreds, yea, thousands, 
were converted to God, and scores were received into the 
Church. The efforts were thus far confined to the German 
lanuuaue and entirelv to the rural districts. Our fathers 
avoided large towns and cities. 

But the country was filling up with English-speaking 
people, and thus arose a demand for an F^nglish ministry 
which the Church was slow to supi)ly. However, when 
the ministry was partially sui)i)lied with F^nglish preachers, 
the progress of the Church was rapid. While some were 
zealously laboring here in the East, others moved witli the 
tide of emigration, and were soon preaching to tlu' in- 
habitants of the woods and ])rairies of the West. Thus 
the borders of the Church were enlarged, and by the efforts 



CHURCH HISTOHV 



207 



of earnest men she has continued to advance until to-day 
she extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from 
Canada to Tennessee. 

But progress for the first century was slow. Indeed," 
viewing it from a human standpoint,, it was remarkably 
^low. Near the close of this i)eriod her labor is still con- 
fined to German settlements, without a printed discipline, 
a printing establishment, newspaper, college, missionary 
society, or well organized itinerancy. Two annual confer- 
ence districts embrace the entire work, without a house of 
worship west of the Alleghany Mountains and but few east 
of them. In a tribute paid to the Church in 1813 by the 
venerable Bishop Asbury, he estimates the whole mend)er- 
slnj) to be 2(),()()(), and the number of ministers, 100. By 
a series of calamitous events between 1810 and 1820, the 
membership was so pruned down that by 1820 it numbered 
only about 9,000. 

Thus we see the Church, after a struggle of forty-six 
years, with less than 10,000 members and possessing noth- 
ing to make these permanent. Indeed, in the decade men- 
tioiK d, despite all the work done, there had been a total loss 
of more than 1,000. 

Hut at this time (iod was raising uj) an English ministry, 
and of its success we may judge by examining and com- 
paring statistics for the years following. 

The denominational interest of the Church now began 
to receive attention. The first disci])line was printed in 
1815. In the last month of 1835 the first issue of the 
"Religious Telescope'' api)eared, although in 1815 its cir- 
culation was only 3,000. Mount Pleasant College and 
Otterbein University were founded in 1817. In 1853 our 
efiicient Home, Frontier, and Foreign Missionary Society 
was organized. In 1850 the membershi]) of the United 
I^rethren Church was about 10,000. Ten years later it 
was 94,000, showing an increase in the decade of 54,000. 

What is the condition of the Church to-day? Her 
boundary is limited by no state lines, nor is she confined 
to one country only. Her membership is almost 150,000, 



208 



UNITED BHETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



209 



and she is ivpresented in almost all the states of the Union, 
Her territory is divided into more tlian forty eoni'erence 
distriets, these havini^ a foree of 2,000 ministers. She is 
makini^ her mark. Her printing house, besides carrying 
on a lari^e book trade, publishes six periodicals, whose joint 
circulation is more than 300,000 copies. Besides the "Sab- 
bath School;' and '^Benevolent Fund," and "Church Krec- 
tion'' societies, she has a vvcll ori^anized missionary society 
with many missionaries in Frontier fields, and two foreign 
missions manned with almost a dozen earnest workers. 
Her educational institutions are beginning to be a i)owc r. 
Besides half a dozen hii^^h schools and academies, she has 
as many regular colleges. 

If such be the United Brethren Church, every member 
should esteem himself happy that he lives to celebrate 
the centennial anniversary of the denomination. But will 
we accei)t the resi)()nsibility of our position? The resj)on- 
sibility is ui)on us and we must accept it. We must not 
prove recreant. '^Vs all rejoiced in bringing their gifts 
to King Solomon, so every one, young or old, man or 
woman, should contribute, as God has prospered him, in 
erecting monuments to the Lord that shall bless through 
coming ages all within their influence. Yes, this should be 
a year of rich harvest to the treasuries of the Church. 
and especially to her colleges. This year her friends should 
place Lebanon Valley College in the front rank. To her. 
donations should be made until they reach hundreds of 
thousands of dollars. Her halls should be filled with stu- 
dents. All this may be accomplished this year by united 
eft'ort. There are, at least, five hundred young men and 
women in these four cooperating conferences who should 
be in some department of college work to-day. The first 
thing needful is to make our college worthy in eveiy respect 
for fitting this large number for the responsible duties of 
life, and the second is, to send them here. 

We as students have resolved to do our part, and we, 
and the world, and God, expect the Church to do hers. 



Ij 1 



Mr. President, Fathers and Brethren*: 

Commissioned by our Board of Bishops, it is a great 
pleasure to my colleague, Dr. W^ishinger, and to myself to 
bring to you the sincere and cordial greetings of the United 
Brethren Church, and to reciprocate most heartily the 
splendid and touching ex[)ressions of fraternity of your 
distinguished representative. President Lewis, in his able 
address to our General Conference three j^ars ago at Can- 
ton, Ohio. We have followed your proceedings in this 
body with increased interest and rejoice over all the vic- 
tories you have won for Christ, especially during the last 
quadrennium. 

For six quadrenniums, it has been my privilege as a 
member of the General Conference to hear and greet the 
•brethren you have sent to us with messages of warmest 
sympathy and co-operation; messages in the more recent 
past, big with the conviction that God has one kingdom on 
earth; urging more than co-operation and fraternal sym- 
pathy — even the unity of organic union, responding in the 
fullest sense to eveiy advance made by our most enthusias- 
tic leaders. 

It was mv fortune to be a member of the Tri-Council 
which met six years ago in Dayton, Ohio, and to share in 
the spiritual exaltation of the whole Council described by 
another as "almost a modern Pentecost,'' after the un- 
expected but unanimous adoption of the resolution offered 
by your representative, Dr. Lewis, that "our first and chief 
business is to provide for the organic union of these three 
bodies;" and later, as a member of the Committee on 



*The following address by Dr. Funkhouser was in response to 
the resolution below, which was adopted by a unanimous vote. 

We believe that a union of the Methodist Protestant Church 
and Church of the United Brethren in Christ, is both possible and 
practical, and therefore we authorize our commission on church 
union to enter upon negotiation with the commission of the Church 
of the United Brethren in Christ, just so soon as that commission 
is full authorized to enter upon said negotiations. 



210 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Polity, both at Pittsburgh and at Chicago, to share in a 
small way in the adoption of the Plan of Union, in a very 
large measure, your plan of union, which was presented 
to the churches interested with so much promise for good 
to our common Zion. So that having met with these vour 
representatives and having learned to know your spirit, 
and having familiarized myself with your people and 
church life, I am not among strangers; for indeed I feel 
like repeating the words of our church founders almost a 
century and a half ago — when though strangers, after a 
heart-searching sermon full of the unction of the Holv 
Spirit by the Mennonite preacher, Martin Boehm, a man 
of small stature and plain garb, the stalwart and scholarly 
German Reformed Otterbein with brimming heart and 
tear-filled eyes, j)ut his arms about the speaker and ex- 
claimed "We are brethren." 

All of these efforts and i)lans for closer relationship be- 
tween our churches have had, from the beginning, our 
heartiest a[)pr()val, and our hopes have been high for 
realization of this forward step in the meaning of God's 
forces for the overthrow of sin and wickness in high places. 
And my conviction to-day is that the discontinuance of 
these efforts for union is most foolish, if not criminal. 

And in this, without a single exception, to the best of 
mv knowledge, on everv occasion when the cruestion has 
been voted on, in Annual or General Conference, these 
sentiments echo the expressd will of our i)e()ple. 

Hut Christian people do foolish things. We maintain 
schools and colleges, build churches and emj)loy j)astors, 
conduct Sunday schools and Young People's Societies to 
train, culture and save our children and make of them 
good men and women, and then we authorize others by 
law to destroy our work, degrade and ruin our children; 
and we build jails and penitentiaries and hire officers to 
harvest this crop of destruction, the result of legislation 
winked at and supported by Christians. 

The Protestant Church in the United States to whom 
is committed now, as in the past, the salvation of our peo- 



CHURCH HISTORY 



211 






pie and the making of the greatest nation on the earth, and, 
througli this nation, to reach every other people on the 
globe, has divided, according to Dr. Carroll, our religious 
census enumerator, into 141 denominations or sects, each 
more or less against the other, and this too in the face of 
the united hosts of darkness. If the Apostle Paul who 
begs us to ^iiave the mind which was in Christ Jesus, were 
writing us now, would he not say, '^Oh ! foolish brethren, 
who hath bewitched you?" Should we not pray, and that 
right earnestly, like the fellow falling from the high 
bridge: 'l.ord, have mercy, and have it cjuick!" 

What wasted strength, what a weakening of our forces. 
what a dissipation of our vital resources! 

The tendency of the age is toward organization and 
consolidation. The trend towards centralization is univer- 
sal. These are the days of integration. The day of indivi- 
dual initiative and effort and great achievement is past. 
We are in the era of world-wide movement. The world 
has become a great community, from all parts of which we 
may hear daily, and every man has become our brother. 
The ])r()blems to be solved and the tasks to be done are so 
large that it takes great agencies to accomplish them, — not 
in commercial life only, — but also in the social, educational, 
political and religious worlds, the watch words are "Organ- 
ization" and "Combination!" And is it not the whole aim 
of the gospel and will it not be a glorious achievement to 
put (me spirit, the spirit of our Christ into the whole 
liuman family? 

Who is urging this union? Jesus, the head of the 
Church. His last prayer on earth was that "they might be 
one." The Holy Spirit is our inspiration and our guide. 
His first coming was to the disciples who were in one place 
and with one accord, and his perpetual ministry is to build 
us up together. Common sense and good judgment 
ai)peal to us to be as wise in religious affairs as the children 
of the world are in business matters; to mass our forces 
and push the conquest of Satan's kingdom, never so aggres- 
sive and defiant as now. 



V% 



212 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Our laymen are eai>er to see the methods of i)ractieal 
etliciency applied to the work of the churches. The loi>ic 
of facts is that of such a proposal. They want the comrade 
touch of shoulder to shoulder in company rank, the force 
of the rei^iment, the stratetjic i)o\ver of the well placed 
battalion. For a half million members of our two chu relies 
to be organically related is in itself a stimulus of no mean 
order. 

Who is ai^ainst us? Stitan, the arch enemy. The (k'vil 
is a stratei^ist. If he can keep the forces of truth divided 
into sections or sects, he will concfuer in detail and the 
rule of his authority will be undiminished. The open, 
active advocates and ai>ents of Satan decry church union, 
while |)ride in what our fathers wnnii^ht or left us, pre- 
judice of birth or traininL>, denominational i^reed and 
selfishness in all its ramifications, with some i>ood peo])le 
who live in the past and ([uestion the propriety of a chan,ij;e; 
these are the reactionaries cloi^i^ini^ the chariot wheels of 
pr()i>ress. 

A lyrowiniji sentiment of union is felt among all Chris- 
tian i)eople. All churches now have their committees on 
church union and a great national federation is endeavor- 
ing to bring all tlie churches nearer together. Men outside 
of the cliurch, as well as those within, deplore ecclesiastical 
division and look upon sectarianism as a reproach. I nity 
does not mean uniformity; but it does mean such a s])irit 
of loyalty to the master and such a love for the brethren 
as will tolerate individual differences and permit individual 
variety under a common form. 

Subordinate beliefs raised to the rank of essentials 
block the way of unity. There is no ])roprietary right in 
matters of faith. The basis of real union must always be 
found in a common spiritual im])ulse and life; and it will 
be effective, not along lines of history and ancestry, but 
in si)iritual afhnity; not in a common origin but in a com- 
mon life — The I'nion must be vital, not simply formal. 

There is so much in common between the Methodist 
Protestant Church and the Church of the United Brethren 



CHURCH HISTORY 



2i:i 



in Christ, that the wonder is not how to get them together, 
but that Ihev have been so long apart. Each has a supreme 
regard for the facts of religious experience; each stands for 
the right of private judgment in matters of religion, the 
freedom of the local church, and supreme loyalty to Jesus 
as Lord and King. In doctrine, they are both Arminian; 
and in organization, thoroughly American, and they do not 
difler, in any imi)ortant i)articulars, in form, sacraments 
and ordinances. 

Neither of us number our adherents by the million but 
our crowning glory has been the regenerated heart as the 
key to the saved life; and we continue to hold, and (iod 
iirdui that it mav never l)e otherwise, that our first duly 
is to provide for the maintenance of (lod's invisible Church 
in the hearts of his children, (iod's communications with 
the soul are personal and individual and the cry of the 
ages is: "() that 1 knew where I might find him!" 

The more consecrated and enthusiastic our people and 
the more elficient and developed our organization, the more 
successfully can we respond to this yearning api)eal in 
heli)ful Christian service. 

The marshalling of our columno under one i)anner and 
one leadership and as one host with a single i)urpose would 
be an object lesson in the recovery of Christianity towards 
the unity that alone is the Master's i)lea and a forerumier 
of similar movements that may characterize our age. 

With our principles affirmed and our prejudices denied 
in this the day of His power, we stand willing to l)e led. 
willing to act, willing to move out, if it may be into a wider 
fellow'ship and a more abounding service. Mr. President, 
'if thv heart be as my heart, give me thy hand." 



CHIHCH HISTOHY 



21 :> 



CHAPTEU XXIV 

THE CHURCH AND EDUCATION 

Some one has declared that nine-tenths of all education 
since the founding of Christianity has sprung from the 
tradition and purposes of the Church. Of course the 
mathematical character of the statement is for the purpose 
of giving definiteness to a strong claim. It was the policy 
of tlie Church of the Middle Ages to keep the Hihle from 
the mass of the people and to discourage popular education, 
so that all Clu'istendom might he kept in intellectual slavery 
to a crafty and thoroughly organized priesthood. The 
Reformers, including those \\'ho appeared before the Refor- 
mation of the sixteenth century, were not at all in sym- 
pathy with this idea. They believed most firmly that all 
[)i'rsons should be able to read and write, although their 
zeal in the cause of education was primarily religious. 
Tliey insisted that their people should read the Bible for 
themselves, so that their faith might rest on a sure founda- 
tion. Therefore schools, open to the public generally, 
sprang u|) in all the portions of Euroj)e that were deeply 
influenced by the Protestant Reformation. 

Hut the sect which in 11)27 called itself the United Breth- 
n 11 found that "a more enlarged acquaintance with litera- 
ture and philosophy had, in some instances, paralyzed the 
zeal of ministers in promoting the edification of their 
Hocks, and, by the false gloss of heathen philosophy, 
obscured the bright ])urity of Christian doctrine, which 
derives all its luster from Christ crucified." These men 
"laid greater stress on piety, moral conduct, and knowledge 
of the Holy Scriptures, in persons sustaining the pastoral 
office, than in human learning." 

These criticisms are of precisely the same character as 
those which have been urged by the present United Breth- 
ren Church. The higher education of the earlier day con- 
sisted very greatly in the study of the dead languages of 



(ireece and Rome. When these hmguages were living 
tongues, they were spoken by nations that were pagan, 
although at the same time (juite highly civilized. The idea> 
presented in their literatures sprang from a heathen and 
not a Christian source, and to minds imperfectly trained 
were likely to be prejudicial. And it must be added that 
until within the last half-century there was no very material 
change in the course of study in all colleges. 

Otti'rbein was recognized as one of the cultured nun of 
his day, and he used at least five languages, ancient and 
modern. But to him and those who thought as he did. 
religion is almost wholly an individual and personal work 
within the soul. It is only incidentally an aifair of the m- 
tellect. Otterbein was not a man to believe very much in 
educational religion, which was almost the only form 
recoLHiized in the state churches. He could work consist- 
ently and harmoniously with persons like Boehm, (nieth- 
in<^ and Newconur, whose education was not above the 
level of a country school training of to-day. Intellectually, 
they were not his etfuals. But in the matter of religioii 
they stood on common ground. It is perhai)s because he 
regarded the work of the established churches as com- 
paratively inethcient that he let his scholarship lie in the 
background. He preached in much the same manner as 
his associates, and he never wrote a book. And yet he was 
the more efl'ective because of his scholarship. Whether the 
advanced education be a curse or a blessing is after all 
a personal affair. Nevertheless, Otterbein does not seem 
to have been a strenuous advocate for higher training in 
others. He perceived that the preaching most needed by 
the time in which he lived was of the sort presented by 
men of his own kind. "There is no evidence that Otterbein 
ever impressed upon his associates and disciples the neces- 
sity of educational training. Did he feel that necessity, or, 
rather, did he share the popular feeling that scholarshii) 
was generally conducive to spiritual coldness and formal- 
ity? At any rate, he acquiesced in choosing and sending 
out new preachers whose only claim to ability to teach 



210 



rXlTKD BRETHREN 



was that they knew God in a powerful, personal salvation 
from the power and fear of sin. With some ability to speak 
in public, with untiring zeal, and an industry that abated 
Jiot, and with assured support from their own resources, 
fl'e pioneers carried on a propaganda that made adherents 
wherever they went/' 

"Having fled from the persecutions of those in authority 
in Europe, who represented, of course, the educated classes, 
our ancestors felt that the best in life was to be secured 
in the ([uiet of domestic home life, apart from the know!- 
<'dge of the world." 

For several decades after Otterbein, the Tnited l>reth- 
ren ministers had little respect for what they culled 
*'preacher factories/' Their prejudice against college train- 
ing came largely by noticing that in these schools tdu- 
i^ational ((ualifications were more esteemed than spiritual- 
ity. In the ministry of the old churches they also observed 
that education and a cold formality were closely associatini. 
So they thought it better to rely less on books than on the 
I)romptings of the Spirit. This prejudice was held by the 
laity as well as by the preachers. 

It was not until 18()5 that the education of ministers was 
considered with any favor by a General Gonference. The 
establishing of Otterbein University was much n^sisted for 
a while, and Lebanon Valley Golleue was not founded 
until 187(). In theory the United Brethren membership lias 
never opposed higher education, except in its bearin«> on 
ministerial preparation. And yet a prejudice against it 
in a theological s'ense could not fail to build up a degree 
of ])rejiidice in a secular sense. This prejudice has in 
our day been very much overcome. 

The demand for a change has grown with a growth of 
intelligence and knowledge among the masses, aiMl is 
insistent as they realize that the leader of the religious 
forces of the community must devote his time and strength 
to the ministry of the Word. An educated ministry \vas 
<)])posed by the Otterbein people so long as they saw that 
men who made their living by some form of busiiu'ss, aiui 



CHURCH HISTORY 



217 



I 



Avere without training, culture, or knowledge, were put 
forward as the teachers of "the people who perish for want 
of knowledge.'' 

In the ])resent century it is becoming recognized that 
religion without education sinks to the level of a supersti- 
tion, and that the proper aim of a liberal education is not 
culture for the sake of culture, but culture for the sake 
of service to others. 

*Tlie ])resent feclir.g of indifference to an educated 
ministry results in a large part from the former i)ronounced 
o|)f)()sition to any culture or special training for the pulpit. 
The pioneers themselves were uneducated, and having tied 
from the persecution's of the se in authority in Kurope, who 
represented, of course, the educated classes, our ancestors 
felt that the best in life was to be secured in the quiet of 
domestic home life, apart from the knowledge of the world. 
It was this knov.ledge or learning wliich they blamed for 
the wickedness of those who possessed it. 

"They wire fortiiied in this position by what they saw 
in tiie sclioois themselves. A bitter fountain sends out 
bitter waters. And it must be admitted tliat they were 
grounds for their conclusions. Kven wlien learning did 
not seriously alfect the religious belief, its deadening effect 
was to be seen in the cold and lifeless formality of the 
educated ministry of the existing churches. There was no 
stirring of the cMUotions, 'no heart,' in the preaching which 
appealed to the judgment and reason, and, conseifuently, 
what they offered was a 'religion of the head.' This was 
believed to be fatal to all vital godliness. 

"The lirst member of tliis conference after Otterbein to 
be a college graduate was Samuel Kvers, who completed 
the course in Otterbein University and joined the confer- 
ence in 1857. He founded IMeasant (h'ove Academy in 
is:)!) and had less than two years of service when death 
ended his work in January, 1801. Just before this. D. I). 
Keedy and G. H. Ilammack had been students at Mount 
Pleasant, Pennsylvania, but the combining of this school 
with Otterbein at WeMerville, Ohio, ended their school 



218 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



work, as they did not follow it to the new location. Hie 
next man to complete the collei^e course was J. N. l^^ries, 
who in the centennial year received his diploma and dei»ree 
from Otterbein, and has been for forty years a faithful and 
successful teacher. 

"The necessity for colleije trainini> was not i>enerally 
felt. Indeed, up to about this time the old notion that edu- 
cation is not :in essential for the minister, was generally 
held. It was emphasized in my own experience. In the 
spring of 1872, Boonsboro circuit, to which J. W. Hott had 
been sent, wanted a junior preacher. The Sunday after 
the conference, J. \V. Howe, j)residini^ elder, and John 
Ruebush, pastor, visited me at Keezletown, where 1 was 
teaching my second school, and spent the day with me, 
endeavorini^ to persuade me to accept that appointment and 
enter at once upon the work of the active ministry. Whiii 
I uri>ed my ii^norance and need of preparation, and told 
them I was i)lannini^ to i,^) to collei^e, they re-enforced 
their position by saying, it is a pity to see a man sj^ending 
the best vears of his life in school while the world is beini> 
lost.' I was then eighteen. Howe and Ruebush were strong 
men, and more progressive than many others, and yet 
they reflected the general opinion. Both men lived to 
change their ideas entirely on this subject, for a few years 
later they were my strongest supporters in establishing 
Shenandoah Institute. 

'*Evers, Fries, McMullen, Hendrickson, Harper, (), \V. 
Burtner, C. M. Good, \V. 1). Good, and myself* have been 
graduated from Otterbein, and S. K. Wine and \V. O. Fiies 
from Lebanon Valley; and of these only Fries, McMullen, 
W. I). Good, and the writer are today (1914) members of 
this conference. After etficient service in Virginia, Mary- 
land, and Pennsylvania, Wine died at Chambersburg in 
the prime of life. The others are living and fhiding fields^ 
of usefulness elsewhere. Eleven have taken a course in 
Bonebrake Seminary: G. P. Hott, J. W. Hicks. L. O. Burt- 
ner, A. \V. Horn, H. H. Font, J. E. Font, \\. O. Jones, 
*A. P. Funkhouser. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



219 



L. W. Lutz, and Lan Seng Nam. C. W. Burtner is a Con- 
iireuationalists ])astor in Connecticut, while onlv A. S. Ham- 
mack remain a member of this conference. Forty-eight 
members of the conference have attended Shenandoah 
Institute, some com[)leting the full course. Some twenty-five 
years ago, nearly all who entered the conference studied 
at this school. But in the last twenty years a little less than 
one-third, and in the last ten years a little less than one in 
five have attended our conference school. Of our present 
membership of 58, those who have studied at Dayton, Vir- 
ginia, number 22. 

^M. R. Ridenour. A. 1). Freed, C. M. Hott, and P. W. 
Weller were students in Lebanon Valley College for one 
or more years." 



CHAPTER XXV 
THE VIRGINIA COXFFREXCE SCHOOL 

Tlu' country about Dayton, Virijiinia was settled lon,^ 
before tliere was any villai>e at this |)oint. Tlie little stone 
buildino on the east border, between the Harrisonburo pike 
and Cook's creek, was built as a fortified house, and was 
surrounded bv a stockade. It is supposed there was a 
covered way leadini^ to tlie stream, and a condition in the 
crown patent to the land on wliich the lower mill stands 
is that the Burtner fort shall have enough water for its 
use. Even before the Revolution tliere was an Episcopal 
chapel adjacent to the town cemetery. On the ij;r()und 
now occupied by artificial Silver Lake was a Presbyterian 
church. The early population of the vicinity was Scotch- 
Irish and Ent^lish and not German. As a hamlet, Dayton 
was first known as Rifetown or Rifeville. In 183,'), Dayton 
was made a town by an Act of Assembly. The first dwell- 
ing within the town site was the Rife house, a roui^h-coat 
buildiiiiJi that stood on the Institute cami)us. Previous to 
its beinu torn down by Dr. P^mkhouser, ttu^ occupant kc^j)t 
a wagon yard. The Harrisonburg i)ike was built in bS.'i*), 
and in 1810 there were 26 houses in the village. The 
imion brick church now owned by the Church of the Hreth- 
ren was built about 1858. Prior to this the only preaching 
j)lace was a long shoj) building. Bachtel had a steel triangle 
made, and this was beaten with a hammer to give notice 
of the preaching hour. The discovery of gold in California 
made money plentiful, and Dayton was on somewhat of a 
boom. Property was in demand, houses were built, and 
in 1852 the i)lace was incor|)orated. 

Shenandoah S(Miiinary was founded in 1875 and incor- 
porated one year later. In 1871) it was named Shenandoah 
Institute. Its first habitation was the building on Main 
street near the entrance to the street leading to the railway 
station. It is at present the store and residence of Mr. Stine- 



CHPHCFt FHSTOHY 



2*21 



s])ring. The next home of the school was the building 
since known as Ladies' Dormitory Number One and Dining 
Hall. Until then this was a store and dwelling house. In 
1885 an annex was attached to this building. In the same 
year the campus was purchased and maple trees planted 
on it. In 11)01 the Howt^ Memorial Building was erected on 
the campus, and in 11)12 the Administration Building, 
opposite the Boarding Hall, was completed. Including two 
residences, occupied by the manager and Professor W. H. 
Ruebush, there are now six distinct buildings on the lands 
owned by the institution, and the total value of the plant 
is about $00,000. 

The school began with 20 students, and there were nianv 
recitations in private homes. A priman' school was at 
first connected with Shenandoah Academy. The manager, 
the instructor of the |)rimary department, and a teacher 
of music made up the original faculty. The following i)er- 
sons have successively been at the head of the school: 
A. P. Eunkhouser (1875-1885); J. N. Eries (1885-1887); 
G. P. Hott (1887-181)5); E. V. Hoenshel (181)5-11)10); .1. H. 
Ruebush, since 11)10. 

In 1902 the institution took the name of Shenandoah 
Collegiate Institute and School of Music, and by this title 
it has since been known. 

There are now ten members of the academic faculty, 
i\iu\ eight of the department of music. 

The curriculum embraces Bible study, English, History, 
Mathematics, Natural Science, Agriculture, Latin, German, 
I'^rench, Elocution, Domestic Science, and the Eine Arts, 
in addition to the work of the SluMiandoah Business Col- 
lege. Music has always been a strong adjunct. In the 
school year, 11)18-11), there were 115 students studying 
music, 101 were taking Bible study, 1)1 literature, 35 expres- 
.sion, 18 art, and 2 domestic scii'uce. There were 1 1 in tlie 
commercial courses. 

The school year, divided into two semesters, continues 
30 weeks. 

Tuition is $50 in each music course, and $50 to $75 in 
the academic courses. 



222 



UNITED HHETHREN 



In 42 years over (i,()()0 students have had partial frain- 
int^ in this institution. ^ 

Jay N. Fries was born at White Hall, ViriJiinia, Decem- 
ber 13, 1850. His early life was spent on his father's farm. 
In the fall of 18()1) he bei^an teachinij, and in 187() was 
i^raduated from Otterbein I'niversity with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. He had already been licensed to i)reach 
in 1871. In the year of his graduation he opened a high 
school at Dayton, Virginia, teacliing it four years, and then 
teaching in Hridgewater and Harrisonburg. For 12 years 
Prof. Fries was at the head of Shenandoah Institute, and 
his term was marked by thorough, conscientious, and suc- 
cessful work. 

Elmer U. Hoenshel was born in Westmoreland coimly, 
Pemisylvania, being one of the nine sons of George and 
Mary Hoenshel. He was converted at the age of nineteen 
and decided to be a teacher. Hut he received a license 
from a (juarterly conference in 1889, joined the Alleghany 
Conference in 1891, and was a graduate of Shenancloah 
Seminary in 1892. Prof. Hoenshel is very well known in 
'le Valley of Virginia as an educator and lecturer, and 
also as an author. He has traveled in Europe and Palestine . 

James H. Ruebush was born at Singers Glen, Virginia. 
October 17, 1865. Until the age of fourteen he lived on 
his father's farm. The family then moved to Dayton in 
the same county, where the son attended Shenandoah 
Institute five years. His studies in music was continued at 
Otterbein University, the Conservatory of Music at New 
York, and such summer schools as Silver Lake and Lake 
Chautauqua. In these he was a pupil of some eminent 
teachers. After teaching five years at Kee Mar College, he 
returned to Dayton in 1898, becoming Musical Director 
in the Institute. In 1910 he was put in control of the 
school. Mr. Ruebush is the author of several song books, 
the lirst of which is ''Gems of Gladness." He is a person 



CHURCH HISTORY 



223 



f 



of great energy and activity, and brings these ([uaUties 
to bear in everything in which he is concerned. Several 
times has he been a member of the General Conference of 
the United Brethren Cliurch, and he has held several otlier 
high positions in his denomination. 



CHAPTER XX VII 
A DIGKSr OF IHK CONFERENCE MINUTES 

Tlu' Virginia Conference, by a decision arrived at in 
1900, is the mother conference of the United Brethren 
Church. This abstract of the minutes therefore bei^nns with 
the session of 1781). Only the more important facts in 
the proceedint^s are here iJiiven. This is particularly the 
case since the minutes began to appear in printed form. 
Tlie reports of the last twenty years make pamphlets oi 
forty to seventy pages. To the publislied minutes the 
reader is referred for the conference membership and the 
najnes of the lay delegates. The orthography of proper 
names is not uniform in the various reports. Since the 
comi)iler could not always tell which form should be given 
the preference, he has sometiincs followed the variations 
found in the minutes. 

1789 

Conference at the home of William Otterbein, Baltimore, Md. 
Present: William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, George A. Guethina, 
Christian Newcomer, Henry Weidner, Adam Lehman, John 

Ernst — 7. 

Absent: Benedict Swope, Henry Baker, Frederick SchaeJle'-, 
Martin Kreider, Simon Herre, Ciiristopher Grosh. Abraliam 

Draksel — 7, 

1791 

('onference at the house of John Spangler, Paradise Twp, York 
County, Pa. 

Present: William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, George A. Guething, 
Christian Newcomer, Adam Lehman, John Ernst, J. G. Pfrinnner, 
John Neidig, Benedict Saunders — 9. 

Absent: Henry Weidner, Martin Kreider, Christopher Grosh, 
Cliristian Crum, I). Strirkler, Felix Light, John Mautz, Henry 
Baker, F. SehaetTer, Abraham Draksel, G. Fortenbach, J. Hershey, 
Simon Herre. Benedict Swope — 14. 

1800 

(Conference at the house of Peter Kemp, near Frederick, ?Jd., 
September 25. 



CHCBCH HISTOHY 



225 



Present: William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, G. A. Guething, 
John G. Pfrimmer. Christian Newcomer, Christian Crum. Henry 
Crum, John Hershey, J. Geisinger, Henry Boehm, Jacob Baulus, 
D. Aurand, Adam Lehman, Abraham Draksel — 14. 

Absent: John Neidig, Frederick Schaefler, Abraham Meyer, 
David Snyder, A. Hershey, John Ernst, Simon Herre, John Sen- 
seny, I. Niswander, Martin Kreider, Christopher Grosh, (i. Forten- 
baugh, Adam Beigel, Christian Hershey, M. Thomas, Daniel Strick- 
ler. Abraham Heistand — 17. 

Ten great meetings held during the conference year following. 

Otterbein and Boehm elected bishops. 

1801 

Conference again at Kemp's September 23. 

l^resent: William Otteibein. Martin Boehm, Christian New- 
comer, Daniel Strickler, (ieorge A. Guething. Peter Senseny, John 
Neidig, David Long. Abraham Meyer, Frederick Schaefler, John 
Hershey, Thomas Winter, L. Duckwald, David Snyder. Christian 
Crum, Matthias Kessler, Peter Kemp, Abraham Hershey, Jacob 
Geisinger, Michael Thomas — 20. 

Itinerants: C. Newcomer, A. Hershey, F. Schaeirer, P. Kemp, 
D. Snyder, D. Strickler, D. Long, M. Thomas, A. Meyer, J. Neidig. 

I^icsolved that each preacher who could not attend the annual 
conference should give due notice of that fact. 

Otterbein preached on the third and last day from Jude 20-25, 
on the responsibilities of the ministerial office. 

1802 

Conference at the house of John Cronise, near Kemp's, October 6. 

Bishops: W. Otterbein, M. Boehm. 

New members: William Ambrose of Sleepy Creek, Va. 

Ludwig Duckwald and John Neidig authorized to "administer 
all the ordinances of the house of God, according to the Scriptures." 

By a vfete of nine to three decided not to keep a register of the 
members of the church. 

"Besolved, that in case one of our superintendents, W. Otterbein 
or M. Boehm, should die, another minister shall be elected to fdl 
the place. This is the will of those two brethren, and the un- 
animous wish of all the i)reachers present." 

Otterbein preached the conference sermon the second day. 

Adjournment third day. 

During May, June, August, September, October, 19 great meetings. 

Xote: — Soon after conference a quarterly meeting on the old 
Huffman place below Pleasant Valley. Guething and Newcomer 
went home with the Moyers, who lived in a log house (where now 



22() 



UNITED BRETHREN 



is a brick house) near the Mennonite church on the Valley Pike. 
They tlien went 10 miles further to A. M. Hivener's. 

1803 

Conference at David Snyder's, Cumberland Co., Pa., ()ct()l)er 5, 
for a three day session. 

Present: William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, Christian New- 
comer, David Snyder, John Hershey, Peter Kemp, Abraham Meyer, 
Christopher Crosh, Christian Crum, Valentine Flugel, John Winter, 
Frederick Schaell'er, (ieorge Benedum— 13. 

Boehm and (irosh a connnittee to station the preachers of 
Pennsylvania. Maryland left to the preachers of that state. Bene- 
dum nnd Crum to call a meeting of tlie Virginia preacherj> and 
arrange their fields of labor. 

1804 

Conference against at Snyder's, October 3. 

Because of an epidemic in the country around, only 5 members 
were present. Martin Boehm, Abraham Meyer, Frederick Schaeffer, 
Christian Newcomer, Matthias Bortsfield. 

Died: Dr. Peter Senseny, of Winchester. 

Xote:— In the preceding May, Otterbein preached twice at a 
sacramental meeting in the Guething meeting house. 

1805 

Conference at the house of Jacob Baulus, near Middletown, 

Md., May 29. 

Present: 21 preachers. 

Otterbein and Boehm re-elected bishops. 

Newcomer to travel through the (ierman settlements in Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania, and Christian Crum in those of Virginia. 

1806 

Conference at Lorenz Eberhart's Frederick Co., Md., May 21, 
lasting three days as usual. 

Itinerants: Joseph Hoffman, Christian Crum. 

Great meetings arranged for. 

Present: John Neidig, Peter Kemp, John Hershey, Henry Crum, 
Lorenz Eberhart, Christian Crum, Christian Newcomer, George A. 
Guething, Joseph Hoffman, Michael Thomas, Jacob Baulus. 

1807 

Conference at Christian Herr's, Lancaster Co.. Ba. 
Martin Boehm presided. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



227 



Present: Martin Boehm, Isaac Niswander, John Neidig, Joseph 
Hofl'man, Christian Hershey, Christian Newcomer, Abraham Meyer, 
Frederick Schaeffer, George A. Guetliing, Abraham Hershey. David 
Snyder, Christian Crum, Christian Smith. David Long— 14. 

Died: Jacob Geisinger. 

1808 

Conference at Abraham Niswander's in Virginia, May 28. ^ 

Present: Christian Newcomer, Isaac Niswander, Ludwig Duck- 
wald, Abraham Meyer, George A. Guething, Joseph Hotlman, Peter 
Kemp, Christian Crum, Jacob Baulus, (Ieorge Holfman, David 
Snyder, William Ambrose, Frederick Duckwald, John Hershey— 14. 
Hitherto, the annual conference liad granted license to exhort. 
The following rule adopted, the great distances to l)e traveled on 
horseback often preventing the attendance of members: "Those 
who desire to receive license to preach among us shall be examined 
at a great meeting; and, if favorably reported, two of the elders 
shall grant them license for one year, at the end of which time, 
their license may be renewed at a great meeting." 

1809 

Conference again at Christian Herr's, May 10. 

Bishop Boehm presided. 

Present: Martin Boehm, Adam Reigel, Christian Smith, Joseph 
Hoffman, Isaac Niswander, (ieorge A. (mething. Christian Hershey, 
Christian Newcomer, John Hershey, Abraham Hershey, Diwid 
Long, David Snyder, Abraham Meyer, Frederick Schaeffer, Matthias 
Bortsfield, (ieorge Benedum, Christopher (irosh, John Snyder— 18. 

The subject of union or fellowshij) with the Methodists received 
a great deal of attention. 

Xote: Enoch George (Methodist) and Newcomer and (iueth- 

ing (U. B.) met at Guething's home, February 13, 1809. Newcomer 
attended the Baltimore Conference of the Methodists at Harrison- 
burg, Va., to promote a fraternal union. A connnittee was appointed 
to meet him, and the correspondence thus begun continued sev- 
eral years. * 

1810 

Conference again at John Cronise's, June 3. 

Present: 16 ministers. 

Salary of an unmarried preacher fixed at $80. 

The elder preachers required to visit all the appointments, in 
all the fields of labor, twice during the year, if at all possible. 

A letter from the Methodist Conference on the subject of a close 
union between the two churches was answered in a fraternal 



228 



UNITED HHKTHHEN 



spirit. The church at Rnltimore sent a letter to the conference 
on the same subject. 

Note:— The lirst United Bret!iren conference west of the .\lle- 
^hanies was the first session of the Miami, lield near Germantown, 
()., August 18, Bishop Newcomer presiding. 

1811 

^ Conference in Cumberhmd Co., Pa.. May 23. 

President: Christopher (Jrosh, Christian Smith, (ieorge A. 
(Uiething. Christian Newcomer, Abraham Draksel, Christian Crum, 
Jacob Baulus, David Snyder, Matthias Kessler, Joseph Hoffman! 
Isaac Niswander, Jacob Winter, David Eong, Frederick Scliaefl'er, 
Christian Hershey, Joseph Jordan. Henry Hiestand, Michael Baer, 
(ieorge Hoffman, Peter Swartz — 20. 

Died: Martin Boehm, aged 86; Peter Kemp February 20, while 
his family and friends were in morning prayers at his bedside; 
John Hershey. 

Licensed to preach: Jacob Winter, Peter Swartz. 
Licensed to exhort: Joseph Jordan, Michael Hersliev. 

1812 

Conference at (Uiething meeting house, Md., May 13. 
Present: Christian Newcomer, Abraham Draksel, Lsaac Nis- 
wander, Valentine Baulus, Lorenz Everhart, Christian Berger, 
Ceorge Cuething, Jacob Dehof, Christian Crum, Joseph Hoffinan', 
Af>raham Meyer, Jacob Baulus, Michael Thomas, Henry Hiestand! 
Martin Crider, George A. Guething, Christian Smith, David Snvder! 
Abraham Hershey, Jacot) Weidner, Henrv G. Spavth, John 
Crider— 22. 

Salary for a married preacher fixed at i^lOO. 

Itinerants: H. Hiestand, H. G. Spayth. 

Much consideration given to the fraternal correspondence with 
the Methodists. Delegates present from tlie Baltimore and Phila- 
delphia conferences of the Methodists. Unanimously resolved that 
friendship and love shall be maintained between the two churches 
Fraternal delegates appointed. 

Church work placed under the care of superintendents or 
elders, who were assigned districts and authorized to hold small 
conferences on the circuits, whenever necessary 

July 30 and October 29 appointed days of fasting, praver, and 
Jianksgiving, to be observed throughout the denomination. 

The following a recorded roll of all the ministers of the 
church who up to this date were authorized *'to administer all 
the ordinances of the house of God." None were ordained The 



CHURCH IllSTOHY 



22i/ 




I 



authorization had been at some great meeting, or a conference to 
administer the sacraments: 

William Otterbein, Christian Newcomer, Christoi)her Grosli, 
John Neidig, Christian Hershey, Isaac Niswander, Peter Kemp. 
Martin Boehm, Christian Crum, Abraham Draksel, David Long, 
Abi'aham Meyer, Daniel Troyer. Adam Biegel, George A. Guething. 
,I()hn Hershey, Ludwig Duckwald, Abraham Hershe\. William Am- 
t>:-()se, George Benedum, Frederick Schaelfer, Joseph llolVman. 
David Snyder, David Gingerich, Christian Smith, (Christian Berger. 

Died: Matthias Kessler. George A. Guething. 

A. Meyer to assist in holding two great meetings in Virginia. 
Spa>th to visit Virginia in November. 

Note: — (iuething was secretary of the confei'ence from ISOn to 
1812, inclusive. Shortly before his death he finished transcribing 
the minutes from loose leaves into a conference book. 

1813 

Conference again at (^Jiristian Herr's. 

Christopher Grosh, chairman; CJiristian Smith, secretai'>-. 

Present: Christo|)her Grosh, ('hristian Newcomer, John Neidig, 
Abraham Meyer, Adam Biegel, C^hristian Crum, Frederick Schaef- 
fer, Jacob Baulus, Valentine Baulus, David Snyder, ('hristian 
Hershey, Abraham Hershey, George Guething, Michael Baer, Heniy 
G. Spayth. (Christian Smith, Henry Hiest;md, .loseph .loi'dan — 18. 

Licensed to exhort: .lohn Brown. John Geisinger. ('harles Has- 
sel, George Kill). 

An address, signed by Bishop .Xsbui'y, received from tlu' B.ilti- 
more Methodist Conference, and Newcomer and Baulus directed t(* 
prepare a reply. 

Newcomer, Crum, Hoffman, and Baulus appointed a connniltee 
to meet a committee from the Evangelical Association for the pur- 
pose of effecting an organic union. This proceeding grew out of 
a visit by Newcomer to the Evangelical conference in A])ril. 1813. 
He was given a letter to be laid before the United Brethren con- 
ference. The committee, — Newcomer, Crum, Hoffman, and Baulus, 
— met the Evangelical committee at New Berlin, Pa., and con- 
ferred several days without coming to any conclusion. The 
Albrights ( Evangelicals) had been wonking about 15 years, and 
had 15 itinerants and 800 members. Their general conference of 
181(5 changed the name of the denomination to its present form, and 
discussed the proposed union. A committee of six from each 
church met at Henry Kumler's in 1817, but failed to come to any 
understanding. 

Christian Newcomer elected bishop for one year. 



230 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Ordered that the Discipline and the Confession of Faith be 

printed. 

Died: William Otterbein, aged 87. 

1814 

Conference at Hagerstown, Md., May 24. 

C. Newcomer, bishop; J. Baulus, secretary. 

Present: Christian Newcomer, Abraliam Meyer, John Baer, 
David Snyder, (ieorge (ieeting, Thomas Winter, Frederick Schaef- 
fer, Christian Crum, Jacob Dehof, Henry C. Spayth, Joseph Hotl- 
man. Christopher (irosh, Valentine Baukis, Herman Ow, John 
Neidig, John Snyder, Jacob Baulus, Isaac Niswander, Christian 
Smith, Christian Berger, Michael Thomas— 21. 

Licensed to preach: John Bathfang, Joseph Fry, George Kolb, 
John (ieisinger, Henry Kumler, Jacob \Venger. 

Authorized to administer the ordinances: Herman Ow, John 
^inyder, Henry G. Spayth. 

Christian Newcomer elected bishop for three years. 

Christian Hershey elected presiding elder for two years "over 
the district in his part of the country." 

A letter from Otterbein's congregation expressing the wish to 
connect itself with the United Brethren and thus to be supplied 
with preachers in future. 

The lirst Thursday in August designated as a day of fasting 
and prayer. 

Itinerants: John Snyder, Hagerstown circuit; Henry G. Spayth, 
Kockinghani circuit. 

1815 

Conference at Henry Kunder's, Franklin Co., Pa., May 9. 

G. Newcomer, bishop; J. Baulus, secretary. 

Present: Christian Newcomer, David Snyder, Isaac Niswander, 
Valentine Baulus, Henry Kumler, Jacob Baulus, Christian Berger. 
Jonas Witmer, John Neidig, John Baer, Jacob Dehof, Henry G. 
Spayth, Michael Baer, Henry J. Fry, Joseph Hotfman, Abraham 
Meyer, John Crider, John Snyder, George Geeting, Henry Hiestand, 
Jacob Wenger, Jacob Winter — 22. 

Licensed to preach: Peter Swartz, Valentine Hiskey, Jonas 
Witmer. 

Licensed to exhort: Daniel Pfeifer, Jacob Flickinger, George 
Brown, Samuel Huber, Samuel Brandt. 

A camp meeting,— the first by the United Brethren, — ordered at 
Bockv Springs, Franklin Co., Pa., August 11. 

1816 

Conference at the house of David Long. Cumberland Co., Pa.. 
:May 7, , 



CHURCH HISTORY 



231 



C. Newcomer, bishop; J. Baulus, secretary. 

Licensed to preach: Jacob Flickinger, Sanuiel Huber. William 

Brown. 

Ordained: Henry Kunder, George Geeting, George HofTman. 

Peter Swartz. 

Presiding elders (for two years): A. Meyer, J. HofTnKin, J. 

Baulus. 

Camp meeting ordered at MiddlekolUs. four miles from Hagers- 
town, Md., August 8. 

Present: Christian Newcomer, Jolin Neidig, David Snyder. 
George (Ieeting, Abraliam Hershey, Peter Swartz, Al)raham Meyer. 
Christian Smith, Henry Kunder. Jacob Dehof, Hermon Ow, Jaco!) 
Baulus, John Snyder, Joseph Holfman, Miciiael Baer, David Long, 
(ieorge Hoffman — 1 7. 

1817 

Conference at Guetiiing's meeting house, Md., May 15. 

C. Newcomer, bishop: J. Baulus and John Hildt, secretaries. 

Present: Christian Newcomer, Cliristian Hershey, John Snyder. 
John Crider, Michael Thomas, Jacob Winter, John Baer, Cliristian 
Berger, William Brown, Abraham Meyer, Jacob Baulus. Valentine 
Baulus, Jacob Dehof, George (.eeting, Conrad Both. Henry Kunder, 
John Hildt, David Fleck, John Neidig. Joseph Hoffman, Henry G. 
Spayth, Samuel Huber, Isaac Niswander, Jacob Wenger, Jacob 
Flickinger, George Brown — 26. 

Licensed to preach: J. Hildt, Jacob Brazer, William Brown, 
D. Flick. 

Ordained: J. Crider, V. Baulus. 

Camp meeting Hxed for August 14 at MiddlekolUs, Md. 

Presiding elders: J. Snyder, H. Kunder. 

Presiding elders directed to keep an account of the moneys 
collected by the traveling preachers, and what was paid out to 
them in settlement, report to conference, and see that the settle- 
ment is recorded in the minutes. 

1818 

Conference at the house of Christian Hershey, Lancaster, Co.. 

Pa., May 5. 

C. Newcomer, bishop. 

Present: Christian Newcomer, Joseph HofTman, iValentine 
Baulus, Samuel Huber, Jacob Lehman, Joseph Jordan, John Snyder. 
David Fleck, J. Zentmyer, A. Zeller, Abraham Meyer, William 
Brown, Michael Baer, Christian Hershey, John Geisinger, George 
Brown, George Kolb, Daniel Pfeifer, Christopher (irosh, Henry 
Kunder, Jacob Wenger, Henry G. Spayth, Daniel Gingerich, Arba- 
ham Hershey, Conrad Roth, Christian Smith— 26. 



-232 



UNITED BHETHREN 



Licensed to exhort: Abraham Horner, John Hussel, (Conrad 
AVeist. 

Licensed to preach: Daniel Pfeifer. 

('amp meeting fixed for MiddlekofV's for August. 

Letter from Baltimore stirred up interest in I'aising funds for 
frontier preachers. 

1(S19 

Conference at Valentine Doub's. Frederick ('o., Md., May 4. 

l^resent: (Christian Xewcomei-, Andrew Zeller, Adam Lehman, 
Isaac Niswander, John Crider. James Wenger, (ieorge (luethijig, 
Samuel Huher, David Hook, William Brown, John Bussel, Abraham 
Meyer, Michael Baer, John Hildt, John Neidig, Michael Thomas, 
Daniel Pfeifer, John Snyder, John Brown, ('onrad Weist, .lohn 
Felterhof. .lacob Baer, .lohn Brown, .lohn Cdotler, .lohn Hofl'er — 2.'). 

Received: John Brown, (]onrad Weist. 

Licensed to exhort: John Felterhof, James Baer, John Brown, 
John (lloU'er, John Holler. 

Letter from W. Line, P.egister of (Uimberland Co., Pa., announc- 
ing thnt David Snyder had beciueathed to the Conference one 
thousand dollars, payable one year after the death of his wife. 
Letter entered on the minutes. 

Abraham Me\er paid in lifty dollars to be distributed among the 
poor itinerimt members in Ohio, according to the wishes of the 
donor, Elizabeth Sn\(ler, and the money given into the care of 
Bro. Zellei'. 

After paying all expenses, the sum of s()().24 in the (A)nference 
treasury was ordered to be distributed among the itinerants in Ohio. 

Ord;iined: Williiim Brown. David Heck. Samuel Huf)er, James 
Wenger. 

Died: David Snyder, aged ,')7; Valentine Baulus, aged ,")(). 
(]amp meetings ordered at Pleasant Valley. Washington ('o., 
]Md., August 5; Bocky Si)rings. Pa., August 2(); l^ockingham Co., 
Va., September 9. 

Presiding elders: Samuel Huber, Hagerstown Dist.: Abrahnm 
Meyer, .luniata; .lacob Baulus, Virginia; John Xeidig. Lancaster. 

Appointments: John Snyder, Baltimore; Daniel Pfeifer, Hagers- 
town; David Heck, .luniata; William Brown and Conrad Weist, 
Virginia; Ohio, .fohn Paissel. John Felterhof. 

1820 

(Conference at the house of (k^nrad Xicodenuis. Washijigton, 
Co.. Md., May 2. 

Present: (Christian Newcomer, Abraham Meyer, Isaac Niswan- 
der, John Crider, Michael Thomas, Sanuiel Huber, David Heck, 
William Brown, John Brown, (Conrad Weist, James Baulus. John 



B 



CHURCH HISTORY 



233 



Hildt, John Snyder, John Brown, deorge Brown, Jacob Weidner, 
Jacob Dunahoo, George Cuething, Daniel Pfeifer, Jacob Adam 
Lehman, Jacob Baer, David Baer, Henry Werbe (?), John HatVord, 
Christian Hershey, John Cloffer, Jacob Dehof — 27. 

Abraham Meyer, chairman; John Hildt, secretary. 

Licensed: John Brown, Diivid Baei\ Jacob Dunahoo. Jacob 
Baer. for six months. 

Received from Elizabeth Snyder for the traveling preachers, ^25. 

Ordained: John Hildt, (Ieorge Brown, David Pfeifer, Henry 
Werbe. * 

Camp meeting dates: Rockingham (Co., Va., August 3; Pleasant 
Valley, Md., August 17; Rock Springs. Pa., August 24. 

Licensed to exhort: (Christian Traub. 

Presiding elders: (Ieorge Cuething. Va.; Sanuiel Hiibei", Hagers- 
town; Abraham Meyer, Juniata; .loim Neidig, Lancaster. 

Appointments: John Snyder, Baltimore; William Brown and 
Conrad Weist, Hagerstown; John Brown, Juniata; Daniel Pfeifer 
and Jacob Dunahoo, Virginia. 

"(rod be praised for the blessings we received on this occasion. 
C\Iay He grant his blessings on our i)roceedings." 

1821 

(Conference at Hagerstown, Md.. April 10. 

Present: (Christian Newcomer. Jacob liaulus, Abraham Meyer, 
John (Crider, Samuel Huber. John Snyder, Henry Werbe, William 
Brown, Joseph llotlman. John Brown (Pa.), John Brown (Va.), 
;Conrad Weist, Daniel Pfeifer. Peter Schwariz, Jacob Dehof, (ieorge 
Cuething, Michael Baer. John Bussel. Jacob Fleckinger, Jacob 
Dunahoo, (Christian lUirkhardt, John lialVord, Samuel Brant— 23. 

C. Newcomer, bishop; A. Meyer, chairman; J. Hildt, secretary. 

Presiding elders api)ointe(l a committee to select the traveling 

preachers. 

Licensed: John (Joller, John Ilalford. (Christian Traub and 
Henry Burtner licensed for two years on trial. 

Ordained: John Brown (Va.), John Brown (Pa.). 

Died: (Christian (Crumb, Isaac Niswander, Frederick Herr. 

Picceived during the year for the support of the itinerancy, 
.$430.07. Each preacher received s73.2L 

Itinerants for the year: John Snyder, William Brown, (Conrad 
Weist, Daniel Pfeifer, (Christian Traub, John Brown (Va.), Jaco!) 
Dunahoo, John Brown (Pa.), Henry Burtner. 

P>aulus, Snyder, Hoirman, Meyer, Cuething, Traub, Hershey. a 
committee to devise a plan to secure funds to support the itinerant 
ministers, reported as follows: "Resolved by the ministers of the 
(Church of the United Brethren in (Christ in (Conference assembled. 



234 



UNITED BRETHREN 



that there is a ^reat necessity of forming a society and create a 
fund from which the poor travehng and wornout and superan- 
nuated members shall be supported." Resolved, that for every 
circuit agents be appointed there to invite persons to join this 
society and to ^et subscriptions. "Resolved, that this annual con- 
ference appoint a committee to draw up a constitution for this 
benevolent societv and lav it before the next annual conference. 
R(isolved, that in order to help those that m'v in need now, a 
subscription (be taken) and have it circulated in the conferences. 
Resolved, that copies of these resolutions be st^t to the -eneral 
and the annual conferences of Pennsylvania and Ohio." 

Resolution unanimously adopted. Hildt and Baulus appointed a 
committee to prepare a constitution and submit it to the next ses- 
sion of conference. The presiding elders to act as agents. 

\lso agreed to ask from next (General Conference to change 
the second article in our Discipline as far as it relates to members 

of general conferences. * » i.. 

Camp meetings: Maryland, August 2; Virginia, August lb; 

I»ennsylvania, August 30. 

1822 

Conference at the house of Mr. Kauge, Cumberland Co.. Pa.. 

April 9. 

C Newcomer and J. HofTman, bishops; J. Hildt, secretary. 

Present- \braham Mever, .John Neidig, Abraham Hershey, 
Michael Baer, John Brown (Va.), Jacob Wenger, Daniel Pfeifer. 
Henry Spavth, Samuel Huber, William Brown, Jacob Dunahoo. 
Conrad Weist, Christian Smith, John Hildt, Valentine Hershey. 
George Guething, Henry Werbe, David Baer, Christian Traub, John 
Hoffard, Henry Burtner, Herman Ow, John Brown (Pa.), George 
Benedum, Jacob Brazer, John Snyder, Thomas Kartin( ?)— 27. 

Itinerants: William Brown, Conrad Weist, Daniel Pfeifer, John 
Brown (Pa.), John Snyder, John Brown (Va.) Christian Traub. 
Henrv Burtner, Samuel Huber. 

Committe on itinerants reported they had secured during the 
year for the support of ministers, .^620.50, which, divided, gave to 
every married preacher, $124.10; to every single preacher, .^02.05. 

A letter prepared in reply to one received from the preacher 
and delegates of the Methodist society in New York was ordered 

sent. 

The plan reported by the committee on constitution for bene- 
volent society was adopted and the following trustees appointed: 
John Brazer, Chambersburg; Valentine Doub, Frederick Co.; 
Andreas Newcomer, Washington Co.; John Cronise, Frederick Co.; 
Samuel Huber, Rocky Springs; Jacob Wenger, Franklin Co.; Geor;:-.? 
Martin, Hagerstown. 



1 



CHURCH HISTORY 



235 



Presiding elders reported i?400 subscribed to the benevolent 
society, and were authoribed to continue their efTorts. 

Licensed to preach: Thomas Hustin, John Reder. 

Licensed to exhort: James Ewig, Lorenz Esterlin. 

Ordained: Conrad Weist, David Raer, Valentine Hiskey. 

Trustees of benevolent society authorized to have society incor- 
porated and constitution printed. 

1823 
Conference at the residence of John Cronise, Frederick Co., 

^'^C.^Nlwcmner, bishop; G. Guething, chairman; J. Hildt, secretary. 

Present- Abraham Hershey, Abraham Meyer, Samuel Huber, 
\braham Huber, William Rrown, John Brown (Pa.) John Brown 
(Va) Conrad Weist, Jacob Dunahoo, Daniel Pfeifer, Ch -stian 
Traub, Henry Burtner, John Hildt, John Crider, Jacob Wenger. 
(ieorge (kiething, John Hatford, Jacob Dehof— 18. 

Licensed: Gideon Smith, Jacob Erb, John HaiVord, Abraham 

Huber. ,^, .,. ... , 

Ordained: Christian Traub, Henry Burtner, Philip /legler. 

Died: Henrv Werbe, James Brazer. 

Presiding eiders: John Snider, William Brown, Abraham 
Hershey, Abraham Meyer, John Hildt, George (.uething. John 

Crider. 

Itinerants for the coming year: William Brown, Conrad Weist, 
John Brown, Henry Burtner, Christian Traub, Daniel Pfeifer, 
Jacob Erb, Gideon Smith. 

Received for support of traveling preachers, $727. Paid to 
William Rrown and John Rrown, each, i<128.54; to .lacob Dunahoo, 
Conrad Weist, Christian Traub, John Rrown, Daniel Pfeifer, each, 
$1)4.27; to Samuel Huber, $17.02. 

Treasurer of benevolent society reported $11.50 in hand, after 
paying all expenses, amounting to $9.50. Voted that the $11.50 
be sent by C. Newcomer to the brethren of Ohio Conference. 

1824 

Conference at Shauman's church. Pleasant Valley, Md., May 4. 

C. Newcomer and J. Hoffman, bishops; John Hildt and John G. 
Pfrimmer, secretaries. 

Present: Abraham Meyer, George Guething, Samuel Huber, John 
Crider, Jacob Dehof, W^illiam Rrown, Daniel Pfeifer, Conrad Weist, 
Henry Rurtner, John Hildt, John Hafford, David Heck, John Rrown, 
David Raer, John ClolTer, John (.. Pfrimmer, Jacob Wenger, (.ideon 
Smith, Jacob Erb, William Abels, John Eckart, Michael Thomas, 
Lorenz Estalin — 23. 



236 



UNITED BKETHHEN 



Licensed to preach: Lorenz Estalin, James Evvii,^ 

Licensed to exhort: John Fry, James Debold. John Brubaker 

(renewal). 

Ordained: William Abels. 

Died: Abraham Lehman, aged 90. 

Itinerants for coming year: William Brown, John Brown, Con- 
rad Weist, Henry Burtner, Daniel Pfeifer, William Abels, (lideon 

Snell, Jacob Doubs. 

Money collected for traveling preachers, i^OlS.OO. Paid to Wil- 
liam Brown, .^119; to John Brown, .S142.70; to Henry Burtner, 
Gideon Smith, and Conrad Weist, each, $71.37; to Daniel Pfeifer, 
i<59.50; to Jacob Erb, $47.,58; to Christian Traub, $35.71. 

Trustees of benevolent society report in hand, i=^28.()l. Voted 
that the part belonging to this conference $9.50 be given to Chris- 
tian Traub, who has been very sick a long term and in great need 

for help. 

Besolved that the election of delegates to the next General (con- 
ference be held on or before January 1, 1825, and that to every 
one elected the earliest personal notice be given. 

Besolved that Thursday, July 30, be set apart as a day of fasting 
and prayer. 

1825 

Conference at Petersburg, Adams Co., Pa.. May 10. 
Present: Christian Newcomer. John Hihh, Abraham Meyer, 
Abraham Hershey, (leorge Guething, John Brown, Conrad Weist, 
Gideon Smith, Jacob Erb, Henry Burtner, Jacob Doub, John H af- 
ford, William I^rown, John Crider, David Heck, Samuel Huber, 
Abraham Huber, David Baer, John Snyder, John Xeidig, Christian 
Smith, Daniel Pfeifer, Valentine Hickey, John Fry, Lorenz Estalin, 
Jacob Wenger, John Clopper, Christian Traub, William Abels— 29. 

Committee on complaints, should any be made: C Xeidig, 

Meyer, John Brown, William Brown, Jacob Doub. 

After all the members present were examined, conference in- 
quired into the character of the following absent brethren: W. 
Bhinehart, Christian Shopp, John Sewell (?), John Zahn, John 
Crack, Jacob Debolt, John Hendricks, James Snyder, Abraham 
Hershe\ . 

Committee on complaints reported on Samuel Huber, Jaco[) 
Wenger, and Christian Traub, and the report adopted. 

The cases of those brethren who are on trial were taken up 
and a continuance on trial decided upon. 

Itinerants for coming year: William Brown, John Brown, Con- 
rad Weist, Jacob Erb, Jacob Doub, Gideon Smith. 

Besolved in future to omit "Beverend" in our addresses to 
brethren. 



CHUBCH HISTOBY 



237 



< 



Licensed to preach: William Bhinehart, John Zahn, John Hend- 
ricks, Christian Shoop, John Crack, James Snyder, Abraham 
Hershey. John Fry. 

Licensed to exhort: John Smith, Thomas Oberholtz. 

The secretaries shall give notice to Bro. (^eisinger that they 
can do nothing for him. 

Beport on the conduct of John Snyder unanimously adopted. 

Beceived on support of traveling preachers during the year, 
$711 .4(). 

1825 (Second Session) 

Conference at Chambersburg, Pa., November 17. 

C. Newcomer and Henry Kumler, bishops; William Brown and 
Gideon Smith, secretaries. 

Present: John Hildt (P. E.), Abraham Meyer (P. E.), William 
Brown (P. E.), George Guething (P. E.), Samuel Huber, Valentine 
Hiskey, Jacob Erb, Daniel Pfeifer, Gideon Smith, John Hendricks, 
John Brown, Jacob Doub, Henry Burtner, Conrad Weist, Daniel 
Heck, John Bider, John Baer, Abraham Huber, John Wenger, Jacob 
Wenger, Jacob Debold, Jonah Whitcom, Jonah Houk, Jonah Haf- 
ford, Simon Drislock, Christian Shoop, Henry Kumbalin, Lorenz 
Estalin, John Fry, John (.eisinger, David Baer— 31. 

AhMubers of other conferences or synods shall have a seal in 
this conference but no vote. 

No complaints i)referre(l. 

Continued on trial: John Hairord, Abraham Huber, Jonali Houk. 

Ordained: John Bider, (.ideon Smith, Jacob Erb. 

Itinerants for coming year: William Brown, John Brown, 
Gideon Smith. Daniel Pfeifer, Conrad Weist, Simon Drislock, John 
Hendricks. Jacob Debold. 

It shall be the duty of all the preachers to appoint class-meet- 
ings at all regular appointments and to urge attendance upon them. 

Licensed to preach: Daniel Godnatt, Thomas Miller, Henry 
Kinnnerling, Jonah Houk, Peter Habecker, Ezekiel Boring. 

Licensed to exhort: Michael Carver, James Newman, James 

Sutton. 

Besolved that December 23 next be set apart as a day of prayer. 

1820 

Conference at the residence of Bro. Sh()i)p, Cumberland Co., 
Pa., Ai)ril 3. 

C. Newcomer an<l H. Kumler, bishops; Henry Spayth, secretary. 

Present: Abraham Meyer, John Crider, (ieorge (iuething, Wil- 
liam Brown, John Brown, Christian Smith, Samuel Huber, Jonah 
Wilcom, David Baer, John Hildt, Henry Spayth, Conrad Weist, 



238 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Abraham Hershev, Jacob Debold, John Geisinger, John Zahn, Valen- 
tine Hiskev, Jacob Erb, John Hendricks, John Crack, Christian 
Shopp Christian Hershev, Peter Schwartz, Simon Drislock, James 
Snyder, Gideon Smith, Daniel Pfeifer, Christian Ludxvig, Thomas 
Miller, Ezekiel Borini^, Joseph Marsh (exhorter), John Neidig, 
Michael Carver (exhorter), James Newman (exhorter), Daniel God- 
natt, Jonah Houk, Abraham Hershev, Christian Traiib, James Rupp, 
John Hoffman — 42. 

Itinerants for coming year: William Brown, John Brown, 
(iideon Smith, Conrad Weist, Jacob Debold, John Hendricks, Simon 
Drislock, Jacob Erb, Thomas Miller. 

Presiding elders: John Neidig, Samuel Huber, David Baer. 

It shall be the diitv of every member of this conference to be 
present during the annual session, and if necessarily detained, it 
shall be his duty to state to conference in a letter the reasons for 
his absence. 

A roll of all the members of this conference shall be kept, their 
names called at every session, and their characters induired into. 

Received last year for support of the preachers, $771.24. Salary 
of married preachers, .$160; single preachers, $80. 

Resolved that John Hildt in the name of this conference shall 
give authority to Christian Newcomer, our senior bishop, and sign 
the same in our behalf, by which Bro. Newcomer can ask from the 
executors of the last will and testament of our deceased sister, 
Elizabeth Snyder, the sum of $1,000 given by her to the conferences 
of the United States in Christ and give a receipt for it. 

Licensed: John Hoffman. 

Voted that Christian Traub be received again among us. 

August 4 next shall be a day of thanksgiving and prayer in all 
the appointments of this conference. 

1827 

Conference at the house of Bro. Kunge, Springfield, Cu;nber- 
land Co., Pa., April 3. 

C. Newcomer and H. Kumler, bishops; Jacob Erb, secretary. 

Present: John Hildt, Christian Hershey, John Crider, Jacob 
Lehman, Samuel Huber, David Baer, Simon Drislock, Thomas Mil- 
ler, Valentine Hiskey, Jacob Erb, John Brown, Henry Burtner, 
David Heck, John Crack, Lorenz Estalin, John Fry, James Sutton, 
William Brown, John Hendricks, John Neidig, Daniel Pfeifer, Con- 
rad Weist, Christian Shopp, Jacob Debold, John Snyder, Peter 
Schwartz, James Newcomer, Jacob Wenger, George Guething, 
James Snyder, Jonah Houk, Michael Baer — 34. 

Continued on trial: Christian Shopp, James Snyder, Jacob 
Debold, Jonah Houk, John Fry. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



239 



Ordained: John Hendricks, Simon Drislock. Lorenz Esterlin, 
Abraham Hershey, John Zahn, John Crack. 

Died: Abraham Meyer, October 28, 1820, aged 09. 

Itinerants for the coming year: John Snyder, George Guething, 
William Brown, Thomas Miller, John Hendricks, John Zahn, John 
Crack, David Heck, Conrad Weist, Jacob Erb, James Talton, Chris- 
tian Traub, Gideon Smith. 

Presiding elders: John Snyder, George Guething. 

Paid in for support of itinerants, $803.16. Married preachers 
received $160 each; unmarried ones, $80. 

William Brown paid over to the conference $300, a part of $1,000 
be(iueathed by Bro. David Snyder to the conferences of the United 
Brethren in Christ. 

Treasurer of benevolent society reported $49.60 in his hands. 
Voted that John Hildt be given $12.40 of this sum to pay off a debt 
" made by one of our poor traveling preachers, and for which three 
of our brethren have gone security. 

A collection taken for the support of the preachers in the West- 
ern states. 

Licensed to preach: John Eckstein, John Hugel, George Hiskey. 

Licensed to exhort: John Gilbert, Peter Reick, John Pfeifer. 

Appointments: David Heck, Juniata; Gideon Smith, Lancaster; 
John Crack, York; John Zahn and John Eckstein, Hagerstown; 
John Hendricks and Thomas Miller, Virgend (?) circuit; Christian 
Traub, Huntingdon; Jacob Erb, New York mission; William Brown, 
Baltimore. 

Resolved, that we, the members of this annual conference, do 
not approve that any of our preachers or members belong to the 
order of Freemasonry and that in future every preacher and every 
member who is connected with this order or shall join it shall 
lose his membership in our church. 

1828 

Conference at the union church belonging to the Brethren and 
Reformed congregations in Middletown valley, Washington Co., 
Md., April 1. 

C. Newcomer, H. Kumler, bishops; J. Erb, secretary. 

Present: Jacob Erb, Henry Burtner, William Brown, John 
Hendricks, John Hildt, John Snyder, Samuel Huber, David Heck, 
Daniel Pfeifer, John Crack, Simon Drislock, John Zahn, John 
Neidig, John Hafford, Thomas Miller, William Rhinehart, James 
Sutton, James Wirters, James Newman, John Eckstein, Frederick 
Gilbert, Jacob Debold, Ezekiel Boring, James Snyder, George 
Pallas (?), Abraham Huber, John Cloffer— 30. 

Licensed to preach: Moses Lawson, William Schott, Henry 
Huber, George Gilbert, Frederick Gilbert, Joseph Berger, Richard 



:40 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Laken, William Kinnear, John Dehof, James Fulton, John Smith, 

Licensed to exhort: Peter Whitesel, Charles Boehm, George 
Gilerich (?), James Ewig, Samuel Allebaugh. 

Remained on triid: John Hafford, John Clofl'er, Abraham Huher. 

Ordained: Thomas Miler, William Rhinehart, George Patterson, 
Ezekiel Boring, James Snyder. 

Died: Christian Ludwig, Philip Ziegler. 

Conference was divided into the following districts: Vergennes 
(?), Hagerstown, Carlisle, Huntingdon. Lancaster. From each 
district two elders shall be elected delegates to the General 
Conference. 

Collected for support of traveling preachers, $877.80, which, 
divided, gives to each married man sl38.()3, and to each single one, 
^69.34. 

Appointments: 

Presiding elders: John Snyder, William Brown. 

Lancaster circuit: Ezekiel Boring, Frederick Gilbert. 

Baltimore: John Neidig. 

Carlisle: William Schott. 

■: John Oack. 

Huntingdon: John Hendricks. 

Hagerstown: John Zahn. 

Vergennes (?): Thomas Miller, John Eckstein. 

Susquehanna: Jacob Erb. 

Lebanon: Simon Drislock. 

1829 

Conference at Guetliing meeting house, Antietam Cr., Wash- 
ington Co., Md., April 7. 

C. Newcomer, H. Kumler, bishops; William Brown, Jacob Erb, 
secretaries. 

Present: John Snyder, (ieorge Guething, David Baer, John 
Neidig, Sanmel Huber, Jacob Erb, William Rhinehart, Ezekiel Bor- 
ing, John Crack, James Snyder, Henry Burtner, John Hendricks, 
Thomas Miller, John Rider, Jacob Dehof, John Zahn, Jacob Wen- 
ger, Frederick Gilbert, John Fry, Christian Shopp, David Baer, 
John Clotfer, John Hoffman, John Eckstein, James Newman, Wil- 
liam Schott, James Ewig — 27. 

Richard Schekels expelled for bad conduct. 

Licensed to preach: John Dorcas, Peter Herrman, Daniel Sen- 
seny. Christian Growling, James Ewig, James Newman, Henry 
Higgens, Noah Woodyard, William Knott, David Winters. 

Licensed to exhort: Jacob Haas, Jacob Perry, Martin Haman. 
George (iuething, John Dummer, Jacob Gerg (?). 



CHURCH HISTORY 



241 




I 



Ordained: Christian Shopp, John Cloffer, John Halford, John 
Eckstein, John Fry, John Hoffman, WMlliam Schott. 

Itinerants for coming year: John Snyder, William Rliinehart, 
W^illiam Brown, John Neidig, Ezekiel Boring, John Hendricks, 
Frederick (Albert, Thomas Miller, John Crack, John Dorcas, Wil- 
liam Schott, John Eckstein, James Snyder, Noah Woodford, Daniel 
Senseny, William Knott, James Ewig, John Zahn. 

John Snyder, Christian Shopp, William Brown a connnittee to 
examine the accounts of S. Drislock respecting certain collections 
made by him and to see that the money is expended according to 

description. 

Samuel Huber and David Baer a committee to meet David Long 
and others and exhort them to do better or suffer the consequences. 

Next conference to be held at the meeting house near Shopp's 
Cumberland Co., Pa., beginning third Monday in March, and that 
a great meeting be held at the same place the Saturday and Sunday 

previous. 

Almost no charge brought against anyone. Much testimony 
given of the work of grace in the hearts of the members. The 
experience of Jacob Haas surpassed anything ever brought before 
this conference. 

1830 

Conference convened at Shopp's meeting house, Cumberland 

Co., Pa., March 22. 

Henry Kumler, bishop; George Guething, chairman; John Eck- 
stein, German secretary; William Bhinehart, English secretary. 

Present: John Snyder, George Guething, David Baer, William 
Rhinehart, William Brown, Peter Schwartz, John Hoffman, Valen- 
tine Hiskey, Ezekiel Boring, John Crack, James Snyder, Daniel 
Pfeifer, John Hendricks, Thomas Miller, James Newman, John 
Zahn, Jacob Erb, Christian Shopp, Simon Drislock, John Eckstein, 
George Hiskey, John Dumer, William Schott, John Fry, James 
Ewig, David Winters, William Knott, John Dorcas, Charles Boehm, 
Moses, Law^son, John Dehof, John Smith, George Liberick (?), 
Christian Smith, John Hugel, WMlliam Kinnear, David Long, Peter 
Wetzel, Cieorge Hoffman, John Hafford, John Cloffer, Abraham 
Hershey, James Rupp, John Haney, Peter Harman, Frederick Gil- 
bert, Henry W'elcher — 49. 

Addressing seats granted to John Winebrenner and John Rebo 
(?) and accepted by them. 

The names of the following absent members were called and 
inquiry made with regard to their character: James Sutton, 
Samuel Huber, John Crider, Christian Traub, Abraham Huber, 
Thomas Huston, Abraham Herner, Henry Burtner, Herman Ow, 
Peter Herman, Abraham Hershey, Jacob Dehof, Jacob Debold, 



242 



UNITED BRETHREN 



David Heck, William Abels, John Rider, Conrad Weist, George 

Pullani— 18. 

Ordained: John Smith, George Hiskey, Moses Lawson, Fred- 
erick Gilbert, John Hazel, John Dehof. 

Died: Christian Newcomer, Christian Grosh. 

Licensed to preach: Herman Houk, Jacob Rhinehart, George 
Hotrman, Henry Sowy (?), Charles Boehm, John Potts, John Haney, 

Peter Whitzel. 

Itinerants for the year: John Zahn, Ezekiel Boring, Noah Wood- 
yard, John Crack, David Winters, James Newman, John Smith, 
Moses Lawson, John Dorcas, William Kin near, John Haney, Charles 
Boehm, James Snyder, Thomas Miller, John Hendricks, William 
Schott, Andrew Beard, Daniel Denvie. 

Jacob Erb and Simon Drislock asked to bring their comi)laints 
before the conference. Nothing being found to justify any action, 
the charges were dismissed. 

Bro. Drislock gave satisfaction in regard to the difliculties of 
last year. 

In future Hagerstown (Conference shall have the old protocol 
and Bro. Hansby shall procure a new book. Bro. Kumler gave 
William Brown two dollars for this purpose. He shall procure a 
book and transcribe from the old to the new all proceedings of 
importance. 

1831 

Conference at Mill Creek, Shenandoah Co., Va., April 27. 

Henry Kumler, bishop; \V. R. Rhinehart, secretary; George 
Geeting, chairman. 

F^resent: W. R. Rhinehart, Henry Burtner, John Krack, George 
Paterson, Jacob Erb, George Geeting, John Zahn, W. Kinnear, Peter 
Wetzel, William Miller, Jacob Houk, George HofTman, Noah Wood- 
yard, John Haney, Henry Higgens, Jacob Haas, Peter Harman, 
William Knott— 18. 

Absent: Jacob Dayhoof, John HafTord, John CloITer, Michael 
Thomas, Thomas Miller, John Eckstein, Harmon Houk, Lawrence 
Sibert, John Hendricks, (Conrad Weist — 10. 

John Ruebush and Jonathan Shenley appointed trustees to build 
a house on the Hamilton circuit, furnishing it with all necessary 
furniture for the acconnnodation of a married preacher. 

The bishop paid in .'i^34.61, — the full sixth part of the money 
coming from the benevolent society; also the money from Hide's 
estate willed to the conferences of the United Brethren in (Christ. 

Licensed: Jacob Glossbrenner, Jacob Haas, Frederick Hisey, 
William Miller. 

Voted that license be taken away from L. Sibert because of con- 
duct unbecoming a minister. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



213 



Voted that Jacob Bell, exhorter, be expelled. 

Minutes of the (Conference ordered to be published. 

Motion by W. R. Rhinehart that the vending and distilling of 
ardent spirits be entirely expunged from the oflicial body belonging 
to the United Brethren in Christ. Carried. 

Conference agreed that Conrad Weist should quit selling licjuor 
and preach more than he has done; if not, his license to be de- 
manded and he be a member of the church no longer. 

Voted that the circuit preachers return only the overplus of 
the money over and above what the Discipline allows, — to be 
divided among such preachers as may have failed in getting their 
full amount. 

Ordained: Peter Harman, Noah Woodyard, Henry Higgins, Wil- 
liam Kinnear. 

Appointsments: 

Hagerstown circuit: Jacob Glossbrenner, W. R. Rhinehart. 

Mechanicstown : John Miller, (ieorge (ieeting. 

Staunton and Woodstock circuits: John Zahn, Noah Woodyard, 
John Haney, Jacob Houk. 

Note: — These are the lirst minutes written in English. 

1832 

Conference at Hagerstown, Md., April 25. 

Henry Kumler, bishop; W. R. Rhinehart, secretary. 

Present: W. R. Rhinehart, Henry Burtner, John Zahn, John 
ClofFer, John Hafford, John Eckstein, Peter Harman, Jacob Day- 
hoof, Conrad Weist, Jacob Rhinehart, John Dorcas, William Miller, 
Jacob J. Glossbrenner, Noah Woodyard, William Knotts, John 
Haney, Henry Naybecker, Charles Boehm, Peter Wetzel — 19. 

The brethren from Pennsylvania Conference and those belong- 
ing to other churches were admitted to addressing seats. 

Licensed: Joseph M, Hershey, George Rimel. 

Ordained: John Dorcas, Jacob Rhinehart, John Haney, Wil- 
liam Knott, (Charles Boehm, Peter Wetzel. 

Died: Henry Higgins. 

Absent: George Patterson, Jacob Houk, Harmon Houk, Jacob 
Haas, Frederick Hisey, Michael Thomas, George Hoffman. 

Conference divided into two districts, Maryland and Virginia, 
each to elect two delegates to represent them in the next (jienerai 
(Conference. 

Of the money to the conferences of the German United Breth- 
ren in (Christ it was agreed that Bishop Kumler should give Valen- 



244 



UNITED BRETHREN 



tine Hiskcy "as much as seemeth good to him." 

Voted that an English hymn book be published. \V. H. Fihine- 
hart and .John Zahn a conmiittee to examine the selection before its 
publication. 

On nomination by the bishop, George Patterson was chosen 
presiding elder for Virginia, W. R. Rhinehart and Henry Burtner 
for the Hagerstown circuit; each of the latter to serve six months. 

Appointments : 

Woodstock circuit: George Patterson, .lohn Haney. 

Staunton circuit: J. J. (ilossbrenner, J. M. Hershey. 

Hagerstown circuit: W. R, Rhinehart, H. Burtner, .John Dorcas, 
Peter Wetzel. 

1833 

Conference convened at Pleasant Valley, Washington Co., Md., 
May 17. 

Henry Kunder, bishop; George Geeting, chairman; W. R. Rhine- 
hart, secretary. 

Present: Henry Burtner, ,Tohn Dorcas, Peter Weitzel, .John 
Hafrord, John Clotrer, .John Haney, George Patterson, Peter Har- 
man, .John Zahn, .John Eckstein, George Rimel, Conrad Weist, 
Jacob Rhinehart, William Knott, Henry Xebecker, Jacob Gloss- 
brenner, Joseph M. Hershey, Harmon Houk. Jacob Houk, George 
Hotfman, Sanuiel Allebaugh. 

Absent: Michael Thomas, Jacob Dayhoof, Noah Woodyard, 

Frederick Hisey; William Knott came "the last dav or eleventh 
hour." 

Admitted to addressing seats: William Brown. Jacob Erb, James 
Newman, George Hussey, Samuel Allenbaugh. 

Ordained: J. J. Cdossbrenner, J. Houk, George Hulfman. 

Licensed: W. R. Coursey, George A. Shuey. 

Presiding elders: William Brown, John Haney. 

Of the interest on the Snyder donation, voted .S15 to be given 
the bishop to defray his traveling expenses, the rest $(10.86) to 
John Zahn. 

Appointments: 

Hagerstown district: William Brown, P. E. 

Hagerstown circuit: John Dorcas, W. R. Coursey. 

Staunton district: John Haney, P. E. 

Staunton circuit: J. J. Glossbrenner, George Rimel. 

Woodstock circuit: P. Wetzel, William Knott. 

South Branch circuit: J. M. Hershey. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



245 



1834 

Conference at Jennings Branch meeting house ((^hui'chvillc)^ 
Va., April 21. 

William Brown, bishop; Henry Baulus, chairman: W. P». 
Coursey, secretary. 

Present: W. R. Rhineiiart, George Geeting, John Dorcas, .loliii 
('lotl'er, Jacob Rhinehart, Samuel Allenbaugh. George Patterson. 
John Haney, J. J. Glossbrenner, .lacob Houk. Harmon Houk. Peter 
Whitesel, William Knott, George HofVman. George Shuey, Joseph 
M. Hershey, George Rimel, Frederick Hisey, Noah Woody ard — 19. 

Transferred: Peter Harmon to Pennsylvania Confei'ence. 

Died: Michael Tiiomas, Jacob Dayhoof. 

George E. Deneal admitted to advisorx seat. 

Uicensed: Jacob Baer, Jacob Bachtel, Francis Aciiard; David 
Jackson was licensed to preach until the next conference by the 
presiding elder. 

Ordained: Harmon Houk, Samuel Allenbaugii. 

Presiding elders: J. J. Glossbrenner, Virginia district; H. Burt- 
ner, Maryland district. 

The resolution introduced by W. R. Rhinehart for the publica- 
tion of a religious newspaper was adoi)te(l. 

Noah Woodyard expelled. 

Samuel Allenbaugh and G. E. Deneal were each donated .^o. 

To the preachers deficient on their sjdary, .^7.22 donated. 

Api)ointments: 

Hagerstown circuit: J. Hane\, W. 1^. (Coursey. 

Frederick circuit: J. Dorcas, J. Bachtel. 

Staunton circuit: G. Rimel, S. Allenbaugh. 

Woodstock circuit: P. Whitesel, W. Knott. 

South Branch: J. M. Hershey, J. Baei'. 

Winchester mission: G. E. Deneal. 

18.3.') 

(Conference at Hickle's schoolhouse, Shenandoah Co., Va., 
March 18. 

William Brown, bishoi); Henry Burtner, chairman; W. R. 
Coursey, secretary. 

Present: George Patterson, Samuel Allenbaugh, Joseph M. 
Hershey, George A. (ieeting, Jacob Rhinehart, John Haney, William 
Knott, (]onrad Weist, George B. Rimel, J. J. Glossbrenner, George 
E. Deneal, Jacob Eckstein, George A. Shuey, Peter Whitesel, John 



246 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Krack, William R. Coursey, George HofTinan, J. Raer, Frederick 
Hisey, Francis Eckard, Jacob Bachtel, Jacob C. Houk, John 
Huft'ard— 23. 

Absent: George Geeting, John Dorcas, John Eckstein, John 
€h)trer, John H afford, (Conrad Weist — (5. 

Voted that only the licensed preachers be present at the ex- 
jiniinations into the character of preachers. 

Ordained: George Rimel, Frederick Hisey, William R. Coursey. 
Joseph M. Hershey, George E. Deneal, George A. Shuey. 

Samuel Fiinkhouser from the Pennsylvania Conference ad- 
mitted to an advisory seat. 

Licensed: Adam Bovey, Jonathan Tobey, Jacob iMeiser, David 
Jackson, Martin L. Fries, David Spessard. 

The presiding elder empowered to ask for the license of Conrad 
Weist. 

A charge against Bro. Dorcas referred to fianey, Deneal and 
Jacob Rhinehart, who report he should give up his license, or they 
be given power to silence him if he refuse to give complete 
satisfaction. 

Voted that John Krach of Pennsylvania Conference be trans- 
ferred to the Virginia Conference. 

The preachers are retiuested to make an effort to raise money 
to help meet the expenses of the new meeting house in Mechanics- 
town, Md., after they have met their own demands on a similar 
subject. 

W. Knott to receive .$8 of the benevolent fund, J. M. Hershey, 

^'54.08. 

Appointments: 

Frederick circuit: John Krach, W. R. Coursey. 

Hagerstown circuit: G. Rimel, J. Baer. 

Staunton circuit: Jacob Houk, P. Whitesel. 

Woodstock circuit: S. Allenbaugh, J .Tobey. 

Winchester: J. Haney, J. Menser. 

South Branch: J. Bachtel. 

Page mission: G .E. Deneal, M. L. Fries. 

Maryland Districts: H. Burtner, P. E.; Hagerstown circuit, G. B. 
Rimel, J. Baer. Frederick circuit, J. Krack, W. R. Coursey. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



247 



1836 

Conference at Geeting meeting house, Md., March 19. 
Samuel Hiestand, bishop; W. R. Coursey, secretary. 

Licensed to preach: Moses Michael. 

Mission opened in Jackson county on Ohio River. 

J. J. (ilossbrenner, P. E. reported his salary -^110. 

Appointments: 

Staunton District: J. J. (ilossbrenner, P. E.; Staunton circuit. 
P. Whitesel, D. S. Spessard; Woodstock circuit, S. Allenbaugh; 
South Branch circuit, J. Bachtel; Winchester circuit, J. C. Houk; 
Rockland mission. G. A. Shuey; Jackson mission, M. Michael. 

Maryland District: J. Rhinehart, P. E.; Hagerstown circuit. G. 
B. Rimel, M. L. Fries; Frederick circuit: W. Knott, J. Tobey. 

Conference at Bethel schoolhouse, near the present village of 
Chewsville, Md., March 20. 

Samuel Hiestand, bishop; G. A. Shuey, secretary. 

Members: J. J. Glossbrenner, John Clopper, Moses Michael, Wil- 
liam Knott, Jacob C. Houck, David S. Spessard, Charles W. Zahn, 
Jacob Rhinehart, John Haffard, Adam I. Bovey, George B. Rimel, 
Jacob Bachtel, Jonathan Tobey, George A. (Meeting, William R. 
Coursey, Jacob Baer, Sanuiel Allenbaugh, George Patterson, Fred- 
erick A. Roper — 19. 

Licensed to preach: F. A. Roper, C. W. Zahn. 

Ordained: J. Bachtel, J. Baer. 

Died: P. Whitesel, M. L. Fries. 

J. Bachtel located on account of ill health on the Frederick and 
Hagerstown circuits and to be supported by them. 

Appointments: 

Staunton District: J. J. (ilossbrenner, P. E.; Winchester cir- 
cuit, C. W. Zahn; Woodstock circuit, J. C. Houck; Staunton circuit. 
W. R. Coursey, G. A. Shuey (6 months); South Branch circuit, S. 
Allenbaugh; Pendleton mission, F. A. Roper; Jackson mission, M. 

Michael. 

Frederick circuit, G. B. Rimel; Hagerstown circuit, W. Knott. 

1838 

Conference at Shiloh church near Christian Shuey's, Augusta 
Co., Va., March 21. 

Sanuiel Hiestand, bishop; W. R. Coursey, secretary. 

Present: Jacob Rhinehart, David S. Spessard, George HoffuKui, 



24<S 



UNITED BRETHREX 



Charles \V. Zahn, Francis Eckard, Jacob Markwoofl, (leorge B. 
Biniel, J. J. (ilossbrenner, A(him I. Bovey. W. W. McCahe, William 
Edwards, William Knott, Jacob C Houck, Jacob Bachtel, (leorge 
A. Shuey, John Richards — 16. 

Absent: (ieorge A. Meeting, Henry Burtner, Frederick Hisey, 
Frederick A. Roper, John Hatfard, Jacob Baer, Harmon Houck, 
John Clopper. Samuel Allenbaugh. Moses Michael — 10. 

Licensed to preach: W. Edwards, J. Richards, J. Bachtel. 

Ordained: A. I. Boye, I). S. Spessard, W. V. McCabe, F. Eckard. 

Expelled: F. A. Proper. 

Presiding elders: W. R. Coursey, J. Bachtel. 

Appointments: Hagerstown, \V. Knott, J. Markwood; Frederick, 
G. B. Rimel; Winchester, I). S. Spessard; Staunton. W. V. McCalie, 
AV. Edwards; Woodstock, J. C. Houck; South Branch, C. W. Zahn; 
Shiloh mission, J. J. Glossbrenner. 

1839 

Conference at Jersusalem church, Frederick Co., Md., Febru- 
ary 25. 

Jacob Erb, bishop; J. J. Glossbrenner, secretary. 

Present: Jacob Rhinehart, Samuel Allenbaugh, Adam 1. Bovey, 
AVilliam Knott, David S. Spessard, John Clopper, Jacob C. Houck, 
William Edwards, (ieorge A. Geeting, Jacob Markwood, John 
Richards, Jacob Baer, George B. Rimel, William R. Coursey, Charles 
W. Zahn, George A. Shuey, John Haffard — 17. 

Absent: George Patterson, Francis Eckard, Harmon Houck, 
George Ploffman, Frederick Hisey, Moses Michael, William V. Mc- 
Cabe. .lacob Rachtel — 9. 

Licensed to preach: Samuel Zehrung, Henry Jones, John Rue- 
bush, ,]\\, R. (i. H. Levering. 

Home missionary society organized. 

Presiding elder: W. R. Coursey, J. Bachtel. 

Appointments: Frederick, (ieorge Gilbert, i\. A. Shuey; Hagers- 
town, C. W. Zahn, J. Markwood; Winchester, I). S. Spessard; Wood- 
stock, W. Edwards; Staunton, J. B. Houck; South Branch, J. 
Richards; Shiloh mission, J. J. (dossbrenner; Pendleton mission, 
S. Allenbaugh; Jackson mission, H. Jones. 

1840 

Conference at Hickle's schoolhouse, Shenandoah Co., Va., 
February 3. 

Jacob Erb, bishop; J. J. (dossbrenner, secretary. 

Present: William R. Coursey, Jacob Bachtel, (k-orge B. Rimel, 
Frederick Hisey, Jacob B. Houck, Charles W. Zahn, Jacob Rhine- 
hart, Samuel Zahrung, John Richards, Henry Burtner, Samuel 



CHURCH HISTORY 



249 



Allenbaugh, George Gilbert, George A. Shuey, John Rucbush, David 
Spessard — 16. 

Absent: Harmon Houck, Jacob Baer, R. E. H. Levering, Frank- 
lin Eckard, Moses Michael, John Clopper, (George A. (feting, Henry 
Jones, Adam I. Bovey — 9. 

Licensed to preach: Benjamin Stickley, John Pope. 

Ordained: C. W. Zahn. 

J*resi(iing elders: W. R. Coursey, J. Baclitel. 

Apijointments: Frederick, J. J. (dossbrenner, G. A. Shuey; 
Hagerstown, G. Gilbert, J. Ruebush; Winchester, C. W. Zahn; Rock- 
bridge, I). S. Spessard; Staunton, .lacob B. Houck; Woodstock, .1. 
Markwood; Pendleton mission, S. Allenbaugh; Jackson mission, 
H. Jones. 

J. Rhinehart transferred to Pennsylvania Conference. 



1841 

Conference at Rocky Springs, Frederick Co., Md., February 22. 
No minutes are known to the compiler. 

1842 

Conference at Spring Hill, Augusta Co.. Va., April 4. 

Jacob Erb, bishop; Jacob Markwood, secretary. 

Present: William R. Coursey, (U'orge B. Rimel, (ieorge A. Shuey, 
Sanmel Zehrung, William Knott, Jacob Baclitel. Jacob B. Houck, 
Charles W. Zahn, John Poi)e, David S. Spessard. (ieorge Patterson, 
John Ruebush, George Hotrman--13. 

Absent: John Richards, Benjamin Stickley. Moses Michael, 
Jonathan Tobey, George Gilbert, Joim llalVard. Frederick Hisey, 
William Edwards, Adam 1. Bovey, Sanmel Allenbaugh. John Clop- 
per, Franklin Eckard, John Haney, Jacob Baer— 14. 

Licensed to preach: Emanuel Witter. Jacob C. Spitler. 

Withdrew irregularly: S. Allenbaugh. 

Silenced: F. Eckard. 

Ordained: J. Ruebusii, S. Zehrung. 

Died: G. A. (ieeting, aged (U. 

Presiding elders: J. J. (dossbrenner (Md.), J. B. Houck (Va.>. 

Appointments: Frederick, J. Bachtel, J. Markwood; Hagerstown, 
D. S. Spessard; Winchester, J. Richards; Staunton, W. R. Coursey, 
C. W. Zahn; Woodstock, G. B. Rimel; South Branch, J. Ruebush; 
Pendleton mission, J. Pope. 

1843 

Conference at Rohrersville, Md., February 14. 

Jacob Erb, bishop; D. S. Spessard, secretary. 

Present: J. J. (dossbrenner, John Clopper, Benjamin Stickley, 



250 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Joseph S. Grim, Jonathan Tobey, Jacob Rachtel, John Riiebush» 
John Pope, John Richards, A(huii I. Bovey, (ieorge B. Riniel, Jacob 
Baer, Jacob Markwood, Henry Burtner, John Haney — 15. 

Absent: William R. Coiirsey, William Knott, (leorj^e Patterson, 
(ieorge A. Shiiey, Charles W. Zahn, Sanuiel Zehriing, George Hoff- 
man, Frederick Hisey, William Edwards, Jacob C. Spitler. Moses 
Michael, D. Funkhouser — 12. 

Advisory members: John Riissel, G. Miller, Jacob Rhinehart. 

Licensed to preach: James E. Bowersox, John W. Fulkerson, 
Andrew J. (Hoffman, William Liitz. 

Received from Pennsylvania (Conference: J. Russell, David 
Engle. 

.Ordained: J. Pope, B. Stickley. 

Died: J. HiitTer, aged 42. 

Presiding elders: J. Markwood (Md.), J. B. Hoiick (Va.). 

Appointments: Frederick, D. S. Spessard; Hagerstown, J. 
Bachtel, J. Richards; Winchester, J. Tobey; Rockbridge, J. J. Gloss- 
brenner; Staunton, J. Baer, J. E. Bowersox; South Branch, J. Rue- 
bush; Pendleton mission, J. W. Fulkerson. 

1844 

Conference at Jennings Branch ( Church ville), Va., February 6. 

Jacob Erb, bishop; Jacob Markwood, secretary. 

Present: Henry Burtner, John Richards, Jacob B. Houck. Jacob 

C. Spitler, William B. Coursey, George B. Rimel, Adam I. Bovey, 

D. Funkhouser, Jacob Bachtel, Jacob Baer, John Ruebush, Joseph 
S. Grim, William Edwards, George A. Shuey, Benjamin Stickley, 
Emanuel Witter, J. J. (ilossbrenner, Jacob Markwood, James E. 
Bowersox, John Pope, William Knott, George HolTman, Charles 
W. Zahn, John W. Fulkerson — 24. 

Absent: David S. Spessard, John Haney, William Lutz, Jonathan 
Tobey, Frederick Hisey, Andrew J. (CofTman, John Clopper, Samuel 
Zehrung, David Engle — 9. 

Admitted: John Gibbons, J. W. Miles, John (i. Steward, David 
Ferrell, Joseph Funkhouser. 

Restored to good standing: F. Eckard. 

Died: G. Patterson. 

A Book Concern for the Church at the present time was de- 
cidedly opposed. 

Presiding elders: J. Markwood, J. B. Houck. 

Appointments: Frederick, I). S. Spessard; Hagerstown, J. Bach- 
tel, J. Richards; Winchester, J. Ruebush; Woodstock, W .R. (Coursey; 
Staunton, J. J. (ilossbrenner, J. (iibbons; Rockbridge, J. E. Bower- 
sox; Pendleton mission, B. Stickley; South Branch, J. W. Fulke.- 
son, J. W. Miles. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



251 



1845 



Conference at Jerusalem ciiurch, Middletown Valley. Md., 
February 3. 

Jacob Erb, Henry Kumler, bishops; .lames E. Bowersox. sec- 
retary. 

Present: Flenry Buiiner, (Charles W. Zahn, D. Funkhouser. John 
(iibbons, John Haney, .lac(^b Mai'kwood. William R. (Coursey. J. W. 
Miles, Jonathan Tobey, Jacob Bachtel, Joim Richards, Josej)!! S. 
Grim, Sanuiel Zehrung. Jacob B. Houck, Adam I. Bovey, Emanuel 
Witter. Jacob C. Spitler, John Clopper, William Knott. David S. 
Spessard, John W. Fulkerson, Jose[)h Funkhouser. Jacob J. (iloss- 
brenner, John Ruebush, Benjamin Stickley, John G. Steward — 2(i. 

Absent: Franklin Eckard, Frederick Hisey, (ieorge Hofl'man, 
Andrew J. (Coflinan, William Edwards, John Pope, Jacob Baer, 
George A. Shuey, George B. Rimel, William Lutz — 10. 

Licensed to j)reach : Richard Xihiser. 

Ordained: J. C. Spitler, E. Witter. 

License demanded of F. Eckard because of disobedience and 
neglect of duty. 

Next (ieneral (Conference to be petitioned that the boundaries 
of this conference be not diminished. 

Presiding elders: J. >Larkwood, W. R. (Coursey. 

Appointments: Frederick, J. Ruebush, J. (iibbons; Hagerstown, 
J. Bachtel, R. Nihiser; Winchester, D. S. Spessard; Woodstock, 
J. Richai'ds; Staunton, J. J. (ilossbrenner, J. W. Miles; Rockbridge, 
J. E. Bowersox; Franklin, B. Stickley; South Branch. J. W. Fulk- 
erson. 

184G 

Conference at Otterbein chai)el, Mill Creek, Shenandoali Co., 
Va., February 6. 

J. J. (ilossbrenner, bishop; J. E. Bowersox, secretary. 

Present: Henry Burtner, Jacob Markwood, John W. Fulkerson, 
William Edwards, Jjicob (C. Spitler, David S. Spessard, Sanuiel 
Zehrung, Jacol) B. Houck, Andrew J. (Cofl'man, William R. (Coursey, 
John Ruebush, James W. Miles, William Lutz, James E. Bowersox, 
Jacob Baer, Jacob Rhinehart, Benjamin Stickley, D. Funkhouser, 
George A. Shuey, (ieorge B. Rimel, John Pope, Joseph Funkhouser, 
Jacob Bachtel, John (iibbons, (ieorge Hofl'man, Frederick Hisey — 2(5. 

Al)sent: Adam 1. Bovey. Jonathan Tobey, John Markwood, 
Richard Nihiser, John (Clopper, David Engle, Emanuel Witter, John 
(i. Steward, John Haney, Charles W. Zahn, Joseph S. (irim, Wil- 
liam Knott— 13. 

Received on transfer: Jacob Rhinehart (from Pennsylvania 
Conference), John Markwood (Scioto (Conference). 



252 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Ordained: J. \V. Fulkerson, A. J. Coffman, W. Lutz, J. E. Rower- 
sox, J. Gibbons, J. W. Miles. 

Names of C. W. Zahn, J. Richards dropped from roll, they hav- 
ing irregularly withdrawn under charges. 

H. Rurtner re-elected treasurer of the benevolent fund. 

"Resolved, that this annual conference express by vote, its wish 
that the bishop itinerate through his district as nuich as possible, 
and we will do all we can to support him according to Discipline 
allowance." 

Presiding elders: W. R. Coursey, J. Markwood. 

Appointments: Frederick, G. B. Pdmel; Hagerstown, J. E. Rower- 
sox; Winchester, W. Edwards; Woodstock, J. Rachtel; Staunton, 
J. FUiebush, R. Nihiser; Rockbridge, J. W. Miles; South Branch, 
J. Gibbons; Franklin, W. Knott; Lewis mission, R. Stickley; Win- 
chester mission, J. W. Fulkerson. 

1847 

Conference at Mount Hebron (Geeting meeting house), Md., 
February 18. 

William Hanby, bishop; Jacob Markwood, secretary. 

Present: Henry Rurtner, James E. Rowersox, George R. Rimel, 
Renjamin Stickley, Jacol) Rhinehart, John Haney, John W. F'ulker- 
son, Jacob Markwood, William W. Goursey, John Ruebush, John 
Clopper, Adam I. Rovey, William Knott, John G. Steward, Joseph 
Funkhouser, William Edwards, Jacob Rachtel, Jacob Raer, Joseph 
S. Grim, Jonathan Tobey, James W. Miles, David S. Spessard, 
Emanuel Witter— 23. 

Absent: George A. Shucy, Jacob R. Houck, Andrew J. CofTman, 
Frederick Hisey, George Hotrman, D. Funkhouser, John Markwood, 
John Pope, Jacob C. Spitler, WilHam Lutz, Samuel Zehrung, David 
Engle— 12. 

David Edwards, editor of the Telescope, present. 

Ordained: J. Funkhouser, J. G. Stewart, J. S. Grim. 

Died: R. Nihiser, J. Gibbons. 

Presiding elders: J. Markwood, W. R. Coursey. 

Appointments: Frederick, G. R. Rimel, J. W. Fulkerson; Hagers- 
town, J. E. Rowersox, J. W. Miles; Winchester, J. R. Formelut ( ?) — 
by P. E.; Woodstock, J. Rachtel; Staunton, J. Ruebush; Rockbridge, 
D. S. Spessard; Franklin, W. Knott; North Franklin, to be supplied; 
South Branch, W. Edwards; Lewis mission, B. Stickley. 

1848 

Conference at Church ville, Va., January 27. 

John FUissell, bishop; Jacob Markwood, secretary. 

Present: Henry Burtner, James E. Bowersox, Jacob Baer, George 



CHURCH HISTORY 



253 






HofTman, (George R. Rimel, John Haney, Samuel Zehrung, Andrew 
J. Colfman, Wilham R. Coursey, John Ruebush, John W. Fulker- 
son, Jacob Markwood, George A. Shuey, John Pope, Jacob G. 
Spitler, Jacob Rachtel, James W. Miles. Renjamin Stickley, Jacob 
Rhinehart, William Edwards, Jacob R. Houck, William Knoft— 22. 

A!>sent: Jonathan Tobey, .lohn G. Steward, David S. Spessard, 
Moses Michael, Adam 1. Rovey, William Lutz. Frederick Hisey, 
Joseph S. Grim, Joseph Funkhouser, Emanuel Witter, David Engle, 
John Markwood — 12. 

Licensed to preach: George W. Station. George 0. Little. 

Presiding elders: J. Rhinehart. J. Markwood. 

Appointments: Frederick, W. R. Coursey, G. W. Station; Hagers- 
town, J. W. Fulkerson, J. W. Miles: Winchester, G. O. Little; Wood- 
stock, J. Rachtel; Staunton, W. Knott; Rockbridge, G. R. Rimel; 
Franklin. R. Stickley; South Rranch, J. Ruebush; Lewis Mission, 
J. Haney; Jackson Mission to be supplied. 

1849 

Conference at Spessard's schoolhouse (RetheFs near Hagers- 
town), Md., January 25. 

John Russel, J. J. (dossbienner, bishops; J. Markwood, secretary. 

Present: William IL Coursey, Jacob Rachtel, Joseph S. Grim, 
Henry Rurtner, Jacob Raer, (George A. Shuey, David S. Spessard, 
Adam 1. Rovey, Jonathan Tobey, Jacob Rhinehart, George R. Rimel, 
John Haney, James W. Miks, Renjamin Stickley, George W. Stat- 
ion, Jacob Markwood, Emanuel Witter, John Ruebush, John W. 
Fulkerson, Andrew J. CofTman, Jacob C. Spitler. Joseph Funk- 
houser — 22. 

Absent: William Knott, Frederick Hisey, Jolin Cl()pi)er, Moses 
Michael, William Edwards, George Hoffman, James E. Rowersox, 
John G. Steward, John Pope, Sanuiel Zehrung, William Lutz, David 
Engle, George 0. Little, John Markwood— 14. 

Licensed to preiicli : Theodore F. Rrashear. 

Visiting ministers: Felombe, Rathfon, Crider, of I'ennsylvania. 

"Resolved, that each circuit preacher in cliarge, strictly dis- 
charge his whole duty as explained in the constitution of tlie Home 
Missionary Society, on pain of paying out of his own funds at the 
next conference the sum whicli may be thought proper by said 
conference." 

Presiding. elders: J. Markwood (Md.), G. R. Rimel (Va.). 

Appointments: Frederick, W. R. Coursey, and one to be sup- 
plied; Hagerstown, J. W. Fulkerson, and one to be supplied; Win- 
chester, J. W. Miles; Weaverton Mission, to be supplied by P. E.; 
Staunton, J. Rachtel; Rockbridge, D. S. Spessard; Woodstock, J. 
Ruebush; South Rranch, T. F. Rrashear; Franklin, R. Stickley; 
Buckhannon, J. Haney; Jackson, G. W. Station. 



254 



UNITED BRETHREN 



1850 

Conference M Mount Hebron, Shenandoah Co., Va., March 7. 

Jacob Erb, bishop: J. C. Spitler, secretary. 

Present: Jacob Erb, Henry Biirtner, Jacob Bachtel, George B. 
Bimel, Jacob C. Spitler, James W. Miles, John Haney, George W. 
Station, John W. Fiilkerson, Joseph Funkhouser, Andrew J. ColT- 
man, Jacob J. Glossbrenner, William R. Coursey, Jacob Markwood, 
Jolin Buebush ,David S. Spessard, Jacob Rhinehart, Adam I. Bovey, 
Theodore F. Brashear; Benjamin Stickley, Frederick Hisey, Wil- 
liam Lutz — 23. 

Absent: Joseph S. Grim, George A. Sluiey, John G. Steward, 
William Edwards, John Clopper, John Pope, Daniel Engel, George 
Hoffman, Jonathan Tobey, Emanuel Witter, Jacob Baer, James 
E. Bowersox, John Markwood, William Knott, Moses Michael, 

George O. Little— 1(). 

H. B. Winton received from Sandusky Conference. 

Licentiates: Isaac Statton, Abel Randall, John Perry. 

A proposition form the Alleghany Conference to cooperate in 
building a school at Mount Pleasant, Pa., was voted down, but 
there was a declaration in favor of a school in its own boundary 

the present year. 

Members, 2,810, an increase of 594; 108 "Telescopes;" paid to 
two presiding elders, s44L()8; paid by the 11 charges as salaries of 
pastors, $1,935.28. 

Two charges have preaching every 3 weeks, seven charges 

every 4 weeks. 

1851 

Conference at Bethlehem church, Augusta Co., Va., March 7. 

Jacob Erb, bishop; J. C. Spitler, secretary. 

Present: Jacob Erb, Henry Burtner, George B. Bimel, Jacob 
Markwood, David S. Spessard, John Haney, John Buebush, George 
W. Statton, George A. Shuey, Jacob J. Glossbrenner, James W. 
Miles, (ieorge Hoflman, Andrew J. Cofl'man. FL B. Winton, James 
E. Bowersox, Joseph Funkhouser, Theodore F. Brashear. Isaac 
Statton, John W. Fulkerson, Jacob Baer, Jacob Rhinehart, John 
Perry, Benjamin Stickley, William Knott, Jacob C. Spitler— 2(). 

Absent: William B. Coursey, Joseph S. Grim, John (i. Steward^ 
John Pope, Jonathan Tobey, Moses Michael, Frederick Hisey, Abel 
Randall, Emanuel Witter, William Edwards, John Clopper, Daniel 
Engel, John Markwood, Jacob B. Houck, Adam I. Bovey, William 

Lutz— 16. 

Licentiates: William T. Lower, L. W. Mathews. 

Virginia District divided into eastern and western sections, the 
foruK-r containing Woodstock and Staunton circuits and Highland 



CHURCH HISTORY 



255 



mission, and the latter, South Branch, Franklin, Buchanan, and 
Jackson circuits. 

A mission i)rojected in Nicholas. 

The bishop received $02.98. 

Directed that the (k)nference book containing the minutes from 
1837 to 1850, together with other documents, be given into the 
care of Henry Burtner, who is not to permit any person to take 
the book from his house without an order from Conference signed 
by the presiding bishop and countersigned by the secretary. 

iVesiding elders: J. Markwood (Md.), J. Bachtel (E. Va.), J. 
W. Miles ( W. Va.). 

Appointments: Hagerstown, W. B. Coursey, J. Perry; Frederick, 
G. W. Statton, L. W. Mathews; Winchester, J. Haney, 1. Statton; 
Weaverton mission to be supplied by P. E.; Bockbridge, H. B. Win- 
ton; Staunton, I). S. Spessard; Woodstock, J. Buebush; Highland 
mission, J. W. Fulkerson; South Branch, B. Stickley; Franklin, 
G. B. Rimel; Buchanan, T. F. Brashear, Jackson, W. T. Lower; 
Wood county mission to be supi)lied by the P. E. 

Members, 2,9,^0; Telescope, 218; Sunday Schools, 21; missions, 
$112; salaries of presiding elders, — Markwood, s2()L Miles, .^147. 



1852 

Conference at Rohrersville, Md., February 27. 

Jacob Erb, bishop; Jacob Markwood, secretary. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, Henry Burtner, William \\. 
Coursey, Jacob Bachtel, John Buebush, James W. Miles, Theodore 
F. Brashear, Jacob Rhinehart, David S. Spessard, William T. 
Lower, John Perry, Jacob Erb, Adam I. Bovey, Jacob B. Houck, 
Jacob Markwood, Jonathan Tol)ey, Benjamin Stickley, John Haney, 
H. B. Winton, Joseph S. (irim, L. W. Mathews, Emanuel Witter— 22. 

Absent: George B. Rimel, William Knott, John (Stopper, James 
E. Bowersox, John W. Fulkerson, Moses Michael, Jacob Markwood, 
Jacob Baer, George A. Shuey , Frederick Hisey, George W. Statton, 
George Hoffman, John G. Steward, John Pope, Abel Randall, Wil- 
liam Lutz, Jacob C. Si)itler, Andrew J .Coffman, Joseph Funkhouser, 
Daniel Engel— 20. 

"No deaths, no ordinations, no transfers, no suspensions, no 
expulsions." 

Resolutions of loyalty to the church law on slavery were passed, 
the institution being denounced as criminal. 

J. B. Resler, agent from Mount Pleasant College. 

J. Markwood, J. Bachtel, E. Witter, S. Deaner, S. Rohrer, W. 
Shuey appointed trustees to cooperate with Alleghany (Conference 
in establishing Mount Pleasant College. 



250 



UNITED BRETHHEN 



Presiding elders: J. Markwood (Md.) J. Bachtel (E. Va.), J. W. 
Miles (W. Va.). 

Appointments: Frederick, G. W. Statton, W. T. Lower; Hagers- 
town, H. B. Winton, D. S. Spessard; Winchester, L. W. Mathews, 
J. K. Statton; Woodstock, W. R. Coursey; Staunton, J. Ruehush; 
Rockbridge, J. W. Fulkerson; Highland mission, T. F. Brashear; 
Franklin, G. B. Rimel; South Branch, J. Haney; Buchannon, B. 
Stickley; Jackson, J. Perry; Wood mission, E. McGlaughlin. 

1853 

Conference at Mount Hebron, Hardy Co., Va. . 

J. Erb. J. J. Glossbrenner, bishops; J. Markwood, secretary. 

Present: William R. Coursey, Henry Burtner, Jacob BachteU 
Jacob Markwood, George B. Rimel, John Ruebush, James W. Miles, 
Benjamin Stickley, W. B. Winton, Joseph Funkhouser, Moses 
Michael, John Perry, John Pope, Abel Randall, John G. Steward, 
George W. Statton, Isaac Statton, L. W. Lower, L. W. Mathews — 19. 

Absent: Jonathan Tobey, Jacob Rhinehart, Emanuel Witter, 
Frederick Hisey, William Knott, Jacob C. Spitler, Jacob Baer, John 
Markwood, E. McGlaughlin, Adam I. Bovey, Jacob B. Houck, Joseph 
S. Grim, William Lutz, George Hoffman, George A. Shuey, James 
E. Bowersox, Daniel Engel, David S. Spessard — 18. 

Advisory member: J. B. Resler. 

Presiding elders made agents of Mount Pleasant College and 
directed to secure subscriptions and scholarships. 

Next General Conference to be asked "to obtain a board of 
trustees for our printing establishment, now at Circleville, O., 
selected out of several conferences.'* 

Licentiates: J. F. Statton, Levi Hess, John Phillips. 

William Edwards transferred to Iowa Conference. 

Ordained: M. Michael, I. K. Statton, W. T. Lower, L. W. 
Mathews, J. Perry, A. Randall. 

Sunday addresses in German and English by Bishops Erb and 
Glossbrenner. 

Presiding elders: J. Markwood, W. T. Lower, J. Ruebush. 

Changes in name: Staunton circuit to Rockingham; Rockbridge 
to Churchville. Winchester divided, the northern part being called 
Bath circuit. 

Appointments: Frederick, J. Bachtel, I. K. Statton; Hagerstown, 
H. B. Winton, J. Perry; Winchester, G. W. Statton; Bath, L. W. 
Mathews; Woodstock ,W. R. Coursey, A. Graham; Rockingham, 
T. F. Brashear; Churchville, J. W. Fulkerson; Highland, J. Haney; 
Franklin, J. W. Miles; South Branch, G. B. Rimel; Buckhannon, 
B. Stickley; Jackson, I. K. Statton; Wood mission, J. Phillips; West 
Columbia, . 



CHURCH HISTORY 



257 



1854 

Conference at New Jerusalem church, Edinburg, Va., February 9. 

Moses Michael, secretary. 

Advisory members: J. C. Bright, H. Kumler, Jr. 

Hagerstown circuit made a station; Woodstock and Rocking- 
ham thus divided into three circuits, — all north of Mill Creek to 
constitute Woodstock circuit, all north of Dayton and Whitesel's 
to constitute Lacey Springs circuit, the remainder to be called 
Rockingham. 

Buckhannon divided into two circuits, and a mission opened in 
Nicholas county. 

South River mission organized, and to include the Forge and 
Mowery's schoolhouse. 

Licentiates: Henry Tallhelm, Samuel Martin. 

Note :t— These minutes unsigned and evidently incomplete. 



1855 

Conference at Myersville, Md., January 29. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; M. Michael, secretary. 

Present: Jacob Bachtel, John Ruebush, Benjamin Stickley, Theo- 
dore F. Brashear, W. T. Lower, J. Henry, George W. Statton, John 
W. Perry, Henry Tallhelm, Jonathan Tobey, James W. Miles, Jacob 
B. Houck, Jacob Markwood, John W. Fulkerson, H. B. Winton, 
George B. Rimel, L. W. Mathews, Isaac K. Statton, John Phillips, 
Levi Hess, Joseph S. Grim, Samuel Martin — 22. 

Absent: George A. Shuey, James E. Bowersox, John Pope, Daniel 
Engel, J. F. Statton, Henry Burtner, Emanuel Witter, Abel Randall, 
Jacob C. Spitler — 9. 

Visiting minister: John Dickson of Pennsylvania. 

Licentiates: William M. H. Cain, J. P. White, Zebedee Warner, 
Isaiah Baltzel, Benjamin Denton. 

John F. Statton transferred to any Western Conference. 

Died: J. Rhinehart, J. Baer. 

Ordained: L. Hess, J. Phillips. 

Resolution adopted favorable to Mount Pleasant College. 

J. Markwood appointed to solicit with the conference bounds 
subscriptions to erect a church at Frederick, Md. 

Hartford City made a station. 

Parkersburg mission projected. 

Resolutions in favor of missionary work, as were passed in 
previous sessions. 

Conference book transferred from Henry Burtner to Jacob 
Bachtel. J. C Spitler and W. R. Coursey a committee to examine it. 
Presiding elders: J. Bachtel, G. W. Statton, W. R. Coursey. 
Appointments: Frederick, W. T. Lower; Myersville, T. F. 



258 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Brashear; Hagerstown, J. W. Miles, A. Y. Graham; Winchester, 
L. Hess; Bath, H. Tallhehn; Ghurchville, I. K. Station; Rocking- 
ham, G. B. Rimel; Lacey Springs, J. Ruebush; Woodstock, J. Haney; 
South Branch, L. W. Mathews; Franklin, B. Stickley; Highland, 
J. Phillips; Waynesboro mission, J. B. Houck; West Columbia sta- 
tion, Z. Warner; Hartford, W. M. Cain; Mason, M. Michael; Glen- 
ville, Samuel Martin; Buckhannon, I. Baltzel; Middle Island to 
be supplied. 

1856 

Conference at Otterbein Chapel, Shenandoah Co., Va., March 15. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; J. Markwood, secretary. 

Present: John Haney, Levi Hess, James W. Miles, John Phillips, 
Abel Randall, Henry Tallhelm, William Lutz, Joseph Funkhouser, 
Isaiah Baltzell, Zebedee Warner, Jacob B. Houcli, George Hoffman, 
John Pope, William R. Coursey, George B. Rimel, Frederick Hisey, 
Jacob Bachtel, Jacob Markwood, Benjamin Stickley, John Ruebush, 
H. B. Winton, W. T. Lower, Theodore F. Brashear, L. W. Mathews, 
George W. Station— 25. 

Absent: Henry Burtner, George A. Shuey, John W. Fulkerson, 
W. M. K. Cain, Isaac K. Station, Jonathan Tobey, Emanuel Witter, 
William Knott, John W. Perry, James E. Bowersox, Moses Michael, 
J. White, Joseph S. Grim, Adam I. Bovey, Samuel Martin, Daniel 
Engel— 16. 

J. W. Fulkerson transferred to Iowa Conference. 

Died: J. C. Spitler, Benjamin Denton. 

Licentiates: C. B. Hammack, G. W. Albaugh, Jacob A. Bovey, 
Eli Martin (Baptist), H. R. Davis, William Yerkey, William James. 

Ordained: H. Tallhelm, I. Bachtel, Z. Warner. 

Presiding elders: J. Bachtel (Md.), J. Markwood (E. Va.), M. 

Michael (W. Va.). 

Appointments: Frederick, W. T. Lower; Myersville, 1. K. Stat- 
ion; Hagerstown, W. R. Coursey, C. B. Hammack; Otterbein mis- 
sion, H. B. Winton; Bath, J. Haney; Woodstock, L. W. Mathews, 
H. Tallhelm; Lacey Springs, T. F. Brashear; Rockingham, G. B. 
Rimel; Church ville. G. W. Statton, 1. Baltzel; Highland, J. A. Bovey 
(by P. E.), Franklin, B. Stickley; South Branch, J. Phillips; Brock's 
Gap mission, J. Pope; Tennessee mission, J. Ruebush; West Colum- 
bia station, Eli Martin; Union station, W. M. K. Cain; Putnam, H. R. 
Davis; Middle Island, L. Hess; Glenville, W. Yerkey; Lewis, S. 
Martin; Taylor, J. P. White; California mission, W. Miles. 

1857 

Conference at Mount Hebron church, Washington Co., Md., 
March 5. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; J. Markwood, secretary. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



259 



Present: William R. Coursey, Adam I. Bovey, John Haney, 
Benjamin Stickley, George B. Rimel, Jonathan Tobey, Jacob Bach- 
tel, John Ruebush, George W. Statton, L. W. Mathews, H. B. Win- 
ton, Theodore F. Brashear, W. T. Lower, Joseph Funkhouser, 
George A. Shuey, Isaac K. Statton, Joseph S. Grim, John W. Perry, 
Isaiah Baltzel, Henry Tallhelm, C. B. Hammack, John Phillips, 
J. P. White, Jacob A. Bovey, James W. Miles, G. W. Albaugh, 
Zebedee Warner, Levi Hess — 28. 

Absent: Frederick Hisey, Jacob B. Houck, George Hoft'man, 
Emanuel Witter, Abel Randall, Samuel Martin, E. Martin, Daniel 
Engel, William Lutz, Moses Michael, John Pope, W. Yerkey, 
H. R. Davis— 13. 

Licentiates: J. D. Fried, J. W. Xihizer, J. F. Hott. 

Transferred: W. M. K. Cain, M. Michael. 

D. H. Keedy received from Alleghany Conference. 

Benevolent Fund, J?94().85. 

Presiding elders: W. R. Coursey (Md.), J. Markwood (E. Va.), 

B. Stickley (W. Va.). 

Appointments: Frederick and Myersville, I. K. Statton, J. Bovey; 
Hagerstown, L. W. Mathews, D. H. Keedy; Hagerstown station, 
W. T. Low^er; Winchester, I. Baltzel; Otterbein station, J. Tobey; 
Alleghany mission, J. Phillips; Woodstock, H. Burtner; Lacey 
Springs, H. Tallhelm; Rockingham, T. :E. Brashear; Ghurchville, 
G. W. Statton, C. B. Hammack; Highland, J. W. Howe (by P. E.), 
Franklin, J. D. Freed; South Branch, G. B. Rimel; Blue Red mission, 
to be supplied; Tavlor, Z. Warner; Lewis, J. W. Miles: Glenville, 
J. W. Nihizer; Putnam, J. W. Young (by P. E.), Middle Island, 
J. P. White; West Columbia, J. Bachtel; California mission, W. 
Miles; Parkersburg mission, W. James. 

1858 
Conference at Mount Tabor church, Va., February 25. 
J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; J. Markwood, 11. B. Winton, secre- 

laries. 

Present: William R. Coursey, Isaac K. Statton, George W. Stat- 
ton, Theodore F. Breshear, W. T. Lower, Isaiah Baltzel, L. W. 
Mathews, John Ruebush, Jacob A. Bovey, Frederick Hisey, George 
B. Rimel, Joseph Funkhouser, William Lutz, Joseph S. Grnn, Jacob 
F Hott,' George Hollman, Abel Randall, John Pope, Benjamin 
Stickley,' Jacob B. Houck, H. B. Winton, J. W. Nihizer, J. D. Freed, 
G. W. Albaugh— 24. 

Absent: Adam I. Bovey, George A. Shuey, Jonathan Tobey, 
J. D. Keedy, C. B. Hammack, James E. Bowersox, Henry Tallhelm, 

John Phillips— 8. „ K V • -A 

The name of J. Phillips dropped from roll, he havmg joined 

another conference. 



260 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



201 



J. E. Bowersox transferred to Iowa Conference. 
Licentiates: George \V. Rexrode, Jacob Roderick, John W. Howe, 
Joseph Holcomb. 

Endorsement of X. Altnian's attempt to build an English-speak- 
ing church in Baltimore and promise of financial help. 

The union of Otterbein University and Mount Pleasant College 
approved; trustees thereof: J. J. Glossbrenner (3 years), J. Mark- 
wood (2 years), H. B. Winton (1 year). 

Ordained: J. A. Bovey, J. W. Nihizer. 

Appropriated for Tennessee mission, $100; for Hagerstown mis- 
sion, $150. 

Appointments: Hagerstown mission station, L. W. Mathews, 
I. Baltzel; Frederick, I. K. Station, S. Evers; Otterbein station, D. 
H. Keedy; Winchester, C. B. Hammack; Woodstock, H. B. Winton; 
Lacey Springs, J. A. Bovey; Rockingham, T. F. Brashear, H. Tall- 
helm; Church ville, G. W. Statton; Franklin, J. D. Fried; Union, 
J. W. Nihizer; Brock's Gap, J. K. Nelson (by P. E.) ; Claysville 
mission, B. Stickley; Rockbridge mission, J. W. Howe; Highland 
mission, J. Holcomb; Tennessee, J. Ruebush. 

1859 

Conference at Rohcrsville, Md., February 26. 
J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; J. Markwood, H. B. Winton, secre- 
taries. 

Present: William R. Coursey, H. B. 'Winton, L. W. Mathews, 
Isaac K. Statton, Jacob A. Bovey, George B. Rimel, Benjamin Stick- 
ley, Theodore F. Brashear, W. T. Lower, Joseph Holcomb, Joseph 
Funkhouser, Henry Tallhelm, Jonathan Tobey, Joseph S. Grim, 
J. W. Nihizer, (i. W. Albaugh, C. B. Hammack, Isaiah Baltzel, J. D. 
Keedy, Jacob F. Hott, John W. Howe— 21. 

Absent: George W. Statton, George Hoffman, Frederick Hisey, 
Abel Randall, J. D. Fried, George W. Rexrode, George W. Shuey, 
William Lutz, John Ruebush, Adam I. Bovey, John Pope, Jacob 
Roderick — 12. 

Dr. F. S. McNeil received from Miami Conference. 
A. Randall transferred to Iowa Conference; I. Baltzel to Pennsyl- 
vania Conference. 

J. B. Houck withdrew to join the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South; died as a preacher therein about 1884. 

Ordained: C. B. Hammack, J. D. Keedy, J. F. Hott, G. W. 
Albaugh. 

Presiding elders: H. B. Winton (Md.), J. Markwood (Va.). 
Appointments: Hagerstown station, W. T. Lower; Hagerstown 
circuit, I. K. Statton, J. Delpha; Frederick, L. W. Mathews, W. A 



ty 



Jackson; Winchester, C. B. Hammack; Woodstock, J. A. Bovey; 
Lacey Springs, H. Tallhelm; Rockingham, G. W. Statton; Church- 
ville, T. F. Brashear, S. Evers; Highland, J. W. Howe; Franklin. 
J. D. Fried; Claysville mission, B. Stickley. 

1800 

Conference at Church ville, Va., F'ebruary 23. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; J. Markwood, secretary. 

Present: William R. Coursey, John Ruebush, (ieorge B. RimcU 
(ieorge W. Statton, Theodore F. Brashear, Henry Tallhelm, .Io!in 
W. Howe, S. Evers, G. W. Allebaugh, George W. Rexrode, Benjamin 
Stickley, George A. Shuey, George Hoifman, H. B. Winton, W. T. 
Lower, Joseph Funkhouser, C. B. Hannnack, F. S. Fried, J. W, 
Nihizer, Joseph Holcomb— 22. 

Absent: L. W. Matliews, Joseph S. Grim, William Lutz. .lohn 
Pope, J. Delpha, J. Hensley, Adam I. Bovey, Frederick Hisey. 
Jonathan Tobey, Jacob F. Hott, Jacob Roderick— 10. 

J. Hensley transferred to Parkersburg Conference. 

I. Baltzell returned his transfer to Pennsylvania Conference. 

Died: J. A. Bovey. 

Licentiate: W. A. Jackson. 

Ordained: J. W. Howe. 

Benevolent Fund, $436.21. 

Presiding elders: H. B. Winton (Md.), J. Markwood (Va.). 

Appointments: Frederick, L. W. Mathews, T. Bushong; Hagers- 
town, I. K. Statton, W. A. Jackson; Hagerstown, W. T. Lower; 
Winchester, J. D. Fried; Woodstock, C. B. Hammack; Lacey Springs, 
H. Tallhelm; Rockingham, G. W. Statton; Church ville, T. F. Bras- 
hear; Highland and Franklin, J. W. Howe, C. T. Stearn; Claysville 
mission, B. Stickley; Augusta, G. W. Rexrode. 

Missionary appropriations: $290. 

1861 

Conference at Hagerstown, Md., January 24. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; J. Markwood, L. W. Mathews, 

secretaries. 

Present: William R. Coursey, Theodore F. Brashear, Isaiah 
Baltzel, Jonathan Tobey, W. A. Jackson, G. W. Albaugh, H. B. 
Winton, Isaac K. Statton, Joseph S. Grim, J. D. Keedy, F. S. McNeil, 
George W. Statton, Henry Tallhelm, J. W. Nihiser, Jacob F. HotL 
Joseph Holcomb, Benjamin Stickley, W. T. Lower, C. B. Hammack, 
John W. Howe, J. D. Fried, Joseph Funkhouser— 22. 

Absent: Adam I. Bovey, John Ruebush, George W. Rexrode. 
George B. Rimel, William Lutz, John Pope, George A. Shuey, E. 
Evers, Frederick Hisey, George Hoffman, J. Delpha— 11. 



262 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Licentiates: T. Bushong, J. Harp. 

Ordained: J. M. Roderick. 

In treasury, $443.71. Ordered paid the widow of J. A. Bovey, 
^100. 

Presiding elder: J. Markwood. 

Appointments: Hagerstown, G. W. Statton; Hagerstown circuit, 
W. R. Coursey, W. T. Lower; Frederick, L Baltzell, T. Bushong; 
Woodstock, T. F. Brashear; Lacey Springs, L. W. Mathews (re- 
signed,— supply by J. W. Howe) ; Rockingham, H. Tallhelm; Church- 
ville, C. B. Hammack; Highland, A. I. Bovey; Franklin, J. W. Howe 
(resigned,— supplied by A. M. Myers); Claysville, J. W. Nihiser; 
Augusta, W. A. Jackson, A. M. Evers; Alleghany mission, J. M. 
Rodruck. 



1862 
Northern Section 

Conference met at Mount Carmel church, Washington Co., Md., 
February 2. 

J. Markwood, bishop; J. D. Keedy, secretary. 

Present: William R. Coursey, George W. Statton, Jonathan 
Tobey, J. Harp, H. B. Winton, T. S. McNeil, W. T. Lower, Isaiah 
Baltzel, Jacob S. Grim, G. W. Albaugh, W. A. Jackson, T. 
Bushong — 12. 

Absent: Isaac K. Statton, J. Delpha, L. W. Mathews— 3. 

Transfers given to H. B. Winton, Isaiah Baltzel, Isaac K. Statton. 

Three charges, 17 meeting houses, 100 Telescopes, 957 members; 
salaries and presents to preachers, $2,240. 

Presiding elder: W. R. Coursey. 

Appointments: Frederick, W. T. Lower; Hagerstown circuit, 
W. R. Coursey, T. Bushong, Hagerstown station, G. W. Statton. 

1862 
Southern Section 

Conference at Edinburg, Va., February 14. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; C. B. Hammack, secretary. 

Licentiates: H. A. Bovey, J. W. Hott, J. K. Nelson, C. T. Steam, 
A. M. Evers, J. M. Cantor. 

Ordained: G. W. Rexrode, J. D. Fried, J. Holcomb. 

Presiding elder: T. F. Brashear. 

Appointments: Churchville, C. B. Hammack; Augusta, G. W. 
Rexrode; Lacey Springs, J. W. Howe, G. H. Snapp; Woodstock, 
G. B. Rimel; South Branch, J. D. Fried; Winchester, J. K. Nelson; 
Franklin, H. A. Bovey; Highland, C. T. Stearn; Alleghany, J. M. 
Roderick; Rockbridge, A. M. Evers; Rockingham, H. Tallhelm. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



263 



1863 
Northern Section 
Conference at Georgetown, Frederick Co., Md., February 20. 
J. Markwood, bishop; J. D. Keedy, secretary. ^ „. ai 

Present: William R. Coursey, George W. Statton, G. >>• Al- 
baugh, J. Harp, J. D. Fried, J. W. Nihiser, W. T. Lower Jonathan 
Tobey, T. S. McNeil, T. Bushong, J .M. Rodruck, J. ^^. Hott, J. 

Delpha— 14. i u u ♦♦ w 

Absent: L. W. Mathews, Benjamin Stickley, Jacob V. Hott, N\ . 

A. Jackson, C. T. Stearn, J. K. Nelson— 6. 

Licentiate: J. W. Grim. 

Ordained: T. F. Bushong. 

W A Jackson transferred to Pennsylvania Conference; L. V\. 
Mathews, B. Stickley, C .T. Stearn given open transfers to any 
Western conference. 

Presiding elder: J. Tobey. 

Appointments: Frederick, W. T. Lower, J. W. Grim; Hagers- 
town G. W. Statton and one to be supplied; Hagerstown nnssion. 
H. B.' Winton; Winchester, J. K. Nelson, J. W. Hott; South Branch. 
J. D. Freid; Alleghany, J. M. Rodruck. 

1863 
Southern Section 
Conference at Keezletown, Va., February 27. 
J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; C. B. Hammack, secretary. 
Licentiate: J. W. Kiracofe. 

Ordained: A. M. Evers. , , „ 

Appropriation of $100 for Benevolent Fund to Mrs. ,1. A. Bovey. 

1864 
Northern Section 

Conference at Boonsboro, Md., February 19. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, J. Markwood, bishops; J. D. Keedy, secretary. 

Present: Jonathan Tobey, George W. Statton, T.S McNeil, 
J. D. Keedy, T. Bushing, J. Harp, James W. Hott, \\illiam R. 
Coursey, W. T. Lower, J. D. Fried, J. M. Rodruck, G. W. Albaugh, 
Jacob S. Grim, J. K. Nelson, Jacob F. Hott, J. W. Grim-16, 

Absent: J. W. Nihiser, J. Delpha, Adam I. Bovey— 3. 

The widow Bovey granted $72. 

Ordained: J. K. Nelson, J. W. Hott, J. Harp. 

An increase of 272 members. 

Appointments: J. Tobey, P. E.; Hagerstown, G. W. Statton, J. D. 
Fried; Hagerstown station, C. T. Stearn; Frederick, W. T. Lower. 
J. W. Grim; Winchester, J. K. Nelson, J. W. Hott; Alleghany, 
J. M. Rodruck. 



264 



UNITED BRETHREN 



1864 
Southern Section 

Conference at Friedens church, Rockingham Co., Va., March 11. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; C. B. Hammack, secretary. 

Bishop Glossbrenner to act as P. E. 

Ordained: H. A. Bovey, J. Canter, J. W. Kiracofe. 

Licentiates: W. J. Miller, G. H. Snapp. 

A prominent feature was the experience meeting Sunday morn- 
ing the 13th. 

Appointments: Lacey Springs, C. B .Hammack, A. M. Evers; 
Rockingham, J. W. Howe; Church ville, H. A. Bovey; Woodstock, 
H. Tallhelm; Highland, J. W. Kiracofe, J. J. Potter (?); Augusta, 
G. W. Rexrode. 

1865 

Northern Section 

Conference at Myersville, Md., February 17. 

J. Markwood, H. Kumler, bishops; J. D. Keedy, secretary. 

Present: William R. Courscy, Adam I. Bovey, W. T. Lower, 
J. D. Rodruck, Jacob S. Grim, J. K. Nelson, James W. Hott, Jona- 
than Tobey, George W. Station, J. D. Fried, J. W. Grim, J. Harp, 
Jacob F. Hott, T. S. McNeil, (;. W. Albaugh— 15. 

Absent: J. Nihiser, J. Delpha — 2. 

C. T. Stearn received from Rock River Conference. 

Licentiates: W. O. Grim, P. H. Thomas. 

Ordained: W. 0. Grim (?), P. H. Thomas (?). 

Presiding elder: G. W. Station. 

Appointments: Frederick, C. T. Stearn, J. W. Grim; Hagers- 
town, G. W. Station, J. D. Fried; Hagerstown station, T. W. Lower; 
Winchester, J. K. Nelson and one to be supplied; Martinsburg, 
J. W. Hott; Alleghany, J. M. Rodruck. 

1865 
Southern Section 
Conference at Mount Zion, Augusta Co., Va., March 7. 
J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; C. B. Hammack, secretary. 
Collected for bishop $500 in Confederate money, supposed to be 
equivalent to $20 in gold. 

Acting presiding elder: J. J. Glossbrenner. 

Much of the session taken up in reading essays and discussing 
them. 

Appointments appear to have been about the same as in 1864. 

1866 
Conference at Rohersville, Md., February 8. 
J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; C. B. Hammack, secretary. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



265 



Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, J. K. Nelson, Dr. J. I. McNeil, 
Jacob Markwood, J. Harp, James W. Hott, Henry Tallhelm, J. W. 
Grim, J. D. Keedy, W. J. Miller, J. W. Nihiser, C. B. Hammack, 
William Lutz, Adam I. Bovey, J. D. Fried, John W. Howe, George 
Hoffman, H. A. Bovey, A. M. Evers, Jacob F. Hott, George W. Snapp, 
J. M. Rodruck, Jonathan Tobey, J. S. Grim, George W. Station, 
W. T. Lower, C. T. Stearn, George W. Albaugh— 30. 

Absent: William R. Coursey, P. H. Thomas, J. Cantor, J. 
Holcomb, George A. Shuey, Joseph Funkhouser, George B. Rimel, 
J. Delpha, John Pope — 9. 

Visiting ministers: S. Lindsay (agent Otterbein University), 
D. Eberly, J. C. Smith, I. Baltzel, William Evers, D. E. Morris, 
Henry Kumler. 

Licentiate: J. E. Hott. 

Granted transfers: G. B. Rimel, J. M. Cantor. 

J. Funkhouser withdrew to join Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. 

A resolution to raise within the first three months of the year 
the share of the debt of the Book Concern apportioned by the 
General Conference. 

Missionary money received, $540.88. 

Benevolent Fund, $363.58. 

Resolutions passed sympathizing with Bishop Markwood in his 
severe illness, and endorsing Otterbein University and Cottage 
Hill College at York, Pa. 

1867 



Conference at Boonsboro, Md., February 7. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; C. B. Hammack, secretary. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner. W. T. Lower, George W. Al- 
baugh, J. K. Nelson, J. Harp, Henry Tallhelm, J. D. Keedy, George 
W. Rexrode, W. J. Miller, C. B. Hammack, J. D. Fried, George 
Hoffman, A. M. Evers, George W. Snapp, Jonathan Tobey, J. E. 
Hott, J. Delpha, J. L. Grim, George W. Station, C. T. Stearn, J. W. 
Kiracofe, Dr. T. S. McNeil, James W. Hott, J. W. Grimm, W. O. 
Grimm, P. H. Thomas, J. W. Nihiser, Adam I. Bovey, John W. 
Howe, H. A. Bovey, Jacob F. Hott, J. M. Rodruck, J. S. Grimm, 
George A. Shuey, George W. Howe, S. Scott — 36. 

Absent: Jacob Markwood, J. Holcomb, William R. Coursey, 
William Lutz, John Pope — 5. 

Visiting ministers: Z. Warner, J. Perry, L. Hess, W. A. Jackson, 
Dr. Fetterhof, Ex-Bishop Russell. 

Licensed to preach: George W. Howe, J. L. Grimm, Snowden 
Scott. 

Transferred to Rock River Conference: W. R. Coursey, J. Tobey. 



266 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Presiding elder: G. W. Station. 

Died: J. Bachtel. 

Agreement to cooperate with other conferences in procuring 
a parsonage in Baltimore for the bishop. 

Appointments: Frederick, J. D. Fried, J. Delpha; Boonsboro, 
A. M. Evers, J. L. Grimm; Myersville, C. T. Stearn; Hagerstown, 
C. B. Hammack, J. E. Hott; Bath, J. K. Nelson; Alleghany, J. W. 
Nihiser; South Branch, J. M. Rodruck; Winchester, P. H. Thomas; 
Woodstock, J. W. Hott; Lacey Springs, J. W. Howe, Church ville, 
J. W. Kiracofe, J. W. Grimm; Highland, G. W. Howe; Martinsburg 
mission, W. T. Lower; Pleasant Grove, H. Tallhelm; Eastern Vir- 
ginia, W. J. Miller; Rockbridge, to be supplied; Conference book 
agent, George Hoffman. 

1868 

Conference at Martinsburg, W. Va., February 7. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; W. O. Grim, C. T. Stearn, secretaries. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, George W. Statton, William T. 
Lower, C. T. Stearn, George W. Albaugh, J. W. Kiracofe, J. K. 
Nelson, T. S. McNeil, J. Harp, James W. Hott, Henry Tallhelm, 
J. W. Grim, J. D. Keedy, J. S. Grim, George A. Shuey, J. L. Grim, 
William 0. Grim, P. H. Thomas, William J. Miller, J. W. Nihiser, 
C. B. Hammack, Adam I. Bovey, John W. Howe, George Hoffman, 
H. A. Bovey, A. M. Evers, Jacob F. Hott, George \V. Snapp, J. M. 
Rodruck, J. E, Hott, John W. Howe, Snowden Scott— 32. 

Absent: William Lutz, Jacob Markwood, George W. Rcxrode, 
J. Holcomb, John Pope, J. D. Fried — 6. 

Died: J. Pope, J. Delpha. 

Visiting ministers: W. J. Shuey, J. Tobey, O. Ferrall, L 

Baltzcl, D. Eberly. 

Conference divided into Potomac and Shenandoah Valley dis- 
tricts, with G. W. Statton presiding elder for the first; J. W. Howe 
for the second. 

Ordained: William J. Miller. 

Received on transfer: I. Baltzell, Levi Hess, Jonathan Tobey. 

Appointments: Frederick, J. W. Kiracofe, J. S. Grim; Myers- 
ville, A. M. Evers; Boonsboro, C. T. Stearn, \V. O. Grim; Hagers- 
town, C. B. Hammack, A. Hoover; Martinsburg, W. T. Lower; Back 
Creek mission, J. K. Nelson; Bath, G. W. Howe; South Branch. J. M. 
Rodruck; Alleghany, G. H. Snapp; Winchester, P. H. Thomas; 
Woodstock, J. W. Grim; Lacey Spring, H. A. Bovey, Rockingham, 
J. E. Hott; Churchville, J. W. Hott; Highland, G. W. Rexrode; 
Pleasant Grove, H. Tallhelm; Page Valley mission, W. J. Miller; 
Eastern Virginia, to be supplied; book agent, George Hoffman. 

Benevolent Fund, $532.88. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



1869 



267 



Conference at Otterbein chapel, Shenandoah Co., Va., Febru- 
ary 11. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; A. M. Evers, secretary. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, William T. Lower, George W 
Albaugh, Dr. T. S. McNeil, Henry Tallhelm, P. H. Thomas, J. W. 
Nihiser, John W. Howe, H. A. Bovey, James W. Hott, J. E. Hott, 
J. L. Grim, Isaiah Baltzel, Dr. Levi Hess, J. W. Grim, Jacob Mark- 
wood, G. T. Stearn, J. W. Kiracofe, Jacob F. Hott, William (). Grim, 
William J. Miller, C. B. Hammack, George Hoffman, J. M. Rodruck', 
George W. Howe, Snowden Scott, William Lutz, J. D Fried J 
Holcomb— 30. 

Absent: J. K. Nelson, J. D. Keedy. G. H. Snapp, George A. 
Shuey, J. Hary, A. J. Bovey, J. E. Grim, George W. Rexrode, George 
W. Statton— 9. 

Licentiates: G. Harman, A. Hoover, W. H. Burtner. 

Benevolent Fund, $623.88. 

Collected for missions, $647. 

Presiding elders: J. W. Howe (Potomac District), G. W. Statton 
(S. V. District). 

Appointments: Winchester, P. H. Thomas; Woodstock, J. D. 
Friend; Lacey Springs, H. A. Bovey; Rockingham, J. L. Grim; 
East Rockingham, C. B. Hammack; Churchville, J. W. Hott; Page 
Valley mission, W. J. Miller; East Virginia, G. J. Roudabiish (by 
P. E.); Rockbridge, A. Hoover; Straight Creek, J. W. Xihiser- 
Friedman's, (to be suppHed by P. E.); Frederick, H. Tallhehn,' 
J. E. Hott; Myersville, A. M. Evers; Boonsboro, C. T. Stearn, 
it. H. Snapp: Hagerstown, J. \V. Kiracofe; Hagerstown mission 
station, I. Baltzel; Martinsburg, W. T. Lower; Back Creek mission, 
J. K. Nelson; Bath, G. W. Howe; Alleghany, J. M. Hodruck; South 
Branch, J. W. Grim. 

1870 

Conference at Chewsville, Md., February 17. 

Jonathan Weaver, bishop; W. O. Grim, secretary. 

Present: Jacob Markwood, Dr. T. S. McNeil, P. H. Thomas, 
John W. Howe, James W. Hott, J. L. (irim, J. \V. Grim. J. W. Kira- 
cofe, Wilham O. Grim, George W. Brown, (ieorge Hoffmnn. J. M. 
Rodruck, J. D. Fried, J. D. Keedy, George A. Shuey, J. Harp, A. 
Hoover, J. K. Nelson, George W. Albaugh, J. Ross, Jacob J. Gloss- 
brenner, William T. Lower, Henry Tallhelm, J. W. Nihiser, H. A. 
Hovey, J. E. Hott, Jacob F. Hott, Isaiah Baltzel, C. T. Stearn. Wil- 
liam J. Miller. C. B. Hammack, A. M. Evers, George W. Howe, J. 
Holcomb, G. H. Snapp, (ieorge W. Statton, J. S. Grim, Snowden 
Scott, Dr. Levi Hess, John Ruebush, George Harman— 41. 



• ill 



268 



UNITED BFiETHREN 



Absent: William Liitz, George W. Rexrode, Adam I. Bovey, W. 
Burtncr, G. J. Roudabush — 5. 

Visiting ministers: Z. Colestock, J. X. Qnigley, S. A. Mowers, 
J. B. Bishop; all from Pennsylvania Conference. 

\V. T. Lower granted open transfer; J. E. Hott withdrew. 

Licentiates: J. X. Ross, G. W. Brown. 

Besolved that each pastor "be required to read four times every 
years to each of his congregations the portion of Discipline re- 
ferring to secret societies. 

Benevolent Fund, .S73L82; Mission Fund received from charges, 

$fi9L67. 

Presiding elders: H. A. Bovey (Potomac District), J. W. Howe 

(S. V. District). 

Appointments, 162; classes, L38; members received, 906; mem- 
bers at end of year, 4,917; Telescopes, 294; meeting houses, 7.5; 
Sunday Schools, 91; Sunday School pupils. 4,586; teachers and 
officers, 8.i0; collected for all purposes, ?^16,541.0r); salaries of 
preachers, $8,156.90. 

Appointments: Frederick, J. K. Nelson; Myersville, Cu W. Stat- 
ion; Boonsboro, C. T. Stearn, W. O. Grim; Hagerstown mission, 
J. W. Kirocafe; Hagerstown, \. Baltzel; Martinsburg, P. H. Thomas; 
Tuscarora mission, H. Tallhelm; Potomac, G. H. Snapp; Bath. 
W. J. Miller; Alleghany. J. M. Rodruck; South Branch, .1. W. Grim; 
AVinchester, G. W' Howe; Woodstock, J. D. Freed; Lacey Si)rings, 
A. M. Evers; Rockingham mission, J. L. Grim; Pleasant Grove, 
C. B. Hammack; Church ville, J. W. Hott; Shenando mission, J. Hol- 
comb; Page Valley, J. X. Ross; Eastern Virginia, G. J. Roudabush; 
Straight Creek, A. Hoover; Friedman's mission, J. Brown. 

1871 

Conference at Mount Hebron cliurch. Grant Co., W. Va., Febru- 
ary 16. 

Jonathan Weaver, bishop; J. W. Hott. secretary. 

Present: A. M. Evers. H. A. Bovey, .1 W. G-^ni, p. H. Thomas, 
James W. Ib^t, J. M. Rodruck, .1. Holcom!), J. K. Ross, George A. 
Shuey, Dr. T. S. McXeil. J. V\'. Xihiser, D. P. Keedy, George W. 
Rexrode, C. T. Stearn, George W. Station. George W. Howe, W. O. 
Grim, C. B. Hammack, Joiin W. Howe, A. Hoover, W. J. Miller, 
Henry Tallhelm, John Ruebush, W. Burtner, Snowden Scott, George 
W. Albaugh, Adam I. Bovey— 28. 

Absent: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, J. W. Kiracofe. G. H. Snapp, 
G. W. Brown, George HotTman, Dr. Levi Hess, Joshua Harp. Jacob 
Markwood, J. K. Xelson, J. D. Freed, Isaiah Baltzel, J. F. Hott. 
J. S. Grim, William Lutz, G. Harman — 15. 

Assessment of -^^LOOO for missionary exi)enses ordered. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



269 



Establishment of Union Biblical Seminary endorsed. 

Licentiate: J. B. Funk. 

Ordained: A. Hoover. 

Transferred: C. T. Stearn. 

Preaching places, 194; classes, 153; members received, I im- 
members at end of year, 5,401; Telescopes, 427; meeting houses, 7'>- 
Sunday School pupils, 6,155; teachers and otlicers, 796; salaries of 
preachers, $7,594.04; collected for missions, .$897; for all purposes 
$23,206.66. 

Presiding elders: A. 1. Bovev (Potomac District) — — __ 
(S. V. District). 

Appointments: Myersville, G. W. Station; Frederick, J. K. Xel 
son; Boonsboro, J. W. Hott, and one to be supplied; Hagerstown, 
A. M. Evers; Hagerstown station, J. W. Kiracofe; Tuscarora mis- 
sion, .1. I). Freed; Back Creek mission, (i. H. Snapp; Bath, W. J. 
Miller; South Branch, J. M. Rodruck, C. M. Hott; Alleghany, J. W. 
Xihiser; Potomac mission, W. O. Grim. 

1872 

Conference at Edinburg, Va., February 16. 

Jonathan Weaver, bishop; J. L. Grim, secretary. 

Present: A. M. Evers, H. A. Bovey, C. B. Hammack, P. H. Thomas, 
J. M. Rodruck, J. M. Ross, W. H. Rurtner, Joshua Harp, George 
Harman, J. Zerman, J. Xegley, C. M. Hott, George W. Station, ,Tohn 
Ruebush, T. S. McXeil, J. F. Hott, J. W. Kiracofe, John W. Howe, 
J. L. Grim, J. I). Freed, William J. Miller, Henrv Tallhelm, J w' 
Xihiser, J. W. Albaugh, J. B. Funk, J. E. Whitesel, Abraham P 
Funkhouser, G. H. Snapp, J. K. Xelson, James W. Hott. William 

0. Grim, George W. Howe, J. M. (Irini, (ieorge Hoffman, I) P 
Keedy, William Lutz, E. P. Funk, P. W. Weller, J. W. Funk— .T.). 

Absent: A. Hoover, (Ieorge A. Shuey, Snowden Scott, Adam 

1. Bovey, Jacob J. Glossbrenner, J. Holcomb, Levi Hess, George 
W. Rexrode, Jacob Markwood, (i. W. Brown, J. S. (irim, Jonathan 
Tobey — 12. 

D. K. Flickinger, missionary secretary, present. 
Licentiates: E. P. Funk, f. E. Whitesel, P. W 
Funkhouser, J. Xegley, J. W. Funk. C. M. Hott. 
Transferred: I. Baltzel (E. Penna.). 
Received: J. Zarman (Minnesota Conference). 

Benevolent Fund, $785.92; secured for missions, 8300; for U B 
Seminary, $100. 

Special resolution encouraging the building of a church at 
Winchester. 

Committee appointed "to take under advisement the matter 



Weller, A. p. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



270 



UNITED BRETHREN 



271 



of publishing our minutes at the next session." Note:-This wa^ 
the first move toward printing the conference minutes in pamphlet 

form. 

Preaching places, 192; classes, 152; members 5,626; meeting 
houses 73; Telescopes, 299; parsonage, 7; Sunday Schools, 90; 
teachers and oflicers, 763; scholars, 4,416; salaries, .S8,951.44; mis- 
sions ^823.33; collected for all purposes, ?26,687.18. 

Presiding elders: H. A. Bovey (Potomac District), G. W. Statton 
(S. V. District). 

Appointments: Hagerstown, J. W. Howe; Myersville J K. 
Nelson; Hagerstown, J. W. Kiracofe; Boonsboro and 1^;;^'^ >'^^'^j^' 
J W Hott W. (). (irim; Martinsburg, P. H. Thomas; South Branch, 
A Hoover'; Alleghany, J. W. Nihiser, P. W. Weller; Frederick. 
A M Evers; Bath, ,1. M. Bodruck; Potomac mission, J. /arman, 
C I B Brane; Mechanicstown, J. B, Funk; New Creek, \\ . J. 
Miller; Back Creek mission, J. E. Whitesel; Churchville, J. L. 
(,rim; Bockingham, H. Tallhelm, C. M. Hott; Page \ alley h^ P. 
Funk- East Virginia mission, J. M. Boss; Lacey Springs, J. Bue< 
bush;' Highland, J. W. Grim; Edinburg, J. \V. Grim; Winchester. 
C B Hammack; Winchester station, G. W. Howe; Tuscarora mis- 
sion, J. D. Freed; Bockbridge, G. H. Snapp; Friedman's (Freed- 
man's?) mission, to be supplied; bishop Ohio district, J. J. (doss- 
brenner. 

1873 

Conference at Hagerstown. Md., February 13. 

Jonathan Weaver, bishop, W. 0. (irim, secretary. 

Present: George W. Statton, ,1. F. Hott, James W. Hott, J. K. 
Nelson, J. W\ Grim, George W. Howe, William O. Grim, J. W . 
Nihiser, George W. Albaugh, J. Zerman, Abram P. Funkhouser, 
A Hoover, Jonathan Tobey, John Buebush, A. M. Evers, H. A. 
Bovev, C. B. Hammack, P. H. Thomas, J. M. Boderick, Henry Tall- 
helm; D. P. Keedv, J. B. Funk, J. E. Wiiitesel, J. W. Funk, J. S. 
Grim C. I. B. Brane, T. S. McNeil, J. W. Kiracofe, John W. Howe. 
J 1 Grim J. D. Freed, William J. Miller, George Hoflman, Joshua 
Harp, E. P. Funk, P. W. Weller, C. M. Hott, Snowden Scott, J. 

Zahn — 39. t rr i i f 

\bsenf Jacob Markwood, W. H. Burtner, J. Holcomb, Levi 
Hess Jacob J. (ilossbrenner, William Lutz, G. W^ Brown, Adam L 
Bovey, J. N. Boss, (ieorge Harman, George A. Shuey, George H. 

Snapp — 12. I ^■ r 

G. W. Statton ordered to prepare the minutes for publication 

and 500 copies to be printed. 

Visiting ministers: W. A. Jackson, G. \\. M. Bigor, \\. T. Lower. 

Shaffer. 

Received: J. Zahn, C. I. B. Brane. 



Died: J. Markwood. Memorial services held. 

Assessment for missionary purposes, $1,500. 

Vote to cooperate with Lebanon Valley College. Trustees 
-elected. 

Benevolent Fund, $887.26. 

Strong resolutions in favor of building church at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Appointments, 165; classes, 147; members received, 867; at end 
of year, 5,756; Telescopes, 361; meeting houses, 76; Sunday Schools, 
93; teachers and officers, 799; scholars, 4,544; parsonages, 7; col- 
lected for missions, $1,190.11; for all purposes. $18,562, 55; salaries 
of preachers, $7,785.17. 

Presiding elders: D. P. Keedy (Potomac Dist.), G. W. Statton 
(S. V. Dist.) 

Appointed: Frederick, A. M. Evers; Mechanicstown, C. M. Hott; 
Myersville, J. K. Nelson; Keedysville station, H. A. Bovey; Boons- 
boro station, J. W. Kiracofe; Hagerstown, J. L. Grim; Hagerstown 
station, J. W. Hott; Potomac mission, J. I). Freed; New (iermany, 
C. I. B. Brane; New Creek, W. J. Miller; South Branch, J. E. White- 
sel; Bath, J. M. Roderick; Martinsburg station, J. W. Howe; Tus- 
<?arora mission, C. B. Hanmiack; Back Creek mission, A. Hoover; 
Winchester, J. B. Funk; Winchester station, G. W. Howe; Edin- 
burg, J. Buebush; Lacey Spring, J. W. Grim; Bockingham, J. W. 
Nihiser; Singers Glen, P. H. Thomas; Page Valley, E. P. Funk; 
Churchville, W. O. Grim; Bockbridge, G. W. Kiracofe; East Virginia 
mission; H. Tallhelm; Alleghanv, J. B. Funk; Highland. \\ W. 
Weller. 

1874 

Conference at Martinsburg, W. Va., F'ebruary 12. 

David Edwards, bishop; W. O. (irim, J. L. Grim, secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: W. O. Tobey, E. Light, B. G. Huber, D. S. 
Early, J. A. Evans, Jacob Erb (ex-bishop). 

J. Holcomb, J. N. Boss withdrew to join Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. 

Honorably dismissed at their own re(iuest: H. Tallhelm, J. 
Tobey. 

Received: I. M. Underwood (Parkersburg ConL), Charles Miller 
(Evan. Asso'n). 

Transferred: L. Hess (Parkersburg Conf.) 

Licentiates: Z. Umstadt, (i. W. Kiracofe, J. N. Fries, D. Barn- 
hart, William Beall, J. G. Humphries. 

Ordained: W. H. Burtner, (i. H. Snapp. 

J. Zahn grated a renewal of his long lost parchments. 

At an evening missionary meeting $500 subscribed. 

Benevolent Fund, $890.39. 

D. D. Keedy, J. Ruebush a committee to raise funds to remove 



! tl 



272 



UNITED RHETHHEN 



the body of Bishop Markwood from Luray to Rohrersville, and to 
erect a monument. 

Appointments, 179; organized churches, 152; members received, 
864; at end of year, 5,731; Telescopes, 448; meeting houses, 91; 
parsonages, 7; Sunchiy Schools, 90; teachers and oflicers, 895; 
scholars, 5,110; collected for missions, s?349.85; for all purposes, 
$21,383.27; salaries. .^8.700.92. 

Presiding elders: I). I). Keedy (Potomac Dist.), J. Huebush (S.. 

V. Dist.). 

Appointed: Frederick, A. M. Evers; Mechanicstown, C. T. H. 
Rrane; Myersville, J. K. Nelson; Keedysvillo. 11. A. Rovcy; P>oons- 
boro, J. W. Kiracofe; Hagerstown. .1 L. Griiu; Magerstown station, 
G. \V. Statton; Potomac mission, .1. D. Freed; New Germany, W. D. 
Rarger; Alleghany, J. R. Funk; Martinsburg station, J. W. Howe; 
Tuscarora mission, C. R. Hanunack; Rack Greek mission, P. H. 
Thomas; Rath, J. M. Roderick; Winchester mission station, .1. E. 
Whitesel; Winchester, J. W. Funk; Edinburg, W. Reall; Eacey 
Spring, J. W. Grim; Rockingham, J. W. Nihiser; Singers Glen, I. M. 
Underwood; Page Valley, G. J. Roudabush; Ghurchville, W. O. 
Grim; Highland, E. P. Funk; Mill Creek mission, to be supi)lied; 
Pxockbridge mission. G. W. Kiracofe; New Creek, W. ,J. >Pller; 
South Rranch, P. W. Weller; Swift Run, Henry .Tones; Cacapon, 
(Charles Miller; Timber Ridge, J. M. Hott; honu' evangelist. G. H. 
Snapp; treasurer General Missionary Society, J. W. Hott; bishop 
west of Mississippi, Glossbrenner. 

1875 

('onference at Keedysville, Md., February 3. 

David Edwards, bishop; W. (). Grim, William Reall, Secretaries. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, Jacob F. Hott, John W. Howe, 
A. M. Evers, H. A. Rovey, J. L. (him, J. I). Freed, William O. Gririi, 
D. I). Keedy, George W. Statton, (ieorge Hoffman, J. Zahn, J. W. 
Kiracofe, James W. Hott, J. W. (u'im, J. M. Roderick, W. H. F^urtner,. 
Joshua Harp, John Ruebush, George A. Shuey, J. S. Grim, J. K. Nel- 
son, C. R. Hanunack, P. H. Thomas, W. J, Miller, J. W. Nihist'r, Geo. 
W. Albaugh, George Harman, J. Zernum, Abram P. Funkhcniser, 
Snowdon Scott, 1. M. Underwood, J. N. Fries, W. H. ("lary, G. J. 
Roudabush, J. R. Funk, J. E. Whitesel, J. W. Funk, George W. 
Rexrode, Z. Umstadt, D. Rarnhart, A. D. Freed, Henry Jones, E. P. 
Funk, P. M. Weller, C. M. Hott, C. I. R. Rrane, G. W\ Kiracofe, Wil- 
liam Beall, M. F. Keiter, J. N. Ridenour — 51. 

Absent: William Lutz, Adam I. Rovey, Charles Miller, A. Hoover, 
G. H. Snapp, J. (i. Humphreys, G. W. Rrown, J. Negley — 8. 

Visiting ministers: Pres. Hanmiond, W. O. Smith, J. X. Quigley, 
G. W\ Lightner, J. R. Resler. 

Licentiates: A. D. Freed, \V. H. Clary, M. F. Keiter, G. J. Rouda- 
bush, Henrv Jones, J. R. Ridenour. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



273 



Ordained: E. P. Funk, J. \V. Funk, C. M. Hott, P. W. Weller, 
J. E. W^hitesel. 

G. W. Statton, D. D. Keedy, J. Harp a committee to have Con- 
ference incorporated. 

D. D. Keedy api)()inted agent for Lebanon Valley College. 

Died: Dr. T. S. McNeil, drowned in Ohio while on his way to 
Parkersburg (Conference. 

Appointments, 188; organized churches, 152; members icceived, 
950; at end of year, 6,123; Telescopes, 404; meeting houses, 87; 
parsonages, 9; Sunday Schools, 119; teachers and officers. 114 (?); 
scholars, 5,686; collected for missions, $1,351.83; for all purposes, 
$21,328.51; salaries of preachers, $10,151.81. 

Presiding elders: J. W. Howe (Potomac Dist.), J. Ruebush, 
(S. V. Dist.). 

Appointed: P'rederick, J. L. Grim; Mechanicstown, C. 1. R. F^rane, 
Myersville, J. ^V. Funk; Roosboro station, J. W. Kiracofe; Keedys- 
ville station, H. A. Rovey; Hagerstown, J. R. Funk; Hagerstown 
station, G. W. Statton; Martinsburg station, A. M. Evers; Potomac 
mission, G. \V. Kiracofe; Tuscarora, J. D. Freed; Rath, C. R. Ham- 
mack; Rack Creek, P. H. Thomas; Alleghany, G. W. Rexrode: Key- 
ser mission, J. W. Grim; New^ Creek, J. M. Roderick; Winchester, 
J. K. Nelson; Winchester mission station, M. F. Keiter; Edinburg, 
W. Reall; Dayton, J. W. Nihiser; Lacey Spring, I. M. Underwood; 
Rockingham, W. 0. Grim, W. D. Rarger; Page Valley, G. J. Rouda- 
bush; Ghurchville, J. E. Whitesel; Rockbridge, C. H. Crowell; 
Madison mission, H. Jones; Rloomery mission, J. M. Hott; Cacapon 
mission, C.Miller, South Rranch, J. R. Ridenour; Mill (jcek, G. 
H. Snapp; Highland, E. P. Funk; Augusta Freedman's mission. J. 
A. Evans; Rockingham mission, S. T. W^ells. 

1876 

Conference at Churchville, Va., February 2. 

David Edwards, bishop; W. 0. Grimm, A. M. Evers, secretaries. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, John W. Howe, J. K. Nelson, 
C. B. Hanmiack, W. O. Grinuu, W. PI. Rurtner, George W. Albaugh, 
E. P. Funk, Abram P. Funkhouser, G. H. Snapp, I. M. Underwood, 
William Beall, G. J. Roudabush, S. T. Wells, George \V. Statton, 
A. M. Evers, H. A. Bovey, J. L. Grim, J. W. Nihiser, D. D. Keedy, 
George Harman, J. Zerman, J. W. Funk, G. \Y. Browm, C. I. B. 
Brane, Charles Miller, A. D. Freed, Henry Jones, John Ruebush, 
J. \\\ Kiracofe, J. W. Hott, J. M. Rodruck, George HofTman, Joshua 
Harp, J. B. Funk, J. E. Whitesel, C. M. Hott, George W. Howe, J. 
Zahn, G. W. Kiracofe, M. F. Keiter, J. R. Ridenour — 45. 

Absent: J. F. Hott, W. J. Miller, J. S. Grim, George W. Rex- 
rode, Z. Umstadt, J. G. Humphreys, J. W. Grim, William Lutz, 
(jeorge A. Shuey, Adam I. Bovey, J. N. Fries, W. H. Clary, P. 11. 



274 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



275 



Thomas, P. W. Weller, Snowden Scott, J. Negley, D. Barnhart — 17. 

S. T. Wells (colored) received from Des Moines Conference. 

Transferred: J. \V. (irini. 

Visiting ministers: \V. J. Shuey, D. K. Flickinger, J. B. Resler, 
J. M. Hershey, Prof. W. S. Walker. 

G. W. Alt)augh withdrew from conference and church. 

Ordained: W. Heall, C. 1. B. Brane, G. Harman, A. P. Funk- 
houser. 

Licentiates: C. W. Stinespring, I. T. Parlett. 

Presiding elders: J. Ruehiish (Potomac Dist.), J. W. Howe 
(S. V. Dist.). 

Appointments, 212; organized churches, MVA; memhers received, 
1,245; at end of year, 6,772; Sunday Schools, 12(); teachers and 
officers, 1,141; scholars, r),()39; meeting houses, 92; parsonages, 9; 
Telescopes, 389; collected for mission $1,206.85; for all purposes, 
§21,100; salaries of preachers, §9,500. 

Appointed: Hagerstown, J. B. Funk; Hagerstown station, C. 
M. Hott; Potomac, (i. W. Kiracofe; Boonsboro, H. A. Bovey; 
Keeysville station, .1. W. Kiracofe; Mechanicstown, E. P. Funk; 
Myersville, J. W. Funk; Frederick mission and station, J. L. (^rim; 
Martinsburg station, A. M. Evers; Tuscarora, J. D. Freed; Alleghany, 
.1. E. Widmeyer; Westernport mission station, I. M. Underwood; 
Bath, C. B. Hannnack; Berkeley, W. Beall; New Creek, J. M.. 
Roderick; Winchester, J. K. Nelson; Winchester mission station, 
G. W. Howe; South Branch, J. R. Ridenour; South Fork mission, 
C. Miller; Mill Creek, to be supplied; Highland, A. P. Funkhouser; 
Church ville, J. E. Whitesel; Rockingham, W. O. Grim; Shady 
Grove, C. W. Stinespring; Lacey Spring, M. F. Keiter; Dayton, 
J. W. Nihiser; Edinburg, G. W. Station; Page Valley, G. J. Rouda- 
bush; Madison mission, H. Jones; Rockbridge, C. H. Crowell; 
Bloomery mission, J. M. Hott; Augusta Frcedmen's mission, .1. A. 
Evans; Rockingham Freedmen's mission, S. T. Wells; Garrett, G. 
H. Snapp; agent Lebanon Valley College, D. D. Keedy; treasurer 
General Missionary Society, J. W. Hott; bishop Ohio District, 
J. J. Glossbrenner. 

1877 
Conference at Rohrersville, Md., February 3. 

John Dickson, bishop; W. 0. Grim, A. P. Funkhouser, secretaries. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, John \\. Howe, J. K. Nelson, 
C. B. Hammack, William O. Grim, D. D. Keedy, J. Zerman, J. w! 
Funk, G. H. Snapp, I. M. Underwood, M. F. Keiter, J. R. Ridenour, 
J. D. Freed, J. S. Grim, Z. Umstot, I. T. Parlett, George \\. Station! 
A. M. Evers, H. A. Bovey, J. L. Grim, J. W. Nihiser, Joshua Harp! 
J. E. Whitesel, C. M. Hott, C. I. B. Brane, G. W. Kiracofe, G. j! 
Roudabush, J. F. Hott, W. J. Miller, George W. Rexrode, J. N.' Fries! 
S. T. Wells, John Ruebush, J. W. Kiracofe, J. W. Hott, J. M. Rodruck! 



W. H. Burtner, J. B. Funk, Abram P. Funkhouser, A. Hoover, J. 
Zahn, William Beall, Henry Jones, P. H. Thomas, P. W. Weller, 
J. Negley, C. W. Stinespring — 47. 

Absent: George A. Shuey, George Harman, Charles Miller, Adam 
I. Bovey, W. H. Clary, A. D. Freed, G. W. Brown, William Lutz, 
George Hoflman, George W. Howe, Snowden Scott, J. G. Hum- 
phreys — 13. 

J. E. Hott received from Dakota Conference. 

Visiting ministers: S. M. Hippard, J. B. Resler, J. M. Hershey, 
President DeLong. 

Licentiates: S. K. Wine, J. I). Donovan, J. M. llott, J. E. Wid- 
meyer. 

The names of G. W. Brown and J. (i. Humphreys dropped from 
roll, the former for withdrawing under charges, the latter for 
failing to meet his conunittee on course of reading. 

Ordained: G. W. Kiracofe. 

Died: A. D. Freed, (Oct. 1876). 

Minutes ordered printed. 

Articles of Incorporation adopted. 

Benevolent Fund, §1,061.99. 

A Conference Educational Society provided for. J. W. Hott to 
prepare a constitution, A. P. Funkhouser, an address for publica- 
tion. 

Appointments, 223; organized churches, 179; members received, 
1,109; at end of year, 7,269; Telescopes, 388; meeting houses, 96; 
parsonage, 9; Sunday Schools, 139; teachers and officers, 1,204; 
scholars, 6,441; collected for missions, §1,151.89; for all other 
purposes, §16,790.17; salaries of pastors, §9,521.99. 

Presiding elders: J. Huebush (Potomac Dist.), J. H. Howe 
<S. V. Dist.). 

Appointed: Church ville, J. E. Whitesel; Rockingham, J. E. 
Hott; Shady Grove, J. I). Donovan; Scnith Fork mission, E. L^ 
Funk; Highland, J. E. Widmeyer; Winchester, W. J. Miller; Win- 
chester station, J. K. Nelson; South Branch, 1. M. Lnderwood; 
Rockbridge. C. H. Crowell; Edinburg, W. O. Grim; Lacey Spring, 
M. F. Keiter; Mill Creek, to be supplied; Bloomery mission, J. M. 
Hott; Page Valley, G. J. Roudabush; Dayton, A. P. Funkhouser; 
Madison, H. Jones; Augusta Freedmen's mission, J. A. Evans; 
Rockingham Freedmen's mission, S. T. Weils; Frederick circuit 
and station, J. L. Grim; Mechanicstown, J. D. Freed; Hagerstown, 
J. R. Ridenour; Hagerstown station, C. M. Hott; Boonsboro, H. A. 
Bovey; Keeysville station, J. W. Kiracofe; Potomac mission, P. W. 
W'eller; Martinsburg station, A. M. Evers; Opequon, J. B. Funk; 
Charles Mission, J. Negley; Bath, C. B. Hammack; New Creew, 
G. W. Kiracofe; Garrett, G. W. Rexrode; Westernport station, C. W. 
Stinespring; Myersville, J. W. Funk; Berkeley, W. Beall; Alleghany, 



276 



UNITED BRETHREN 



J. M. Roderick; bishop West Mississippi Dist., J. J. Glossbrenner; 
general book agent and evangelist, G. H. Snapp; General Mission- 
ary Treasurer, J. W. Hott. 

1878 

(AHiference at Winchester, Va., February 20. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, bishop; W. O. Grim, secretary. 

Present: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, A. M. Evers, J. W. Hott, J. M. 
Roderick, Joshua Harp, J. E. Whitesel, C. M. Hott, I. M. I'nderwood, 
Henry Jones, J. D. Freed, George W. Rexrode, J. N. Fries, George 
W. Howe, J. D. Donovan, I. T. Hott, C. W. Hutzler, J. H. Parlett, 
J. \V. Kiracofe, John Ruebush, D. D. Keedy, William O. Grim, E. P. 
F'unk. Abram P. Funkhouser, G. H. Snapp, William Beall, J. R. 
Ridenour, W. J. Miller, J. A. Negley, C. W. Stinespring, Snowdon 
Scott, J. M. Hott, S. K. Wine, C. H. Crowell. E. Ludwick, John W. 
Howe, J. K. Nelson, J. L. Grim, W. H. Burtner, J. Zerman, J. W. 
Funk, C. I. B. Brane, M. F. Keiter, J. F. Hott, J. S. Grim, Z. Umstot, 
1. T. Parlett, D. Barnhart, S. T. Wells, J. E. Widmeyer, W. R. 
Berry — 50. 

Absent: George W. Station, J. B. Funk, W. H. Clary, P. H. 
Thomas, George Harman, Adam I. Bovey, H. A. Bovey, A. Hoover, 
G. W. Kiracofe, P. W. Weller, Charles Miller. J. W. Nihiser, J. Zahn, 
G. J. Roudabush, (leorge Hotlman, William Lutz — 10. 

Visiting ministers: D. K. Flickinger, S. M. Hippard, J. M. Her- 
shey, J. A. Evans, Pres. DeLong. 

J. B. Funk, G. W. Kiracofe, transferred to Pennsylvania Con- 
ference, H. A. Bovey to Central Ohio. 

licentiates: C. H. Crowell, J. H. Parlett, I. T. Hott, W. R. Berry, 
C. W. Hutzler, E. Ludwig. 

Ordained: H. Jones, M. F. Keiter, Z. Umstot, J. N. Fries, J. A. 
Negley, J. R. Ridenour. 

Benevolent Fund, si, 139.02. 

A Quarterly Review recommended. 

Died: C. B. Hammack (Mar. 1). 

Constitution for Education Society adopted, and address of 
A. P. Funkhouser ordered printed. 

Resolution passed requiring local preachers to submit their 
annual reports in writing. 

Presiding elders: W. O. Grim (Potomac Dist.), J. W. Howe 
(Shenandoah Dist.), A. M. Evans (South Branch Dist.). 

Appointments, 219; organized churches, 170; members received, 
1,10(); at end of year, 7,633; Telescopes, 498; church houses, 101; 
parsonages, 10; Sunday Schools, 142; teachers and officers, 1,264* 
scholars, 7,129; collected for missions, $1,186.97; for all purposes', 
$21,114.20; salaries of preachers, .^8,757.16. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



277 



Appointed: Frederick, E. Ludwig; Frederick station. J. L. Grim; 
Mechanicstown, J. D. Freed; Myers ville, C. M. Hott; Keedysville, 
J. W. Kiracofe; Boonsboro station, J. Ruebush; Hagerstown. J. R. 
Ridenour; Hagerstown station, J. W. Funk; Potomac missit)n, E. 
P. Funk; Opecpion, S. K. Wine: Martinsburg station, J. K. Nelson; 
Bath, 1. M. Underwood; Berkeley, W. Beall; Churchville. J. E. 
Wiiitesel; Augusta, J. E. Hott; Dayton, A. P. Funkhouser; 
Lacey Spring, (i. J. R()U(lai)ush; Edinburg. M. F. Keiter: Mount 
Zion; J. M. Hott; Winciiester station. W. J. Miller; Page Valley, 
C. H. Crowell; Madison mission, H. Jones; Rockbridge. C. I. B. 
Brane; Shady Grove. W. \\. Berry; Augusta Freedmen's mission, J.. 
Waite; Rockingham Freedmen's mission, J. A. ICvans; Clarke Freed- 
men's mission, to be supplied; Garrett, (i. W. Rexrode; Alleghany,, 
J. M. Rodruck; Westerport station, C. W. Stinespring; New Creek, 
J. W. Nihiser; South Fork mission, J. F. Hott; South Branch, J. E. 
Widmeyer; Bloomery mission, J. I). Donovan: Mill Creek, J. G. 
Ketterman; Highland, J. H. Parlett; editor of "Telescope," J. W. 
Hott; Conference Evangelist, G. H. Snapp. 

1879 



(Conference at Mechanicstown, Md., February 26. 

A. P. Funkhouser, secretary. 

Present: Jacob J. Cdossbrenner. A. M. Evers, James W. Hott, 
William O. Grim, J. W. Funk, 1. M. Underwood, Henry Jones, W. J. 
Miller, J. A. Negley, J. T. Parlett, G. J. Roudabush, J. B. Donovan. 
S. K. Wine, W. R. Berry, George P. Hott, John Buebush. J. \V. 
Kiracofe, D. I). Keedy, Joshua Harp, C. M. Hott, William Beall, 
J. R. Ridenour, J. S. Grim, J. N. Fries. J. W. Nihiser, (leorge Har- 
man, J. E. Hott, J. E. Widmeyer, J. H. Parlett, B. F. Cronise. John 
W. Howe, J. K. Nelson, J. L. (irim, Abram P. Funkhouser, G .H. 
Snapp, M. F. Keiter, J. I). Fried, (ieorge W. Rexrode, C. W. Stine- 
spring, A. Hoover, D. Barnhart, C. W. Hutzler, E. Eudwig— 44. 

Absent: George W. Station, J. M. Roderick, W. H. Burtner, E. 
P. Funk, C. I. B. Brane, J. Zahn, P. W. Weller, William Lutz, Snow- 
don Scott, S. T. Wells, J. Zerman. I. T. Holt, C. H. Clary, George 
Hoffman, Adam L Bovey, C. B. Crowell, J. E. Whitesel, Z. Umstot, 
P. H. Thomas, Charles Miller, George W. Howe, J. M. Hott— 22. 

Visiting ministers: J. P. Miller, J. A. Evans, J. K. Billhimeri 
Charles W. Miller, I. Baltzel, L. W. Cranmer, J. X. Quigley, D. D. 
DeLong, G. W. Kiracofe, J. H. Powell, Mrs. J. K. Billhimer. 

Ordained: B. F. Cronise, G. J. Roudabush, J. T. Parlett, D. 
Barnhart. 

Licentiate: G. P. Hott. 

Cash raised for Edwards Academy, $100. 

Most of the local preachers submitted written reports. 



278 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Died: J. E. Whitesel, aged 27. 

Visiting coniinittee to Shenandoah Institute appointed, this be- 
ing the first oflicial recognition of the school. 

Appointments, 215; organized churches, 186; members received, 
1,113: at end of year, 7,808; Telescopes, 564; Sunday School, 146; 
teachers and otiicers, 1,375; scholars, 7,531; meeting houses, 104; 
parsonages, 10; collected for missions, $1,155.94; for all purposes, 
$24,250.47; salaries of ministers, $9,509.86. 

Appointed: Frederick, \V. Beall; Frederick station, J. L. Grim; 
Mechanicstown, J. I). Freed; Myersville, C M. Hott; Keedysville 
station, J. \V. Kiracofe; Boonsboro, J. Ruebush; Hagerstown, .1. 
\V. Funk; Hagerstown station, C. \V. Stinespring; Opequon, W. R. 
Evers; Marti nsburg station, J. K. Nelson; Berkeley Springs, I. M. 
Underwood; Berkeley, J. H. Parlett; Church ville, A. M. Evers; 
Augusta, C. H. Crowell; Dayton. A. F. Funkhouser, and one to be 
supplied; Lacey Spring, (1. J. lioudabush; Winchester, E. Ludwig; 
Winchester station, J. R. Ridenour; Page Valley, H. Jones; Madison 
mission, I. T. Hott; Rockbridge, A. Hoover; Shady Grove mission, 
W. .[. Miller; Glarke mission, J. M. Hott; Augusta Freedmen's mis- 
sion, to be supplied; Rockingham F'reedmen's mission, ,J. A. Evans; 
Garrett, M. A. Salt; Alleghany, W. H. Glary; Westernport station, 
J. K. Widmeyer; New Creek, W. R. Rerry; Moorefield mission, I. T. 
Parlett; Mill (]reek. W. Hesse; Franklin, S. K. Wine, editor Tele- 
sco[)e, J. W. Hott; bishop East Ohio District, J. J. Glossbrenner; 
professor in Shenandoah Seminary. J, N. Fries. 

Presiding elders: W. (). Grim (Potomac Dist.), J. W. Howe 
Shenandoah D'st.), J. E. Hott (South Branch Dist.). 



1880 

Conference at Edinburg, Va., Mar. 3. 

.John Dickson, bishop, A. P. Funkhouser, secretary. 

Present: ,Iohn Ruebush, J. W. Kiracofe, D. D. Keedy, William 
O. Grim, .1. Zerman, J. W. Funk, William Reall, .1. R. Ridenour, 
William J. Miller, ,J. N. Fries, J. W. Nihiser, (i. J. Roudabush, Wil- 
liam Lutz, .1. D. Donovan, J. E. Widmeyer, C. H. Crowell, E. Lud- 
wick, M. L. Mayselles, M. A. Salt, John W. Howe, J. L. Grim, W. H. 
Burtner, Abram P. Funkhouser, C. M. Hott, C. W. Stinespring, A. 
Hoover, George Hofl'man, George W. Howe, J. E. Hott, S. K. Wine, 
W. R. Berry, B. F. Cronise, William Hesse, A. M. Evers, J. W. Hott, 
J. M. Roderick, Joshua Harp, J. W. Funk, I. M. Underwood, Henry 
Jones, J. D. Freed, George W. Rexrode, I. T. Parlett, W. H. Clary, 
Charles Miller, D. Barnhart, I. T. Hott, C. W. Hutsler, J. H. Parlett, 
J. G. Ketterman, A. M. Horn — 54. 

Absent: Jacob J. Glossbrenner, J. S. Grim, P. H. Thomas, Snow- 
don Scott, Z. Umstot, George Harman, C. I. B. Brane, P. W. Weller, 



CHURCH HISTORY 



279 



J. M. Hott, S. T. W^ells, J. Zahn, Adam I. Bovey, George P. Hott. 

J. A. Evans, J. A. Neeley— 15. ^ ,^ t, ,, xv 

Visiting ministers: M. Bulger, J. X. Quigley, D. O. Farrell W . 

J. Prunner, Pres. D. D. DeLong. 

Received: J. A. Evans (Mich. Conf.). 

Voted to furnish a room at U. B. Seminary at a cost of .^100; 
$30 raised in conference. 

Transferred: P. W. Weller, S. J. Wells, G. W. Station. 

Ordained: J. E. Widmeyer, C. W. Stinespring. 

Licentiates: W. Hesse, A. M. Horn, J. (.. Ketterman, S. H. Snell, 
M. L. Mayselles, M. A. Salt. 

Died: Adam I. Bovey, aged about 82. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, J^l, 308.89. 

Brid-ewater church sold for mH Ihree-lifth of this to go to 
district Varsonage, two-lifths to Augusta parsonage. 

Trustees appointed for district parsonage. 

Appointments, 212; organized churches 18(); members received. 
1548 at end of vear, 8,564; Telescopes (banner conference , 013; 
^ing houses, 111; parsonage, 10; Sunday Schools, l'>^>^ -»^i; ^-f; 
8.347; collected for missions,^ .^1,187.62; for all purposes, $26,o/0.(>(>, 
Drenchers' salaries, sl(l,323.0.). .,11.- 

Presiding elders: A. 1'. Funkhouser. (Shenandoah Dist.), ,1. K. 
Nelson. (Poton.ae Dist.). J. E. Hott, (South Branch I),st.). 

A„pointe<l: Churchville. A. M. I'-vers: Au.yusta I . (. oxv.l . 

l)-,vton J W Howe; Winchester, J. W. Nih.ser; Winchester sta- 
ion IB I i.lenour; Page Valley mission, H. ..ones Madison nns- 
sion M A Salt: lU.ckhridge mission. A. Hoover; (darke mission 

M Hott; I.acev Spring, C. .1. Houdabush; Dayton station, C M 
Hot Edii l.ur.' ' M. F. Keiter; Nelson mission, to he supplied. 
FderfckW "Beall; ITederick station. C W. Stinespring Me- 
Th o^n J. D. Fi-eed; Myersville, J. Buehush Keedy.^viHe s a- 

,on, W. O. Orim; ''-"^^Xlct 'op* ^^n' l^Sote \.^ 
Hagerstown station, E. LuchMckOpauonj. Berkelev 

hnrcr station J E. Widmever; Berkeley, C. \\ • Hutzkr, ikikcrx 
Sp Hng . ion: J. E. WidniVyer; C.arre.t. to he supplied; At eghany. 
WH Clary Westernport station. .1. W. Hicks; New (.reek. \\ . 1 . 
Ser"y Mo eiield mission. .1. M. Bolton; South Branch. J^ M. 
Ho leHck Bloomerv, S. H. Snell; Mill Creek. A. M. Horn; Franklin 
M' H 'sampsell; West Augusta mission, to he -pplied h.shop Has 
Ohio District, J. J. Cdosshrenner; editor Telescope, .1. W. Hott. pio 
fessor in Shenandoah Seminary, J. N. Fries. 

1881 

Conference at Boonsboro, Md., March 2, 

1 J Cdosshrenner. bishop. A. P. Funkhouser. secrc ary. 

Present : D. Barnhart. C. 1. B. Brane, B. F. Cronise, (.. P. Dyche. 



280 



UNITED BRETHREN 



W.O. tries, J. J. (Uossbrenner, W. O. Grim, W. Beall, J. M. Bolton, 
C. H. Crowell, A. M. Evers, J. W. Funk, J. L. Grim. J. Harp, W H 
Berry W. H. Clary, J. D. Donovan, J. D. Freed, A. P. Fimlvliouser, 
J. S. Gnm. W. Hesse, J. W. Flicks, C. M. Hott, J. M. Hott, (; W 
Howe D D. Keedy, J. W. Kiracofe, M. L, Mayselles, J. K. Nelson,' 
J. I.. Ridenour. J. Houdahush, S. H. Snell, 1. M. Underwood. J. 
Aahn, A. Hoover. J. E. Hott. J. W. Hott, C. W. Hiit/ler \I F 

p » v. ; ^V"'''''''""^' ^- ^- ^^'i^^•^^^^ver. J. Zerman. A. M. Horn. ,1, 
t' a v ■ ■ ; ^!r''''' "• •^^'"''' *^- ^'- '^^'tterman, W. L. Martin, 

Umsto^f^K'w- '"o''^^' ''• •' ^'^^^'^'^^»^^-^^' ^^- ''' ^-^M-ell, Z. 
Lmstot. S. K. \\me — ,)9. 

Absent: W. H. Burtner. G. Harman, G. HolTman, J. W. Nihiser, 
K H. Thomas. J. A. Evans, G. P. Hott. W. Liitz. G. W. Hexrode 
J. N. Fries, I. T. Hott. \V. J. Miller. S. Scott— 1.3 

Visiting ministers: G. H. Snapp, W. R. Coiirsev, L. Hess J \ 
Qini^'Iey. H. W. Whitlock, B. G. Huher, Col. R. Cowden, Pres d' d' 
DeLonif. 

Received: .1. M HiVks (from Me). 

Licentiates: W. (). Fries, W. L. Martin, C. P. Dvcho, W H 
Sampsell, J. M. Bolton. ' 

1.000 copies minutes ordered printed. 

Westernport mission station stricken from list 

General Conference requested to arrange for the publication of 
graded Sunday School helps. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, .^1.493 02 

Collection of ^50.30 for W. R. Coursey, visiting his old home. 

J. H. Parlett. W . R. Berry, J. D. Donovan. 

William Beall at his own request given honorable disnn-ssal 
from conference and church. 

Died: P. W. Weller. 

Fcr lay representation. 11 quarterly conferences: against it 'M 

Aext General Conference requested to provide for pro nUa 
representation in its membershin. 

Presiding elders: A. P. Funkhouser, (Shen. Dist.), J K Nelson 
(Potomac Dist.), J. E. Hott, (South Branch Dis ) ' 

Appointments, 224: organized churches, 195; members received 
/42, at end of year, 8.4(52: Telescopes, 074; meeting houses in' 
parsonage^ 9; Sunday Schools, 150; teachers and ^fH e 's j T i 
^hc^ars 8,029; collected for nnssions, .1,164.18; for nirp^;!' 

$22,4/4.00; preachers' salaries, S10,201.04. P^^poses, 

Appointed: Churchville, A. M. Evers; West Au-usta N A 

i^:uTc 'm'Tu ^;-/-f-^^^^^-^^^ ^^-^^^-»^e. M. A. s;dt D^^^tci; 

s a on, (.. M Hott; Dayton, J. W. Funk; Lacey Spring, A. Hoover- 
^M.chson mission, A. M. Horn; Port Republic and Lur^y, H Jones! 



CHURCH HISTORY 



281 



East Rockingham mission, J. W. Maiden; Edinburg. J. W. Hicks; 
Winchester, J. E. Widmeyer; Nelson mission, to be supplied; Rock- 
ingham Freedmen's mission, to be supplies; Augusta Freedmen's 
mission, to be supplied; Boonsboro, .1. L. Grim; Keedysville station, 
M. F. Keiter; Hagerstown. J. Ruebush; Hagerstown station, E. Lud- 
wick; Myersville, C. H. Crowell; Mechanicstown, W. (). Grim; Fred- 
erick station, C. W. Stinespring; ()pe(iu()n, J. W. Kiracofe; Martins- 
burg station, I. M. Underwood; Berkeley mission, C. W. Hutzler; 
Clarke mission, J. M. Hott; New Haven mission. J. A. Negley; Win- 
chester station, J. W. Ridenour; Bloomery, J. M. Roderick: Berke- 
ley Spring, .1. W. Howe; Mooreheld mission. W. Hesse; Franklin 
circuit, W. H. Sampsell; North Fork, J. M. Bolton; South B'tmch, 
\\. R. Berry; New Creek, S. K. Wine; Alleghany, W. H. Clary; 
Garrett, J. G. Ketterman; bishop East District, .1. J. Cdossbrenner; 
e<litor Telescope, J. W. Hott; missionary to Africa, J. A. Evans. 

1 882 

Conference at Dayton, Va., March 8. 

John Dickson, Jacob J. Glossbrenner, bishops; A. P. Funkhouser. 
J. R. Ridenour, secretaries. 

Present: J. J. Glossbrenner, A. M. Evers, J. W. Hott, W. H. 
Burtner, A. P. Funkhouser, C. 1. B. Brane, J. W. Ridenour. J. N. 
Fries, A. Hoover, (i. Harman. J. M. Hott. .1. E. Widmeyer, W. \\. 
Berry, S. H. Snell. .1. G. Ketterman, W. L. Martin, W. O. Fries, P. J. 
Lawrence. J. S. Grim, J. W. Howe. .1. W. Kiracofe, D. D. Keedy, 
J. W\ Funk, M. F. Keiter. .1. F Hott. C. W. Stinesoring. (\. J. Rouda- 
bush, W. Lutz. J. E. Hott, C. W. Hutzler, J. H. Parlett, M. A. Salt, 
A. M. Horn. W. H. Sampsell, .1. M. Bolton. J. A. Ne-ley, W. .1. Mdler, 
J. K. Nelson. W. (). Grim. ,1. Zarman, C. M. Hott, H. Jones, J. D. 
Freed, I. T. Parlett. G. Hotfman. J. I). Donovan, S. K. Wine, C. H. 
Crowell, E. Eudwick, W. Hesse, J. W. Hicks, C. P. Dyche, L. O. 
Burtner, W. H. Clary— 55. 

Absent: 1). Barnhart. J. S. Grim, (i. W. Howe, B. F. Cronise, 
G. P. Hott, M. L. Mayselles, J. A. Evans, 1. T. Hott, C. Miller, J. W^ 
Nihiser, S. Scott, I. M. Underwood, J. M. P.odruck, P. H. Thomas, 
J. Ruebush, G. W. Rexrode, Z. Umstot, J. Zahn— 18. 

Visiting ministers: Pres. D. D. DeLong, G. II. Snapp, .1. X. 

Quigley, W. J. Zuck. 

Licentiates: L. O. Burtner, P. J. Lawrence. 

Transferred: 1. T. Hott. 

Collection for needy preachers, $50.01. 

Preachers Aid Fund, $1,732.84. 

Died: John Ruebush, John Zahn, William R. Coursey. Memorial 
services for each. 

Ordained: C. H. Crowell. 



282 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Presiding elders: J. W. Funk, (Shen. Dist.), J. W. Howe, (Poto- 
nijjc Dist.), J. K. Nelson, (South Branch Dist.). 

Appointments, 269; organized churches, 198: members received, 
1,088: at end of year, 8,554; Telescopes, 761; meeting houses, 115; 
parsonage, 10; value of meeting houses, .^118,751; of parsonages', 
$8,750; Sunday Schools. 169; teachers and officers, 1,386; scholars] 
8.680; collected for missions, -SI, 173. 13; for all purposes, 822,776.42; 
preachers' salaries, .'>9,340.43. 

Appointed: Chnrchville station, C. W. Stinespring; Augusta. G. 
J. Roudabush; West Augusta, J. M. Bolton; Rockbridge, M. A. Salt; 
Dayton station. G. P. Hott; Dayton, J. E. Hott; Lacey Spring, a'. 
Hoover; Elkton, W. H. Sampsell; South River mission, X. A. Kira- 
cofe; Madison mission, X. F. A. Cupp; Edinburg, .1. W. Hicks: Toms 
Brook, S. H. Snell; Winchester mission, J. E. Widmeyer; Front 
Royal mission, H. .Tones; Rockingham Freedmen's mission, to be 
supplied; Augusta Freedmen's mission, to be supplied; Rroonsboro, 
C. M. Hott; Keedysville, M. F. Keiter; Myersville, C. H. Crowell;' 
Hagerstown. 1. M. l^nderwood; Hagerstown station, E. Ludwick; 
Frederick, ,1. 1). Freed; Frederick mission, A. M. Evers; Williams- 
port station, J. W. Kiracofe; Martinsburg station, .1. D. Donovan; 
Berkeley mission, C. W. Hutzler; Xew Haven mission, J. A. Xegley; 
Vanclevesville, W. B. Evers; Winchester station, C. P. Dyche; 
Clarke mission, W. L. Martin; Berkeley Springs, ,1. R. Rirlenour; 
Bloomery, J. M. Hott; Xorth River mission, to be supplied; Moo^e- 
field mission, W. Hesse; Franklin, A. M. Horn; Xorth Fork, to be 
supplied; South Rranch, S. K. Wine; Xew Creek, .1. M. Rodruck- 
Alleghany. W. H. Clary; Garrett, J. (i. Ketterman; bishop Ohio Dis- 
trict, J. J. Glossbrenner; editor Telescope, .[. W. Hott; agent 
Lebanon Valley College, D. D. Keedy; agent V. B. Seminary,'' W. 
(). Grim; agent Conference Institution of Learning, A. P. Funk- 
houser. 



1883 

Conference at Hagerstown, Md., March 7. 

.John Dickson, bishop; A. P. Funkhouser, J. R. Ridenour, secre- 
taries. 

Present: D. Barnhart. W. H. Burtner, C. H. Crowell, C. P. Dyche 
J. W. Funk, J. S. (irim, W. Hesse, A. M. Horn, J. E. Hott, H. .Jones' 
J. G. Ketterman, P. ,J. Lawrence, J. A. Xeglev, .1. R. Ridenour g' 
^^. Rexrode, S. H. Snell, I. M. Underwood, J. Zerman, W. R Berry 
^^. H. Clary, Albert Day, A. M. Evers, A. P. Funkhouser W o' 
Grim, ,L W. Hicks, C. M. Hott, J. W. Hott, .L W. Howe, D d' Keedv' 
J. W. Kiracofe, W. L. Martin, J. K. Xelson, J. M. Rodruck M \' 
Salt, C. W. Stinespring, J. E. Widmeyer, C. L B. Brane B f' 
Cronise, J. D. Donovan, J. X. Fries. J. J. Glossbrenner, J. Harp \' 
Hoover, G. P. Hott, J. M. Hott, C. W. Hutzler, M. F Keiter E^ 



CHURCH HISTORY 



283 



Ludwick, M. L. Mayselles, J. H. Parlett, G. J. Roudabush, W. 11. 
Sampsell, P. H. Thomas, S. K. Wine — .55. 

Absent: J. M. Bolton, J. D. Freed, G. W. Howe, C. Miller. .L \V. 
Miller, J. W. Xihiser, Z. Umstot, L. O. Burtner, W. O. Fries. G. 
HofTman, J. W. Miller, 1. T. Parlett, J. A. Evans, G .Harman, W. 
Lutz, .J. W. Miller, S. Scott— 15. 

Visiting ministers: E. P. Funk. J. B. Funk, J. L. (^rim. .1. X. 
Quigley, .1. W. Grim, .1. K. Billhimer, C. T. Steam, ,1. W Miller, 
B. G. Huber, W. A. Dickson, C. A. Burtner, C. W. Bingham, Mrs. 
L. B. Kiester. 

Committee in Albin will case: J. W. Howe, .1. W. Funk. 11. .tones. 

Licentiate: Albert Day. 

Ordained: A. M. Horn, S. H. Snell, J. M. Hott, M. A. Salt. W. 
Hesse, G. P. Hott. 

Transferred: D. Barnhart, C. W. Hutzler, W. 0. Grim. 

Preachers Aid Fund, "^l. 895.44. 

J. J. Glossbrenner, A. P. Funkhouser, J. W. Funk, committee 
on the troubles at Rohrersville, growing out of the administra- 
tion of the secrecy law by M. F. Keiter, accepted as satisfactory 
by both parties, and adopted by conference. 

Presiding elders: J. W. Howe, (Potomac Dist.), .1. W. Funk. 
(Shen. Dist.), J. K. Xelson, (South Branch Dist.). 

Appointments, 2.30; organized churches, 196; members received, 
1,062; at end of year 8,867; Telescopes. 817; meeting houses, 117; 
value, .'1^114,649; parsonages, 10; value, $11,345; Sunday Schools, 
154; teachers and officers, 1,283; scholars, 7,975; collected for mis- 
sions, $1,248.10; for all purposes, $28,190.()(); salaries of preachers, 
$12,107.73. 

Appointed: Boonsboro, C M. Hott; Keedysville station, .1. F,. 
Ridenour; Hagerstown, 1. M. Underwood; Hagerstown station, S. 
H. Snell; Myersville, C H. (]rowell; Mechanicstown, W. H. P>erry; 
Frederick, J. D. Freed; Frederick station, A. M. Evers; Potomac, 
.1. W. Kiracofe; Martinsburg station, M. F. Keiter; Clarke mission, 
W. L. Martin; Vancleavesville, W. B. Evers; Churchville. (]. W. 
Stinespring; Augusta, A. P. Funkhouser; Rockbridge, L. O. Burtner; 
Dayton, J. E. Hott; Dayton station, (i. P. Hott; Lacey Spring. A. 
Hoover; Elkton, G. J. Roudabush; Madison, X. F. A. Cupp; South 
River mission, X. A. Kiracofe; Edinburg, J. W. Hicks, and one to 
be supplied; Winchester mission, J. E. Widmeyer; Front Royal, M. 
A. Salt; Winchester station, C. P. Dyche; Bloomery circuit and 
North River mission. .1. M. Hott. P. J. Lawrence; Berkeley Springs. 
E. Ludwick; Lost River mission, J. G. Ketterman; Franklin circuit 
and North Fork mission, A. M. Horn and one to be supplied; South 
Branch, W. H. Sampsell; Xew Creek, J. M. Roderick; Alleghany, W. 
Hess; Elk Garden mission, W. H. Clary; Garrett mission, E. A. 
Pugh; Berkeley mission, J. A. Xegley; bishop Ohio District. .1. .1. 



284 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Glossbrenner; editor Telescope, J. W. Hott; evangelist at large, 
J. D. Donovan. 

1884 

Conference at Lacey Spring, Va, March 5. 

John Dickson, bishop; A. P. Funkhouser, G. P. liott, secretaries. 

Present: \V. R. Berry, L. O. Burtner, A. Day, .1. X. Fries, A. P. 
Funkhouser, G. Harman, J. W. Hicks, J. E. Hott, J. \V. Howe, M. F. 
Keiter, P. J. Lawrence, W. J. Miller, I. T. Parlett, G. J. Roudabush, 
\V. H. Sampsell, I. M. Underwood, C. I. B. Brane, W. H. Clary, C. P. 
Dyche, J. D. Freed, J. J. Glossbrenner, J. Harp, A. M. Horn, ,1. W. 
Hott, H. Jones, J. (i. Ketterman, W. L. Martin, ,1. K. Nelson, J. R. 
Ridenour, G. W. Rexrode, S. H. Snell, S. K. Wine, W. H. Burtner, 
C. H. Crowell, A. M. Evers, J. W. Funk, J. S. Grim, W. Hesse, 
C. M. Hott, G. P. Hott, D. D. Keedy, J. W. Kiracofe, M. L. May- 
selles, J. H. Parlett, J. M. Roderick, M. A. Salt, C. W. Stinespring, 
J. Zernian — 49. 

Absent: J. M. Bolton, J. A. Evans. J. F. Hott, E. Ludwick, J. A. 
Negley. P. H. Thomas, B. F. Cronise, W. O. Fries, G. W. How^e, 
W. Lutz, J. \V. Nihiser, J. D. Donovan, A. Hoover, G. Hoffman, C. 
Miller, S. Scott— 17. 

Visiting ministers: D. K. Flickinger, J. Dickson, J. X. Quigley, 
G. H. Snapp, D. D. DeLong. 

Died: Zimri I'mstot, aged about 43; Joseph E. Widmeyer, 
aged 26. 

Voted to purchase Shenandoah Seminary. Trustees and agent 
chosen. 

Ordained: W. L. Martin. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, §2,109.07. 

Resolutions adopted relative to Senator G. B. Keezel's letter to 
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Appointments, 221; organized churches, 188; members received, 
1,045; at end of year, 8,975; Telescopes, 850; meeting houses, llO 
value, $122,374; parsonage, 11, value, $12,055; Sunchiy Schools, 152 
teachers and ofTicers, 1,324; scholars. 8,226; collpcted for missions 
$1,295.2<S; for all purposes, .$29,209.48; salaries of preachers, $10,- 
903.81. 

Presiding elders: J. \V. Howe (Shen. Dist.), C. M. Hott, (Poto- 
mac Dist.), J. K. Nelson, (South Branch Dist.). 

Appointed: (]hurchville, J. \V. Hicks; Augusta, S. K. Wine; 
Rockbridge, A. S. Castle; Dayton station, G. P. Hott; Dayton, G. J. 
Roudabush; Lacey Springs, J. W. Funk; Elkton, J. M. Hott; Madi- 
son, to be supplied; South River mission, N. A. Kiracofe; Edinburg, 
J. E. Hott, and one to be supplied; Winchester mission, A. M. Horn; 
Front Royal mission, to be supplied; Singers Glen, N. F. A. Cupp; 
Freedmen's mission, T. K. ClitTord; Boonsboro, C. H. Crowell; 



CHURCH HISTORY 



285 



Keedysville, J. R. Ridenour; Hagerstown, W. R. Berry; Hagers- 
town station, W. O. Fries; Myersville, I. M. Underwood; Mechanics- 
town, W. L. Martin; Frederick, S. H. Snell; Frederick station, A. 
M. Evers, Potomac, J. W. Kiracofe; Martinsburg station, M. F. 
Keiter; (>larke mission, J. H. Parlett; Fauquier mission, to be sup- 
plied by P. E.; Winchester station, C. P. Dyche; Bloomery, P. J. 
Lawrence; North River mission, to be supplied; Berkeley Springs, 
J. D. Donovan; Lost River mission, J. G. Ketterman; Franklin, 
W. S. Rau; North Fork mission, A. Day; South Branch, J. M. 
Roderick; New Creek, W. H. Sampsell; Alleghany, W. Hesse; Elk 
Garden mission, W. H. (^lary; (iiirrett mission, E. A. Pugh; Rerke- 
ley mission, J. A. Negley; bishop Ohio District, J. J. Glossbrenner; 
Editor Telescope, J. W. Hott; agent Lebanon Valley College, I). D. 
Keedy; Principal Shenandoah Seminary, J. N. Fries; missionary 
to west coast Africa, J. A. Evans; agent for Conference scliool, 
Henry Jones. 

1885 



Conference at Frederick, Md., March 5. 

John Dickson, bishop; A. P. Funkhouser, G. P. Hott, secretaries. 

Present: W. R. Berry, W. H. Clary, C. P. Dyche, .1. D. Freed, 
J. J. Glossbrenner, J. W. Hicks, G. P. Hott, J. W. Howe, J. \V. Kira- 
cofe, W. L. Martin, J. K. Nelson, J. M. Boderick, W. H. Sampsell, 

C. I. B. Brane, C. H. Crowell, A. M. Horn, J. W. Funk, J. H. Rau, 
J. E. Hott, H. Jones, M. L. Mayselles, J. H. Parlett, G. J. Roudabush, 
S. H. Snell, L. O. Burtner, A. Day, J. N. Fries, A. P. Funkhouser, 
W\ Hesse, C. M. Hott, J. W. Hott, D. D. Keedy, P. J. Lawrence, 
W\ J. Miller, J. R. Ridenour, M. A. Salt, C. W. Stinespring, L M. 
Underwood, W. O. Fries, W. S. Rau, J. D. Donovan, J. E. B. Rice, 
S. K. Wine, H. H. Font, S. D. Skelton, A. Hoover, ,1. Zerman, J. A. 
Negley, R. Byrd, E. Ludwick — 53. 

Absent: J. M. Bolton, (1. W. Howe, C. Miller, P. H. Thomns, .1. S. 
Grim, B. F. Cronise, G. Hoffman, J. W. Nihiser, \V. H. Burtner, 
G. Harman, J. A. Evans, W. Lutz, S. Scott, M. F. Keiter, G. \V. 
Rexrode — 15. 

Visiting ministers: W. J. Shuey, J. X. Quigley, Z. C. Mower, 
J. L. Grim, C. A. Burtner, S. R. Gipple, D. Speck, C. T. Stearn, 

D. D. DeLong. 

Licentiates: R. Byrd, S. D. Skelton, H. H. Font, J. E. B. Rice, 
N. F. A. Cupp, W. S. Rau. 

Died: Jacob F. Hott, aged 62; J. G. Ketterman, aged 50. 

Open transfers to C. W. Stinespring, J. 1). Freed, E. Ludwick, 
M. A. Salt. 

Ordained: W. 0. Fries, C. P. Dyche, W. H. Sampsell, P. J. 
Lawrence, W. H. Clary. 

Collected on Albin fund, $1,628.55. 



286 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



287 



Preachers' Aid Fund, J?2,073.44. 

Appointments, 220; organized churches, 191; members received. 
983; at end of year, 9,221; Telescopes, 787; meeting houses, 188, 
value, $129,690; parsonages, 12, value, $12,224; Sunday Schools, 
165; teachers and officers, 1,561; scholars, 9,073; collected for mis- 
sions, $1,194.56; for all purposes, $32,516.78; preachers' salaries, 
$11,270.15. 

Presiding elders: C. M. Hott, (Potomac Dist.), C. I. B. Brane, 
(Shen. Dist.K J. W. Howe. 

Appointed: Boonsboro, C. H. Crowell; Keedysville station. .T. K. 
Nelson; Hagerstown, W. H. Berry; Hagerstown station, W. O, 
Fries; Myersville, I. M. I'nderwood; Mechanicstown, W. L. Martin; 
Frederick, S. H. Snell; Frederick station, A. M. Evers; Potomnc, 
H. H. Font; Martinsburg station. J. H. Ridenour; Clarke mission, 
J. E. B. Rice; Churchville, S. K. Wine; Augusta, C. P. Dyche; P.ock- 
bridge, R. Byrd; Dayton. H. .lones; Dayton station, ,1. W. Howe; 
Lacey Spring station. .1. W. Funk; Elkton, J. M. Hott; Madison, 
J. \\\ Maiden (by P. E.); South River mission, .1. M. Bolton; Edin- 
burg. J. E. Hott; Toms Brook mission, P. J. Lawrence; Winchester, 
A. M. Horn; Front Royal mission. I. T. Parlett: Singers (den, N. 

F. A. (Aipp; Freeden's mission, T. K. ClifTord; Winchester station, 

G. P. Hott; Bloomery. W. Hesse; Morgan, M. L. Mayselles; Berke- 
ley mission, ,1. A. Negley; Petersburg, to be supplied; North Fork 
mission, (i. Harman; Westernport mission, W. H. Clary; Lost 
River mission, N. A. Kiracofe; Franklin, W. S. Rau; South Branch, 
,L M. Roderick; New Creek, W. H. Sampsell; Alleghany, A. Day; 
Elk (iarden, A. S. Castle; Carrett mission, E. A. Pugh; Rerkeley 
Springs, J. D. Donovan; bishop Ohio District, J. J. Clossbrenner; 
editor Telescope, J. W. Hott; agent Shenandoah Institute, .1. N, 
Fries; missionary in Africa, J. A. Evans. 

1886 

Conference at Berkeley Springs, W. Va., March 3. 

John Dickson, bishop; G. P. Hott, W. L. Martin, secretaries. 

Present: W. R. Berry, C. H. Crowell, A. M. Evers, J. J. Cdoss- 
brenner, A. M. Horn, .1. W. Hott, H. .lones, P. .1. Lawrence. W. .L 
Miller, J. R. Ridenour, W. H. Sampsell, S. K. Wine, J. A. Negley, 
J. I). Donovan, J. W. Nihiser, G. W. Rexrode, C. I. B. Brane, A. Day, 
J. N. Fries, J. Harp, C. M. Hott, J. E. Hott, D. D. Keedy, W. L. 
Martin, J. K. Nelson, J. M. Roderick, S. H Snell, W. O. Fries, S. D. 
Skelton, J. E. B. Rice, S. Scott, N. A. Kiracofe, N. F. A. Cupp, 
\\. H. Clary, C. P. Dyche, A. P. Funkhouser, J. W. Hicks, G. P. Hott, 
J. W. Howe, J. W. Kiracofe, M. L. Mayselles, I. T. Parlett, G. J. 
Roudabush, I. M. Underwood, H. H. Fout, R. Byrd, J. M. Bolton, 
M. F. Keiter, A. S. Hammack, G. B. Fadeley — 50. 



Absent: L. O. Burtner, J. H Parlett, B. F. Cronise, G. Hoff- 
man, P. H. Thomas, G. Harman, J. D. Freed, W. S. Rau, J. A. Evans, 
W. Lutz, W. H. Burtner, J. M. Hott, A, Hoover, G. W. Howe, C 
Miller, J. S. Grim— 16. 

Visiting ministers: D. R. Miller, Z. Warner, J. P. Miller, L. 
W. Stahl. 

Licentiates: N. A. Kiracofe, G. B. Fadeley, A. S. Castle, A. S. 
Hanmiack, A. N. Horn. 

Transfers to J .W. Funk, W. Hesse. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, $2,011.67. 

Died: Jacob Zerman, aged 71. 

Ordained: Albert Day, J. M. Bolton. 

Resolutions adopted against a division of the Conference, as 
proposed by the last (General Conference. 

Transfer of G. J. Roudabush returned. 

Appointments, 216; organized churches, 168; members received, 
1,105; at end of year, 9,422; Telescopes, 497; meeting houses, 122; 
value, $131,796; parsonages, 13, value, .$1.3,439; Sunday Schools', 
163; teachers and officers, 1,423; scholars, 9,189; collected for mis- 
sions, $1,003.81; for all purposes, $24,150.74; salaries of ministers, 
$10,872.61. 

Presiding elders: A. M. Evers, (Potomac Dist.), J. W. Howe, 
(Shen. Dist.), J. W. Hicks, (South Branch Dist.). 

Appointed: Boonsboro, C. M. Hott; Keedysville station, J. K. 
Nelson; Hagerstown, S. H. Snell; Hagerstown station, C. 1. B. 
Brane; Myersville, I. M. Underwood; Mechanicstown, (i. J. Rouda- 
bush; Frederick, W. L. Martin; Frederick station, W. O. Fries; 
Potomac, H. H. Fout; Martinsburg station, J. R. Ridenour; Rerke- 
ley, J. D. Freed; Vancleavesville, to be supplied; Churchville, S. 
K. Wine; Augusta, C. P. Dyche; Rockbridge, R. Byrd; Dayton, H. 
Jones; Dayton station, A. P. Funkhouser; Lacey Spring station, 
J. D. Donovan; Elkton, J. M. Hott; Madison, W. S. Rau; Cross, 
W. H. Sampsell; Edinburg, C. H. Crowell, and one to be supplied; 
Winchester, J. E. Hott; Winchester station, G. P. Hott; Front 
Royal mission, J. A. Negley; Singers Glen, J. E. B. Rice; Freedmen's 
mission, T. K. Clifford; Rloomery, G. B. Fadeley; Franklin, N. F. A. 
Cupp; North Fork mi.ssion, S. Scott; Westernport station, J. M. 
Bolton; Lost River mission, N. A. Kiracofe; South Branch, P. J. 
Lawrence; New Creek, W. H. Clary; Lonaconing, N. H. Meese; 
Deer Park mission, A. Day; Elk Garden, S. A. Castle; Garrett, E. A. 
Pugh; Berkeley Springs, W. R. Berry; bishop emeritus, J. J. Closs- 
brenner; editor Telescope, J. W. Hott; Principal Shenandoah Insti- 
tute, J. N. Fries; missionary in Africa, J. A. Evans. 



288 



UNITED BHETHHEX 



CHURCH HISTORY 



289 



1887 

Conference nt Keedysville, Md., March 2. 

Jonathan Wea<'er, hishop; G. P. Hott, W. L. Martin, secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: L. \V. Stahl, \V. McKee, D. R. Miller, J. P. 
Miller, Burkholder, J. L. Grim, C. W. Stinespring, R. Cow- 
den, J. X. Quigley, H. C. Deaner, T. F. Bushong, H. A. Schlicter. 

Licentiates: W. F. Griiver, (ieorge M. Griiher, T. K. ClitTord. 

In treasury, $1,763.01. 

Conference Educational Fund, $469.78. 

Of the Maryland District, ci^ht out of nine (piarterly confer- 
ences voted for the establishing of the Maryland Conference, 
which was accordingly formed. 

Ordained: X. F. A. Cupp, S. D. Skelton, J. E. B. Rice, H. H. Font, 
M. L. Mayselles, R. Byrd. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, S;2,009.22. 

Mission opened in Staunton and pastor appointed. 

Died: J. J. Glossbrenner. 

Conference funds divided, except Albin will fund, so as to give 
seven-tenths to Virginia, three- tenths to Maryland. 

Appointments, 213: organized churches, 190; members received, 
1,126; at end of year, 9,663; Telescopes, 536; meeting houses, 126, 
value, .S146,616; parsonages, 12, value, .$13,138; collected for mis- 
sions, $1,095.56; for all purposes, $24,639.31; ministers' salaries,. 
$11,018.39. 

The following members went to the Maryland Conference: .1. 
M. Bolton, C. 1. B. Brane, A. S. Castle, B. F. Cronise, A. M. Evers^ 
H. H. Fout, \V. (). Fries, J. S. Grim, G. M. Gruber, J. Harp, ,1. \V. 
Hicks, A. X. Horn, C. M. Hott, D. I). Keedy, X. A. Kiracofe, ,J. W. 
Kiracofe, W. L. Martin. J. K. Xelson, G. J. Roudabush, S. H. Snell, 
S. K. Wine— 21. 

The following went to the Virginia Conference: \V. R. Berry, 
W. H. Burtner, L. O. Burtner, R. Byrd, W. H. Clary, T. K. Clifford, 
C. H. Crowell, X. F. A. (Aipp, J. D. Donovan, C. P. Dyche, ,1. A. 
Evans, G. B. Fadeley, J. N. Fries, A. P. Funkhouser, W. F. Gruver, 
A. S. Hammack, George Harman, George Hotlman, A. Hoover, 
A. M. Horn, J. M. Hott, G. P. Hott, J. W. Howe, G. \V. Howe, H. 
.Jones, M. ¥. Keiter, P. J. Lawrence, William Lutz, M. L. Mayselles, 
W. J. Miller, Charles Miller, J. A. Xegley, J. W^ Xihiser, I. T. Par- 
lett, J. H. Parlett, G. W. Rexrode, J. E. B. Rice, J. H. Ridenour, 
.1. ^L Roderick, W. H. Sampsell, S. Scott, S. D. Skelton, P. H. 
Thomas, I. M. Underwood — 46. 

Presiding elders: C. P. Dyche, (Shen. Dist.), C. H. CrowelL 
(Winchester Dist.), A. M. Evers, (Md. Conf.), 

Appointed (Va.) : Edinburg, I. M. Underwood; Lacey Spring, 
J. D. Donovan; Dayton, R. Byrd; Dayton station, A. P. Funkhouser; 



Augusta, J. M. Hott; Church ville, J. E. B. Rice; Rockbridge, S. D, 
Skelton; Luray mission, to be suppjied; Madison, G. H. Snapp; 

Cross Keys, W. H. Sampsell; Front Royal, Walters; Singers 

Glen, W. F. Gruver; Elkton, G. B. Fadeley; Freedmen's mission,. 
T. K. Clifford; Winchester station, G. P. Hott; Bloomery, .1. M. 
Roderick; Franklin, X. F. A. Cupp; North Fork, G. W. Rexroad; 
Lost River mission, J. A. Xegley; South Branch, W. D. Barger; 
Xew Creek, W. H. Clary; Berkeley Springs, W^ R. Berry; Van- 
cleavesville, W^ B. Evers; Martinsburg station, J. R. Ridenour; 
Berkeley, J. D. Freed; Winchester, J. E. Hott; Hartmansville mis- 
sion, to be supplied; editor Telescope, J. W. Hott; principal Shen- 
andoah Institute, J. X. Fries; missionary in Africa, J. A. Evans. 

Appointed (Md.) : Alleghany, A. M. Horn; Locaconing, M. H. 
Meese; Westernport station, P. J. Lawrence; Keedysville station, 
S. H. Snell; Boonsboro, C. M. Hott; Hagerstown, J. K. Xelson; 
Hagerstown station, C. I. B. Brane; Potomac, X. A. Kiracofe; 
Myersville, J. W. Hicks; Mechanicsville, G. J. Roudabush; Fred- 
erick, W. L. Martin; Frederick station, S. K. Wine; principal West 
Virginia Academy, W^ O. Fries. 

1888 

Conference at Dayton, Va., March 4. 

E. B. Kephart, bishop; G. P. Hott, A. P. Funkhouser, secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: M. O. Lane, J. M. Lesher, D. D. Keedy, E. S. 
Lorenz, G. H. Snapp, C. M. Hott, S. K. Wine, C. P. Doyle, Mrs. 
L. R. Keister. 

Licentiates: George W. Stover, W. P. Bazzle. 

Died: J. M. Rodruck, aged 73. 

In treasury, $1,842.38. 

Ministerial Benefit Fund, $1,465.65. 

Educational Aid Fund, $381.10. 

Appointments, 159; organized churches, 138; members received, 
793; at end of year, 7,818; Telescopes, 280; meeting houses, 100, 
value, $82,305; parsonages, 9, value, $7,203; Sunday Schools, 128; 
teachers and officers, 973; scholars, 6,972; collected for missions, 
$682.11; for all purposes, $17,324.69; preachers' salaries, $6,870. 

Presiding elders: C. H. Crowell, (Winchester Dist.), C. P. 
Dyche, (Shen. Dist.). 

Appointed: Hartmansville mission, W. P. Bazzle; Berkeley, 
A. M. Horn; W^inchester station, to be supplied; Frederick, W. H. 
Sampsell; Berkeley Springs, W. R. Berry, South Branch, N. F. A. 
Cupp; Martinsburg station, J. R. Ridenour; Vancleavesville, to be 
supplied; New Creek, W^ H. Clary; North Fork, G. W. Rexroad; 
Lost River, J. A. Negley; Franklin, to be supplied; Bloomery, E. A. 
Pugh; Front Royal, L. C. Frederick; Churchvillc, .1. E. B. Rice; 
Lacey Spring, J. D. Donovan; Edinburg, I. M. Underwood; Dayton 



290 



UNITED BRETHREN 



station, R. Byrd; Augusta, J. M. Hott; Staunton station, J. W. Howe; 
Elkton, G. R. Fadeley; Rockbridge, S. D. Skelton; Cross Keys, J. E. 
Hott: Madison mission, G. H. Snapp; Fauquier mission, to be sup- 
plied; Freedmen's mission, T. K. Clifl'ord. 

1889 

Conference at Martinsburg, \V. Va., March 6. 

Nicholas Castle, bishop; G. P. Hott, A. P. Funkhouser, secre- 
taries. 

Visiting ministers: B. F. Rooth, G. H. Snapp, A. M. Evers, M. O. 
Lane, C. I. R. Brane, C. M. Hott. 

Licentiates: J. C. S. Myers, J. R. Chamberlain, \V. O. Ewing, 
S. L. Rice, E. A. Pugh. 

In treasury, .^L717.40. 

Died: (leorge Huffman, Oct. 22, 1888, aged 82; P. H. Thomas. 
Feb. U, LS89, aged 72. 

L. 0. Rurtner transferred to >Liryland Conference. 

Appointments, 159: organized churches, 142; members received, 
515: at end of year, 7,159; Telescopes, ,301: meeting houses, 101, 
value, s84,740; parsonages, 8, value, $0,839.50; Sunday School, 112; 
teachers and oflicers, 840; scholars, 6,488; collected for missions, 
S647.00; for all purposes, $10,207.34; preachers' salaries, $0,248,29. 

Presiding elders: C. H. Crowell, (Winchester Dist.), C. P. 
Dyche, (Shen. Dist.),. 

Appointed: Hartmansville mission, E. A. Pugh; Rerkeley, A. M. 
Horn; fierkeley Springs, \V. R. Rerry; Winchester station, ,L R. 
Chamberlain; Frederick, W. H. Sampsell; South Rranch, N. F. A. 
Cupp; Martinsburg station, J. R. Ridenour; Vancleavesville, W. O, 
Ewing; New Creek, W. H. Clary; Lost River, J. A. Negley; Frank- 
lin, W. P. Razzle; Rloomery, P. J. Lawrence; Front Royal, .1. W. 
Walter; Church ville, J. E. R. Rice; Lacey Spring, W. F. Gruver; 
Edinburg, R .Ryrd; Dayton, I. M. Underwood; Singers Glen, J. D. 
Donovan; Augusta, S. D. Skelton; Staunton station, J. W. Howe; 
Elkton, G. R. Fadeley; Rockbridge, J. M. Hott; Cross Keys, S. L. 
Rice: Madison mission, J. W. Maiden; Fauquier mission, to be sup- 
plied; Freedmen's mission, T. K. ClifVord. 

1890 

Conference at Winchester, Va., March 5. 

Jonathan Weaver, bishop; G. P. Hott, W. R. Rerry, secretaries. 

Delegates present: P. C. Tutwiler, Ryrd Clapsaddle, D. W. 
Rreneman, R. E. Donovan, H. H. Hanger, C. W. Jones, Thomas 
Hancher, J. G. Kitchen, R. F. Long, J. Taylor, D. O. Fout— 11. 

Visiting ministers: John Hill, J. W. Kiracofe, J. K. Nelson, L. 0. 
Burtner, G. W. Statton, S. H. Snell, C. W. Stinespring, D. D. Keedy. 

In treasury, $1,702.92. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



291 



Preachers' Aid Fund, $1,305.46. 

Educational Aid Fund, $345.75. 

Licentiates: J. F. Snyder, R. L. Dorsey, J. E. Fout. 

Ordained: A. S. Hammack, T. K. Clifford. 

Died: Henry Jones, Aug. 23, 1889, aged 52; George W. Howe, 
Mar. 19, 1889, aged 57. 

Appointments, 149; organized churches, 136; members received, 
595; at end of year, 7,309; Sunday Schools, 129; teachers and 
officers, 993; scholars, 7,516; churches, 101: value, $81,866: par- 
sonages, 8, value, $5,691; collected for missions, $579.52; for all 
purposes, $15,131.63; preachers' salaries, $7,668.32. 

Presiding elders: C. P. Dyche, (Shen. Dist.), C. H. Crowell, 
(Winchester Dist.). 

Appointed: Rockbridge. J. M. Hott: Staunton mission station, 
J. D. Dona van; Augusta, S. D. Skelton: North Fork, N. A. Kiracofe; 
Franklin, J. E. Fout; Singers Glen, J. E. Hott; Church ville, G. W. 
Statton; Lacey Spring, (i. R. Fadeley; Edinburg, W. R. Rerry; 
Dayton, I. M. Underwood: Elkton, W. F. Gruver; Madison mission, 
J. W. Maiden; Cross Keys, S. L. Rice: Freedmen's mission, T. K. 
Clifford; Toms Rrook, H. Ryrd: Front Royal, J. W. Walter; Hart- 
mansville mission, E. A. Pugli: Winchester, J. R. Chamberlain; 
Frederick, W. H. Sampsell: Rerkeley Springs, J. E. R. Rice; South 
Rranch, N. F. A. Cupp; Martinsburg station, J. R. Ridenour: Van- 
cealvesville, W. O. Ewing; Lost River, J. F. Snyder; New Creek, 
\\. J. Miller; Rloomery, P. J. Lawrence; Mooreiield, W. P. Razzle. 

1891 

Conference at Churchville, Va., March 4. 

John Dickson, bishop; G. P. Hott, W. R. Rerry, secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: G. W. Statton, G. H. Snapp, J. W. Ingle, R. 
F. Rooth, C. 1. R. Rrane, W. J. Shuey, A. M. Horn, N. A. Kiracofe. 

Open transfer to W. J. Miller. 

Licentiates: E. W. McMullen, R. P. S. Rusey. 

M. F. Keiter, I. T. Parlett, J. H. Parlett marked "irregularly 
withdrawn," having joined the radical wing. 

Ordained: J. R. Chamberlain. 

In treasury, $1,750.87. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, $1,531.73. 

Educational Aid Fund, $345.73. 

Special collection ordered taken in all the Sunday schools for 
the benefit of the church now building in Washington, D. C. 

Appointments, 161; organized churches, 148; members received, 
800; at end of year, 7,61; Telescopes, 213; meeting houses, 102, 
value, $86,955; parsonages, 9, value, $7,381; Sunday Schools, 126; 
teachers and officers, 1,002; scholars, 7,646; collected for missions, 
$704.31; for all purposes, $17,042.48; preachers' salaries, $7,737.55. 



292 



UNITED BRETHREN 



1892 



Conference at Berkeley Springs, W. Va., March 2. 

E. B. Kephart, bishop; G. P. Hott, J. B. Chamberlain, secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: William McKee, M. L. Mayselles, N. A. 
Kiracofe. 

Licentiate: J. \V. Maiden. 

Mission work begun in Shenandoah in June, 1891, by S. K. Wine. 

Mission opened in Roanoke, May, 1891, by J. E. Pout, a student, 
A. P. Funkhouser guaranteeing him $100 for his work in summer 
vacation. J. W. Howe served the mission after Mr. Fout returned 
to the seminary. Special collection ordered by vote of Conference 
for this mission, and J>255 subscribed on the floor. 

Ordained: S. L. Rice, W. O. Ewing, J. F. Snyder. 

In treasury, $1,669.67. 

Educational Aid Fund, $345.73. 

Ministerial Benefit fund, $1,597.72. 

Appointments, 161; organized churches, 147; Sunday Schools, 
137; teachers and officers, 1,003; scholars, 7,819; members received, 
832; at end of year, 7,819; Telescopes, 251; meeting houses, 104, 
value, $89,150; parsonages, 12, value, $7,640; collected for mis- 
sions, $841.90; for all purposes, $16,046.71; preachers' salaries, 
$8,889.24. 

1893 

(Conference at Hawkinstown, Va., March 1. 

Nicholas Castle, bishop; G. P. Hott, J. B. Chamberlain, secre- 
taries. 

Visiting ministers: I. L. Kephart, A. M. Evers, W. O. Fries, 
Pres. E. B. Bierman. 

Licentiate: J. W Walter. 

Transferred: I. M. Underwood. 

Died: Charles Miller, Mar. 9, 1892, aged 67; J. W. Nihiser, Feb. 
1893, aged 66. 

Virginia Conference, Young People's Christian Union, organized. 

In treasury, $1,950.03. 

Appointments, 161; organized churches, 138; members received, 
897; at end of year, 8,076; Telescopes, 263; Sunday Schools, 122; 
teachers and officers, 931; scholars, 7,153; meeting houses, 104, 
value, $90,707; parsonages, 14, value, $10,049; collected for mis- 
sions, $787; for all purposes, $21,589.08; preachers' salaries. 
$9,340.15. 



1894 



Conference at Staunton, Va., February 28. 

E. P. Kephart, bishop; G. P. Hott, W^ R. Berry, secretaries. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



29:? 



Visiting ministers: \\. J. Shuey, W. M. Bell, C. I. B. Brane, J. P. 
Anthony, L. Rexroad. 

Licentiates: S. R. Ludwig, O. W. Burtner, G. W. Stover, S. D. 
Dawson, J. W. Brill. 

Received as elder from Methodist Protestant Church, W. L. 
(Childress. 

R. L. Dorsey dismissed and name stricken from roll. 

Transferred: J. E. Fout. 

J. W. Howe presented a life-sized portrait of himself by mem- 
bers of the Conference and friends. Presentation by bishop. 

In treasury, .$2,859.87, of which $1,500 is for benefit of Liicey 
Spring. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, $1,644.98, to whicli is added in per- 
manency, $100 donated by J. W. Howe. 

Appointments, 156; organized churches, I4(); members received, 
1,572; at end of year, 8,597; Sunday Schools, 132; teachers and 
officers, 1,039; scholars, 7,426; meeting houses, 107, value, $101.91)0; 
parsonages, 16, value, $12,697; Telescopes, 377; collected for mis- 
sions, $878.81; for all purposes, $22,451.33; salaries of preachers, 
$9,7330.65. 

1895 

Conference at Martinsburg, W. Va., March 20. 

J. S. Mills, bishop; (i. P. Hott, W. R. Berry, secretaries . 

Visiting ministers: W. M. Bell, A. M. Elvers, W. L. Mm\si'1Ics, 
G. H. Snapp, J. W. Kiracofe, G. W. Kiracofe, C. W. Stinespring, A. 
N. Horn, J. Dickson, G. J. Roudabush, I. L. Kephart, .1. T. Spangler. 

Licentiates: S. A. Crabill, W. O. .Jones. W. H. Bruce, C. 1). Ben- 
nett, H E. Richardson, A. J. Secrist. 

In treasury, $3,136. 

Educational Fund, $412.80. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, $1,938.45. 

Ordained: B. P. S. Busey, W. P. Bazzle. 

Resolution adopted inviting Maryland (Conference to reunite 
with the Virginia Conference. 

Appointments, 181; organized churches, 164; members received, 
1,351; at end of year, 9,282; Sunday Schools, 137; teachers and 
officers, 1,046; scholars, 8,014; meeting houses, 109, value, $100,765: 
parsonages, 16, value, $12,791; Telescopes, 460; collected for mis- 
sions, $1,127.21; for all purposes, $23,106.32; preachers salaries, 
$10,202.91. 

1896 

* 

Conference at Broadway, Va., March 18. 

Nicholas Castle, bishop; G. P. Hott, W. R. Berry, secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: M. R. Drury, W. M. Weekley, G. H. Snapp. 



294 



UNITED BHETHHEN 



W. L. Martin, G. J. Roudabush, J. B. Chamberlain, H. H. Font, 
S. H. Snell, H. B. Dohmer. 

Received: S. K. Wine. 

Ordained: (i. \V. Stover, J. W. Maiden. 

E. S. Tabler, B. F. Grnver, E. M. Baker, J. W. Keiter, C. M. 
Strickler, J. A. Noon nominated as candidates to be voted for as 
lay delegates to next General Conference. 

In treasury, $3,233.86. 

Mutual Benefit Fund, .$1,84^.54. 

Educational Aid Fund, $419,544. 

Appointments, 184; organized churches, 168; members received, 
1,270; at end of year, 9,652; Sunday Schools, 145; scholars, 8,180; 
meeting houses, 118, value, $111,471; parsonages, 14, value, $11,706; 
Telescopes, 485; collected for missions, $1,099.55; for all purposes, 
$24,593.52; preachers' salaries, $10,563.47. 

1897 

Conference at Roanoke, Va., March 17. 

J. \V. Hott, bishop; G. P. Hott, W. R. Berry, W. O. Ewing, 
secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: W. M. Bell, S. \V. Paul, H. B. Dohmer, E. V. 
Hoenshel. 

Licentiates: L. A. Racey, J. H. Rrunk, J. W. Stearn, George M. 
Jones, W. A. Black, Lau Seng Nam (of Canton, China). 

Transferred: J. E. B. Rice. 

Raised on Conference floor for church just built in Johnson 
City, Tenn., $80. 

In treasury, $3,250. 

Ministerial Benefit Fund, $1,820.20. 

Educational Aid Fund, $433.69. 

Appointments, 185; organized churches, 165; members received, 
1.089; at end of year, 9,859; Sunday Schools, 150; teachers and 
officers, 1,099; scholars, 8,859; Telescopes, 446; meeting houses, 
118; value, $108,490; parsonages, 17, value, $12,300; collected for 
missions, $1,163.18; for all purposes, $25,890.12; salaries of preach- 
ers, $11,100.80. 

1898 

Conference at Toms Brook, Va., March 16. 

E. B. Kephart, bishop; G. P. Hott, \V. F. Gruver, W. R. Berry, 
secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: G. H. Snapp, L. Walter Lutz, W. R. Funk, 
H. B. Dohmer, S. W. Paul, A. B. Station, R. Byrd, C. W. Brewbaker, 
II. H. Font, N. W. Burtner, J. E. Font, H. U. Roop, Dr. T. C. Carter. 

Licentiates: L. O. Bricker, A. P. Walton, T. J. Feaster, A. R. 
Hendrickson. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



295 



Ordained: A. J. Secrist, ('. I). Bennett, H. K. Ricliardson, S. A. 
Crabill. 

Ordination of (i. K. Little, evangelist, was by request of Pennsyl- 
vania Conference arranged to occur in August at Assembly Park. 

Reconnnended that every charge in the Conference raise a per- 
manent fund of one dollar per member, on an average, for Shen- 
andoah Institute. 

In treasury, $3,274.55. 

Educational Aid Fund, $433.69. 

Preachers' Aid Fund, .^1,945.18. 

Appointments, 180; organized churches, 154; members received, 
1.430; at end of year, 10,978; Sunday Schools, 134; scholars, 8,343; 
Telescopes, 587; meeting houses, IK), value. J^l 13,404: parsonages, 
17, value, $14,067; collected for missions, sL143.41; for all pur- 
poses, .$27,568.83; preachers' salaries. ^14.277.20. 

1899 

Conference at Winchester, Va., Marcli 15. 

E. B. Kephart, bishop; G. P. Hott, W. R. Berry, A. S. Hammack. 
secretaries. 

Visiting ministers: W. M. Weekley. T. C. Carter, M. L. May- 
selles, A. N. Horn, W. R. Funk, .1. C. Gardner, L. O. Burtner. .1. B. 
Chamberlain, E. U. Hoenshel, E. G. Spessard, A. M. Evers, H. U. 
Roop, J. E. B. Rice. 

Received: L. W. Lutz. 

Transferred: E. A. Pugh. 

Ordained: A. P. Walton. 

Died: W. O. Ewing, Oct. 18, 1898, aged 32; George W. Rexroad. 
Mar. 2,5, 1898, aged 77. 

G. P. Hott and A. P. Funkhouser a connnittee to visit Newport 
News "and examine the outlook for establishing a church in that 
city in the near future." 

Appointments, 185; organized churches, L58; members received, 
1,285; at end of year, 10,383; Sunday schools, 137; teachers and 
officers, 1,210; scholars, 8,680; Telescopes, 558; meeting houses, 
124, value, $121,186; parsonage, 19, value, i^l6,396; collected for 
missions, $1,013.51; for all purposes, $28,268.23; salaries of preach- 
ers, $13,545.76; active itinerants, 33; supernumerary, 3; super- 
annuated, 2; employed local preachers, 6; unemployed local 
preachers, 8. 

1900 

Conference at Harrisonburg, Va., March 21-26. 

J. W. Hott, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary. 

Present, 48 ministers; absent, 10; delegates present, 24. 

Visiting ministers: J. B. Chamberlain, J. C. Gardner, A. N. 



r 



296 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



297 



Horn, C. \V. Hutsler, \V. M. Bell, A. \V. Lane, J. E. Hott, A. M 
Evers. L. O. Burtner, C. \V. Stinespring, J. L. Grimm, G. H. Snapp, 
W. M. Weekley, E. U. Hoenshel. 

Ordained: J. C. S. Myers, L. O. Bricker, J. W. Walter. J. H. 
Briink, W. A. Black, L. W. Liitz, L. A. Racey. 

B. P. S. Biisey transferred to Rock River Conference. 

T. C. Carter received from East Tennessee Conference. 

Henry Tallheim chosen elder. 

Presiding elders: G. P. Hott, J. 1). Donovan. 

Elected to itinerancy: L. O. Bricker, A. P. Walton. 

A. P. Walton elected Sunday School Secretary and Treasurer. 

Died: E. A. Pugh. 

Licentiates: (1st year) W. O. Jones, (ieorge M. Jones, O. W. 
Burtner, A. R. Hendrickson, C. M. Good, Ida M. Judy, T. C. Harper, 
E. A. Stanton, W. S. Rau; (2d year) J. W. Stearn, G. A. Newman; 
(3rd year) J. C. S. Myers. J. W. Brill, W. A. Black, E. W. McMullen, 
J. W. Walter, T. J. Feaster. 

The report on boundaries recommended that there be two pre- 
siding elder districts; that Berkeley circuit be called Jones Spring 
circuit; that Galena and Arbor Hill be added to Rockbridge circuit; 
that Ooss Keys circuit be re-named Pleasant Valley circuit; that 
Edinburg circuit be attached to Winchester district. 

A resolution adopted condenming the liquor trade in new pos- 
sessions of the L'nited States. 

Interesting reports on missions, education, and the publishing 
interests of the church. 

1901 

Conference at Churchville, Va., March 13-17. 

E. B. Kephart, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary. 

Advisory seats given to W. B. Keeley, W. S. C^ampbell, Dr. W. 
R. Funk. 

Repoi'ter: A. P. Funkhouser. 

Next General Conference asked to deline the boundary of this 
Conference so as to include in it all of Alleghany county (Md.), 
and all of (iarrett east of the Alleghany Divide. 

W. F. Gruver, A. P. Funkhouser appointed delegates to tiie 
Anti-Saloon League meeting at Washington, D. C in December. 

Ordered that Mt. IMeasant be detached from Winchester circuit 
and added to Inwood circuit; that Red Bud be detached from 
In wood and added to Winchester; that Claysville be attached to 
New Oeek circuit; that Virginia Mission district be divided into 
Staunton and Linville circuits. 

W. L. Childress, H. E. Richardson transferred to Maryland 
Conference; Dr. T. C. Carter granted an open transfer. 

Itinerants: T. J. Feaster, E. A. Stanton. 



Presiding elders: G. P. Hott, J. D. Donovan. 

To open a mission at Ponce, Porto Rico, $150 secured. 

Died: A. Hoover. 

Ordained: J. W. Brill, T. J. Feaster. Ida M. Judy. 

Constitutional Convention petitioned to allow a vote on the 
liquor question as an addendum to the State Constitution of 
Virginia. 

Licentiates: (1st year) W. O. Jones, G. M. Jones, O. W. Burtner, 
A. R. Hendrickson, C. M. Good, T. C. Harper, W. S. Rau, J. B. 
Ferguson, J. W. Stearn; (2d year) G. A. Newman, Ida M. Judy, ¥.. 
A. Stanton; (3d year) J. (]. S. Myers, J. W. Brill, E. W. McMullen, 
J. W. Walter, L. O. Bricker. 

Sunday School Secretary and Treasurer, A. P. Walton. 

Secretary Historical Society, N. F. A. Cupp. 

Trustees Lebanon Valley College: S. D. Skelton, S. K. Wine, 
H. B. Miller. 

Trustees Shenandoah Institute: J. C. S. Myers, (i. B. Fadeley, 
A. P. Funkhouser. 

Conference Mission Secretary: W. R. Berry. 

Minister present, 43; abent, 18; delegates, 19. 

Leading reports: Temperance, missions, education, Sunday 
Schols, young people's societies. 

1902 

Conference met at Lacey Spring, Marcii 12-11). 

J. S. Mills, bishop; (i. P. Hott, secretary. 

Reporters: A. P. Funkhouser, J. O. Long. 

Advisory seats given to H. H. Fout, E. U. Hoenshel, J. G. 
Roudabush. 

O. W. Burtner transferred to Pennsylvania Conference. 

Ordained: W. O. Jones, A. R. Hendrickson. 

Ordered that Shendun and Belvidere l)e detached from Augusta 
circuit to form Basic City circuit; that Camp Hill be detached 
from Capon circuit to form nucleus of a new charge; that a mis- 
sion be established in Cumberland, Md. 

S. E. Boyd, of Methodist Episcopal Church, South, received as 
ordained elder. 

Missionary Treasurer: W. R. Berry. 

Treasurer Conference Educational Society: J. N. Fries. 

Sunday vSchool Secretary and Treasurer: J. H. Brunk. 

Presiding elders: J. I). Donovan, A. S. Hammack. 

Died: Snowdon Scott. 

Licentiates: (1st year) C. M. (iood, T. C. Harper, J. W. Stearn, 
W. D. (iood, George Burgess; (2d year) G. A. Newman, W. S. Rau, 
J. B. Ferguson, G. M. Jones; (3d year) J. C. S. Myers, J. W. Brill, 



n 



d 



r 



298 



UNITED BHETHHEX 



E. W. McMiillen, .1. W. Walter, L. O. Bricker, J. W. Stearn, E. A. 

vStanton. 

Ministers present, 39; absent, 18; delegates, 18. 
Leading report was on Lebanon Valley College. 

1903 

Conference at Staunton, Va., March 26-30. 

,1. S. Mills, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary. 

Advisory seats given to J. L. (Irim, S. H. Snell, J. P. Anthony. 
A. N. Horn, F. M. Clenn, Dr. W. H. Funk. 

Reporters: A. P. Funkhouser, W. A. Black. 

S. G. Wells received from the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Ordered that Clay Hill be detached from Bockbridge and added 
to Church ville; that Marion Chapel be detached from South 
Branch and added to Franklin: that Christiansburg circuit be 

authorized. 

Presiding elders: A. S. Hanunack and W. F. Gruver. 

Itinerants: Lau Seng Nam, J. B. Ferguson, George Burgess, 
S. E. Boyd. 

Died: H. Tallhelm. 

Ordained: E. A. Stanton. 

Licentiates: (1st year) C. M. (iood, .1. L. Argabright, E. E. Net!'. 
George Burgess; (2d year) W. S. Bau, G. M. .lones; (.3d year) .[. B. 
Ferguson. J. W. Brill, T. C. Harper, E. W. McMullen, J. W. Walton, 
L. (). Bricker. J. W. Stearn. 

Delegates, 29. 

Ministers present, 40; absent, 18; local, 10; superannuated, 2. 

Leading report were on education and Lebanon Valley College. 

1904 

Conference at Martinsburg, W. Va., March 16-21. 

,1. S. Mills, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary, S. D. Skelton, reporter. 

Advisory seats given to J. B. Chand)erlain, A. V. Vondersmith, 
W. R. Funk, W. A. Dickson, H. U. Boop, A. B. Statton, B. Byrd, 
C. C. (iohn, A. N. Horn, D. B. Wagner, W. H. WiVshinger, H. B, 
Spayd, A. M. Evei's, G. K. Hartman, E. C. Hoenshel, A. M. Brook. 
M. L. Mayselles, C. W. Stinespring. 

L. W. Lutz transferred to Pennsylvania Conference. 

Open transfers to A. B. Hendrickson, J. F. Snyder, S. A. CrabilK 
L. O. Bricker. 

Ordered that .ludy and Smith Creek be detached from Pendle- 
ton and added to Franklin; that Circleville, Biverton, and Fligh 
Rock be detached from Pendleton and added to Franklin; that 
Thoroughfare be detached from Elkton and added to Shenandoah 
City; that Shendun be attached to Pleasant Valley circuit: that 
Mt. Bethel be added to Augusta circuit; that Broadway be detnchcd 
from Broadway circuit and added to Lacey Spring; that Harrison- 



CHLRCH HISTORY 



299 



burg (colored) be made a station; that the rest of Staunton and 
Linville circuits be called Linville and Staunton Mission: that 
Laurel Dale be detached from Bayard and added to New Creek; 
that Midland be added to Westernport station; that Horseshoe on 
New Creek circuit be discontinued. 

Presiding elders: W. F. Gruver, A. S. Hammack. 

Leading report was on Lebanon Valley College. 

Died: J. W. Howe. 

Licentiates: (1st year) C. M. Good, J. L. Argenbright, George 
Burgess; (2d year) W. D. Good, W. M. Maiden; (,3d year) J. W. 
Brill, E. W. McMullen, J. W. Walter, W. S. Rau, E. E. NefT; (4th 
year) T. C. Harper, J. B. Ferguson, G. A. Newman. 

Ministers present, 39; absent, 12; local, 16; superannuate. 2; 
delegates, 26; unemployed, 19. 

Ordained: .T. W. Stearn. 



1905 

('onference at Dayton, Va., March 22-27. 

J. S. Mills, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary. 

The name of A. G. Wells removed from the roll, he having 
joined another church. 

A. B. Wilson received from Alleghany Conference. 

Advisory seats to W. 0. Jones, W. M. Weekley, E. U. Hoenshel, 
A. V. Vondersmith, C. W. Hutsler, S. A. Crabill, W. R. Funk, A. N. 
Horn, S. L. Rice, Dr. Roop. 

Reporters: A. P. Funkhouser, E. A. Stanton. 

Presiding elders: W. F. Gruver, A. S. Hanunack. 

Ministerial salaries (minimum) fixed at $400 for inaiiied 
preachers and $300 for single preachers. 

The marrying of persons who have been divorced, by ministers 
of this church, denounced in a strong resolution. 

Ordained: S. A. Newnum. 

Boards all re-elected. 

Ordered that Paw Paw be added to Cacapon circuit; that 
Excelsior be added to South Branch circuit; that Limestone be 
added to Keyser; that (Hay Hill be taken from Church ville and 
added to Rockbridge; that Stokes be added to Church ville; that 
Smith's Chapel be added to Rockbridge circuit; that Christians-' 
burg be dropped; that the two Roanoke churches be consolidated; 
that Roanoke circuit be constituted. 

Licentiates: (1st year) C. M. Good, J. L. Argenbright, E. U. 
Sypolt, C. J. Racey, J. R. Geil, W. M. Maiden; 2d year) W. D. Good; 
(3d year) E. W. McMullen, J. W. Walter, W. S. Rau, George Bur- 
gess; (4th year) T. C. Harper, J. B. Ferguson, E. E. Neft', .1. W. 
Brill. 

Ministers present, 40; colored, 2; delegates, 30. 



300 



UNITED BRETHREN 



1906 

Conference at Berkeley Springs, W. Va., 21-26. 

J. S. Mills, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary. 

Reporters: E. A. Stanton, C. D. Bennett. 

Advisory seats given to S. A. Crabill, J. F. Snyder, A. N. Horn, 
\V G Wagner, J. E. B. Rice, J. F. Smith. Dr. W. R. Funk, H. H. 
Fout, C. I. B. Brane, C. W. Snyder, E. B. PUimmer, S. S. HoBgh, 
M. L. Marcelles, C. W. Brewbaker, S. H. Snell. 

Died: J D. Donovan. 

Ordained: W. D. Good. 

Itinerants: J. L. Argenbright, E. E. Neff, W. M. Maiden, C. J. 
Racev, L. A. Racev, H. R. Geil, B. N. Sypolt. 

Presiding elder (one district only): W. F. Gruver. 

The constitution reported by the Sustentation Board was 

adopted. 

The name. Young People's Christian Union was changed to 

Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor. 

\V. B. Keeley was transferred to Pennsylvania Conference. 

Assessments for ministerial aid doubled. 

Ordered that a mission be opened in South Cumberland; that 
Broadway be taken from Lacey Springs and added to Singers Glen; 
that Mt. Carmel, Pleasant View, and Cherry Grove be added to 
Singers Glen; that Mt. Clinton be taken from Singers Glen and 
given to Dayton; that Dayton and Harrisonburg circuit be united; 
that the new towns between Blaine and Bayard on the W. V. C. 
Railroad be added to Bayard circuit; that the presiding elder be 
paid $1,000 and parsonage rent. 

Licentiates: (1st vear) J. L. Argenbright, B. N. Sypolt, C. J. 
Racey, H. R. Geil, W. E. Smith; (2d year) W. D. Good; (3d year) 
J. \\\ Walter, George Burgess; (4th year) J. B. Ferguson, J. W. 

Brill. 

Ministers present, 39; absent, 16; local, 12; superannuate, 3; 

unemployed, 17; delegates, 24. 

Leading reports on missions, evangelism, church publishing 

interests. 

1907 

Conference at Edinburg, Va., March 13-18. 
J. S. Mills, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary. 
Reporter: G. W. Stover. 

Visiting ministers: S. S. Hough, W. D. Mitchell, Dr. Whitney, 
W. R. Funk, J. W. Karicofe, C. W. Stinespring. 

"Virginia Conference News" to be bi-monthly; A. S. Hammack, 

editor. . . . . 

The name of H. R. Geil dropped from roll, he having joined 

the Evangelical Association. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



301 



W. A. Black given local relation. 

Presiding elder: W. F. Gruver. 

Died: W. R. Berry, T. J. Feaster. 

Ordered that Pleasant View be added to Franklin; that Circle- 
ville be taken from Franklin and added to Pendleton circuit; that 
Belmont be taken from Staunton charge and added to AuVnista 
circuit; that Mt. Hebron be taken from Albemarle circuit and added 
to Elkton; that Dodson, Blaine, Chaflee, and Oakmont be added to 
Bayard mission; that the rest of Bayard circuit be known as Elk 
Garden circuit; that Linville and Long's Chapel be taken from 
Harrisonburg (colored) and added to Augusta and Rockingham 
circuit; that Mt. Bethel be taken from Augusta and added to 
Albemarle. 

Leading reports were those on home, education, church erec- 
tion. 

Ministers present, 41; absent, 15; local, 10; superannuate. 3; 
delegates, 21. 

Licentiates: (1st year) W. D. Mitchell, A. L. Maiden, L. E. Brill, 
W. R. Chapman, J. L. Argenbright; (2(1 year) C. M. (iood, C. .1. 
Racey, B. N. Sypolt; (3d year) W. M. Maiden. J. W. Walter; (4th 
year) G. Burgess, J. B. Ferguson. 

1908 

Conference at Keyser, W. Va, March 18-23. 
T. C. Carter, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary; W. D. Mitchell, 
reporter. 

Visiting ministers: H. B. Ritter, F. B. Chubb, G. A. McQuire, 
Dr. Herndon, E. U. Hoenshel, S. S. Hough, W. R. Funk, H. H. Fout, 
E. R. Reese, M. L. Weekley, M. L. Maysellcs. 

Died: J. D. Scott, T. K. CliiTord. 

Ordained: J. R. Ferguson, George Burgess. 

S. K. Wine given open transfer. 

Itinerants: W. D. Good, W. D. Mitchell. 

Licentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, W. D. Mitchell, A. L. Maiden; 
(2d year) C. J. Racey; (3d year) R. X. Sypolt, W. M. Maiden, J. W. 
Walters; (4th year) J. B. Ferguson. 

Ordered that the presiding elder's salary be ^\,20i)\ that Day- 
ton be taken from Dayton circuit; that Mt. Hebron and Swift Run 
be taken from Elkton; that Thoroughfare be detached from Shen- 
andoah ("ity, and with Mt. Hebron and Swift Run be constituted 
East Rockingham circuit; that Roanoke circuit be discontinued; 
that Winchester and Red Bud be made a station; that Sunrise be 
taken from Frederick and added to Tom's Brook; that Mt. Zion be 
taken from Frederick and added to Winchester circuit; that Bethel 
be taken from Tom's Brook and added to Frederick; that Mt. Olive 



UNITED BRETHREN 



302 

and Mt. Pleasant be taken from West Frederick and added to Win- 

^'^rJdin, reports .ere .hose on education, home, temperance, 

-^ '^^ ^•--' ^-f ■i'^i';;: iriocal, .3; superannuate. 4; 
Ministers present, 6b, anseni, iv , 

delegates, 29. 

1909 

to Staunton; that ^l*' /'°" ' '/" , oiver circuit he called Hardy 
-S't'thlriirhti SSdSrilelaUen trom East Hock- 

'"1rdin■;^:pSl':■e';f those on the Bible, Sunday Schools, and 
'^""ShUes: (1st year) IE. Brill. W^,D^ ^n.cl,e.l. A. L. Maiden; 

<3d year, B. N. ^^^^^^ ' J^'^^X .ocaVl2 superannuate. 5; 

Ministers present, 6d, auseni, lo, 

delegates, 20. 

1910 

Conference at Cumberland, Md., March 23-26. „,,,,eiter 

\^uuiciciiv r \y Uf\i\ spcretarv; C. ^. oanieiier^ 

W. M. \Veekley, bishop; (t. 1 . Hott, secreiai n , 

reporter. r T R Hraine C. G. Whitney, J. E. Fout, 

Visiting ministers: C. 1. ^^- /^^'^'"V i^- Jt. ^Vph^ter E U Hoen^ 
,. r • • r Q H in loiter J Ford, E. >\ . W eDsier, r.. ». . nucn 
MissMcGinnis, G. S. Haniutci, J. ru Houk, G. S. 

shel B F. Dobson, Dr. Kendall, S. J. Ludxvi., W . J. noi 
Gabel, A. B. Statton, F. M. Glenn. 

Ei:e^.v5l^lSK of 8500 raised for Conference home mission 

work. , 

Presiding elder: A. S. Hammack. 
Withdrawn: W. D. Mitchell. 
Granted leave of absence: R. C. Hammond, J. W. Stearn, G. H. 

Fadeley. 

Ordained: W. M. Maiden. 

Platform adopted for missionary work. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



303 



Leading reports: Temperance, missions, education, church 
literature, the home. Christian stewardship, Bible study. 

Ordered that Mt. Hebron, Thoroughfare, and Swift Run be 
taken from East Rockingham ( which is dissolved) and added to 
Elkton; that the appointments east of the Blue Ridge — BlutTdale, 
Otterbein, Shady Grove, Prize Hill — constitute Charlottesville 
circuit. 

Ministers present, 34; absent. Hi; local, 11; superannuate. 5. 

1911 

Conference at Staunton, March 22-25. 

T. C. Carter, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary; G. S. Hanleiter, 
reporter. 

Advisory seats given to J. G. Huber, C. W. Stinespring, G. S. 
Hanleiter, J. E. Croft, K. Moyer, C. Whitney, S. S. Hough. 

W^ M. Merrit, a pioneer member of the conference was intro- 
duced. 

Itinerants: B. F. Dotson, E. W. Webster, T. C. Harper, John 

Ford. 

An oU'ering of .'^720 for Conference church extension. 

Leading reports: missions, education, temperance, the Christian 
home, Christian stewardship. 

Presiding elder: A. S. Hammack. 

The ''Conference News" discontinued. 

Resolutions by the layman's meeting adopted. 

Died: J. W. Walters. 

Ordered that Bayard be made a station; that Frankford be 
added to Cumberland; that Mt. Zion and Sunrise be taken from 
Tom's Brook and added to Winchester; that a church be established 
at Petersburg, W. Va., in connection with South Branch circuit; 
that the salary of presiding elder be $1,500, including parsonage; 
that $3,000 be assessed for administration (15 per cent for bishop's 
salary, 70 for presiding elder, 10 for General Conference expenses, 
5 for contingent fund). 

Licentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, J. Ford, L. C. Messick, A. B. 
Mann; (2d year) W. M. Vansickle, A. L. Maiden, B. F. Dotson; 
(3d year) B. N. Sypolt; (4th year) C. J. Bacey. 

Ministers present, 40; absent, 16; local, 14; supperannuate, 4. 

1912 

Conference at Martinsburg, W. Va., October 2-8. 
T. C. Carter, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary; A. P. Funkhouser, 
W. D. Mitchell, reporters. 

Visiting ministers: C. W. Stinespring, S. S. Hough. 
Died: S. E. Boyd. 



304 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Transferred: B. N. Sypolt, E. W. Webster, T. C. Harper. 
The name of Lan Sang Nam dropped from roll, he having be- 
come a member of the Chinese Conference. 

Itinerants: L. C. Messick, A. B. Mann, G. A. McGuire, P. B, 

Chubb. _ , X J ^ 

Resolutions by the laymen of the Conference entered on 

minutes. . », . 

Leading reports: Foreign missions, education, the home, 
church publishing interests, Lebanon Valley College, the Y. P, 

Presiding elder: A. S. Hammack. 

Ordered that Bethel be taken from Charlottesville and added 
to Augusta; that Mt. Vernon be taken from Charlottesville and 
added to Pleasant Vallev; that the appointments east of the Blue 
Ridge be constituted a charge; that Circleville be taken from 
Pendleton, and with Riverton, High Rock, Mt. Pleasant and Seneca 
(taken from Franklin) be known as Riverton circuit; that Oak 
Hill be added to Churchville; that Big Pool and Buck Hill be 
added to Jones Springs; that Rockbridge circuit be known as 
Swoope circuit; that Dayton circuit be known as West Rockingham 

circuit. 

Licentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, L. C. Messick, A. B. Mann, 
G. A. McGuire, F. B. Chubb, 1. Summers, W. D. Mitchell; (2d year) 
B. F. Dotson; (4th year) D. G. Brimlow. 

Ministers present, 43; absent, 8; local, 0; superannuate, 4: 

delegates, 28. 

1913 

Conference at Roanoke, September 24-28. 

W. M. Weekley, bishop; G. P. Hott, secretary; A. P. Funkhouser, 
W. D. Mitchell, reporters. 

Advisory seats given to L. 0. Miller. W. O. Fries, S. S. Hough, 

J. P. Landis, R. Rock. 

Chairman of laymen's meeting: L. A, Armentrout. 

Presiding elder: A. S. Hammack. 

Vote for union with the Methodist Protestant Church: 32 for, 

20 against. 

Itinerants: I. Summers, W. D. Mitchell. 

Ordered that Salem and Park Side be taken from Inwood and 
added to Martinsburg, Second Church; that Mt. Carmel, Central, 
and Buck Hill be taken from Jones Springs and added to West 
Frederick; that Ridgely be attached to Cumberland mission; that 
Frederick circuit be called Reliance; that Mt. Hebron and Thor- 
oughfare be taken from Elkton and added to Charlottesville. 

Leading reports: Home, education, missions, publishing in- 
terests, Y. P. S. C. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



305 



Licentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, L. C. Messick, G. A. McGuire, 
F. B. Chubb, I. Summers, W. Y). Mitchell, A. Bamford, R. N. Young; 
(2d year) B. F. Dotson, A. B. Mann; (4th year) D. G, Brimlow. 

Ministers present, 41; absent, 14; local, 16; superannuate, .5; 
unemployed, 15; delegates, 25. 

1914 

Conference at Westernport, Md., September 22-28. 

W. M. Weekley, bishop; J. H. Brunk, secretary. 

Visiting ministers: G. A. Funkhouser, R. Rock, W. I). Barger, 
C. W'. Stinespring, Dr. H. F. Shupe, Dr. C. W. Brewbaker, S. E. 
Bowman, S. R. Ludwig. 

Ordained: W. D. Mitchel, D. G. Brimlow. 

Presiding elder: A. S. Hammack. 

Died: William H. Clary. 

Itinerants: A. L. Maiden, D. G. Brimlow, R. N. Young, I. Sum- 
mers, W. D. Mitchel. 

Ordered that Pleasant Grove be taken from Augusta circuit 
and added to Dayton station; that Belmont be taken from Staunton 
and added to Augusta; that Cherry Run circuit be constituted from 
Slater's, Sleepy Creek, and Big Pool (taken from Jones Spring) 
and Cherry Run and Pleasant Hill (new appointments); that Mt. 
Carmel, Buck Hill, and Central be taken from West Frederick 
and attached to Jones Springs; that Cross and Hampshire be taken 
from Westernport and added to Elk Garden; that Blaine and 
ChafTee be taken from Elk Garden and added to Bayard; that 
Fountain circuit be constituted from Fountain, Mt. Zion, and 
Eureka (taken from New Creek circuit) and Alaska and Horse- 
shoe (new appointments); that Swift Run be taken from Elkton 
circuit and added to Charlottesville, and the name changed to 
Swift Run circuit. 

Leading reports: Foreign mission, Christian stewardship, pub- 
lishing interests, Sunday Schools, education. 

Licentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, G. A. McGuire, F. B. Chubb, 
L Summers, R. N. Young; (2d year) A. Bamford, L. C. Messick, J. 
W'. WVight; (3d year) A. B. Mann. 

Ministers present, 44; absent, 12; local, 9; superannuate, 4; 
delegates, 32. 

1915 



Conference at Singers Glen, Va., September 15-20. 

W. M. Weekley, bishop; J. H. Brunk, secretary; A. P. Funk- 
houser, reporter. 

Advisory seats given to Dr. John Owen, Dr. J. H. Kendall, 
W. A. Wilt, G. K. Little, C. W. Hutzler. 



30() 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Mrs. Hal Smith, returned missionary from Africa, given honor- 
ary seat. 

Died: G. P. Hott, J. D. Donovan. . 

leading reports: Publishing interests, education, the Christian 
home. Christian stewardship, the Virginia Conference. 

Ordered that Potomac circuit be constituted from Sir Johns 
Run and Fairview (taken from Berkeley Spring station) and 
Alpine and Friendship (taken from Berkeley Springs circui ) ; that 
Salem be taken from Martinsburg, Second Church and added to 

'"Ticentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, G. A. McGuire, F^B^Chubb, 
I. Sinnners, R. N. Young, D. T. Gregory, J. H. Schmitt H M. Crim, 
J R Collis F. A. Tinnev; (2d year) L. C. Messick; (3d year) A. 
B. Mann; (4th vear) W. G. McNeil, J. W. Wright, A. Bamford. 

Ministers present, 48; absent, 10; local, 16; superannuate, 3; 
delegates, 31. 

1916 

Conference at Shenandoah, Va., September 13-18. 
W. M. Weekley, bishop; J. H. Brunk, secretary; H. E Richard- 
son, I. K. Roby, N. F. A. Cupp, W. F. Gruver, \V. D. Mitchell, G. W . 

Stover reporters. 

^ Advisory seats given to W. J. Houck, W. A. Wilt, E. U. Hoenshel, 

W. L. Childress, C. W. Cooper. 
Superintendent: A. S. Hammack. 
The name of R. G. Hammond dropped from the roll, he having 

joined another church. . . .u ^ i i 

Bishop Weekley delivered an address on "'Otterbein, the Model 

Preacher." ^ ^ ,r xt -i 

Itinerants: T. E. Gruver, S. L. Baugher, W . G. McNeil. 

Ordered that Strasburg be added to Tom's Brook; that the 
Cumberland work be designated Cumberland and Ridgely. 

Ordained: J. W. Wright, A. Bamford. 

Leading reports: Prohibition, foreign missions. Christian 
stewardship, the Christian Endeavor. 

Ministers present, 52; absent, 12; local, 20; superannuate, 3; 

delegates, 31. 

1917 

Conference at Petersburg, W. Va., September 26- October 1. 

W. M. Bell, bishop; J. H. Brunk, secretary; N. F. A. Cupp, H. E. 
Richardson, reporters. 

Died: A. P. Funkhouser, J. M. Hott, J. G. Roudabush. 

Superintendent: A. S. Hammack. 

The name of W. L. Hamrick was dropped from the roll because 
of irregular withdrawal. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



307 



Advisory seats given to Dr. A. S. Siddell, W. O. Fries, Miss Dora 
Housekeeper, J. E. Font, J. B. Chamberlain, Prof, J. H. Ruebush. 

Report of committee of course of study. 

Entered on minutes certilicate of agreement between the 
Church Erection Society and the Conference Board. 

Leading reports: Christian stewardship, the Christian home, 
home missions, education, temperance. 

Licentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, F. B. Chubb, R. N. Young, 
D. T. Gregory, J. H. Schmitt, H. M. Crimm, J. R. Collis, F. A. 
Tinney, W. b! Obaugh, W. R. Swank, D. F. Glovier, M. W. Nelson, 
V. L. PhilUps, W. H. Smith, W. R. McKinney, L. G. Bridges, J. L. 
Oliver, C. W. Hiser, W. M. Courtney, W. P. Hollar; (2d year) I. 
Summers, L. C. Messick; (3d year) C. A. McGuire; (4th year) 
A. B. Mann. 

Ministers present, 48; absent, 18; local, 27; superannuate, 1; 
delegates, 16. 

1918 

Conference at Harrisonburg, Va., September 25-30. 

W. M. Bell, bishop; J. H. Brunk, secretary. 

M. L. Weekley received from West Virginia Conference. 

Advisory seats given to W. R. Funk, E. U. Hoenshel, J. E. Fout, 
A. C. Siddall, Prof. J. E. Weidler of Free Town, Africa. 

Died: E. W. McMullen. 

Ordained: A. B. Mann. 

Superintendent: A. S. Hammack. 

Ministers who had served two full years within the bounds of 
the Conference placed on the itinerant list. 

Charter of Conference Church Erection Society presented. 

Assignments for Seminary Extension Study. 

Leading reports: E(kication, temperance, home missions, and 
a particularly excellent one on "the Christian Home" by L. A. 
Racey. 

Bible Conference ordered for the next summer. 

Plan adopted for raising an endowment fund for the Shen- 
andoah Collegiate Institute and School of Music. 

Licentiates: (1st year) L. E. Brill, F. B. Chubb, D. T. Gregory, 
H. M. Crimm, F. A. Tinney, J. A. Arnold, M. W. Nelson, V. L. 
Phillips, W. H. Smith, J. L. Oliver, C. W. Hiser, W. M. Courtney, 
W'. P. Holler; (2d year) I. Summers, W. R. McKinney, L. G. 
Bridgers, D. F. Glovier, R. N. Young, J. R. Collis; (3d year) G. A. 
McGuire, W\ B. Obaugh, L. C. Messick. 

Ministers present, 49; absent, 16; local, 26; superannuate, 1; 
delegates, 28. 



308 



UNITED BRETHREN 



1919 



Conference at Martinsburg, September 24-29. 

W. M. Bell bishop; J. H. Bnink and A. L. Maiden, secretaries; 
W. D. Mitchell, reporter; A. J. Secrist, treasurer; A. S. Hammack, 
superintendent. 

Resigned: B. F. Chubb, George Burgess, W. D. Good. 

Died: L. E. Brill, aged 47. 

Licentiates: D. T. (iregory, H. M. Crimm, J. H. Arnold, \V. H. 
Smith, J. E. Oliver, Jr., C. W. Hiser, W. P. Hollar, M. W. Nelson, 
W. M. Courtney, F. A. Tinny; first year. D. F. Glovier, L. G. 
Rridgers, J. R. Collis; second year. R. N. Young, W. L. Phillips, G. 
A. McGuire, L. C. Messick, W. B. Obaugh; third year. 

Increase of 18 per cent in salaries. 

W. F. Gruver and A. S. Hammack, trustees for Lebanon Valley 

College. 

.1. S. and B. H. Gruver contribute .^1,000 to Conference Minis- 
erial Relief Fund, a memorial to Jacob I. Gruver and wife. 

Papers read on "The Importance of the Sunday School," 'The 
Rights of the Child," "Christian Education," and "Church Exten- 
sion." 

Active itinerants, 38; superannuate, 1; local preachers 26 (18 
unemploved). 

1920 

Conference at Berkeley Springs, September 15-20. 

W. M. Bell, bishop; A. S. Hammack, superintendent; J. H. Brunk 
and A. L. Maiden, secretaries; A. J. Secrist, treasurer. 

Licentiates: (First year), J. E. Oliver, Jr., C. W. Hiser, J. H. 
Arnold, W. H. Smith, W. M. Courtney, M. W. Nelson, H. P. Ruppen- 
thal, E. E. Miller; (third year), R. N. Young. G. W. McGuire, W. B. 
Obaugh, L. C. Messick, 1). F. Glovier, L. G. Bridgers, J. R. Collis. 

Licensed to preach: M. M. Collins, Herman Grove, D. A. Frazier, 

Lay delegates, 35. 

Certiiicates given H. E. Richardson, A. B. Mann, D. F. Glovier, 
L. C. Messick, R. N. Young on Seminary Extension. 

Papers read on "The Christian Home," "Publishing Interests/" 
"Home Missions," "Foreign Missions." 

Membership, 17,818. 

Value of churches and parsonages, $575,872.88. 

Active itinerants, 38; superannuate, 1; local preachers, 26 (18 
unemployed). 

1921 

Conference at Dayton, September 14-19. 

\V. M. Bell, bishop; A. S. Hammack, superintendent; J. H. Brunk 
and A. L. Maiden, secretaries; A. J. Secrist, treasurer; W. S. Crick, 
reporter. 



CHURCH HISTORY 



'M)9 



' 



Licentiates: (First year), J. E. Oliver, Jr., C. W. Hiser. J. H. 
Arnold, W. H. Smith, W. M. Courtney, H. P. Rupi)enthal, E. E. Miller, 
M. W. Nelson; (third year). W. B. Obaugh, L.C. Messick. D. F. 
Glovier, L. G. Bridgers. J. R. Collis. 

Licensed to preach: Gladstone Cooley. W. C. Mundy, J. Pa. si 
(iruver, I). P. Bell, B. F. Spit/er, G. M. Keezle, J. H. Sisler, Arnold 
Roderick, (ieorge Knopp, William Rifle. 

Applicants for annual conference license: Claude Ryan, Her- 
man Grove, L. M. Leach, C. W. Tinsman, E. B. Caplinger, U. P. 
Hovermale, C. K. Welch. 

Added to itinerant list: W. W. Skellett, Charles Schadd. W. L. 

Childress. 

Resigned: C. G. Stambach, Dewey Ritter, G. W. Butler, D. I). 

Brant. 

Died: G. A. McGuire. 

Value, Shenandoah Collegiate Institute property, $75,835. 

Received during year, $28,408.01. 

Disbursed, $28,580.82. 

Average salary, $1,038 and parsonage. 



CHARGES, 1921 



Augusta 

Berkeley Springs Station 

Berkeley Spring Circuit 

Bayard 

Broadway 

Big Pool 

Churchville 

('umberland, First 

Cumberland, Second 

Dayton 

Edinburg 

Elk Garden 

Elkton 

Franklin 

Fountain 

Great Cacapon 

Greensburg 

Harrisonburg 

Hardy 

In wood 

Jones Springs 

Keyser 

Lacey Springs 

Martinsburg, First 



Martinsburg, Second 

Manassas 

New Creek 

Pleasant Valley 

Pendleton 

Petersburg 

Reliance 

Riverton 

Ridgeley 

Roanoke 

Swift Run 

Swoope 

Staunton 

South Branch 

Shenandoah 

Singers Glen 

Sleepy Creek 

Toms Brook 

Westernport 

Winchester Station 

Winchester Circuit 

WVst Frederick 

W^est Rockingham 



310 UNITED BHETHHEN 

CONFERENCE ROLL, 1921 

Note: The names of those present are starred. Dates are those 
of joining conference. The postolRce address is at the right of 
the page. 

Arnold, J. H 1918 Annville,-Pa. (student Lebanon 

Valley College). 

Baugher, S. L.* 1914 Edinburg, Va. 

Beale, J. R.* 1916 Dayton, Va., (teacher S. C. I.) 

Bhick, W. A ; 1897 Roanoke, Va. 

Bridgers, L. G.* 1917 Ridgeley, W. Va. 

Brill. J. W.* 1894 Bayard, W. Va. 

Brindow, D. G 1911 Martinsburg, W. Va. 

Brunk, J. H.* 1897 Berkeley Springs, W. Va. 

Burgess, George 1902 Laurel Dale, W. Va. 

Caplinger, E. B.* 1921 Dayton, Va. (student S. C. L) 

Chamberlain, J. B 1918.. Martinsburg, \V. Va. 

Childress, \V. L.* 1921 Cumberland, Md. 

Coffman, T. J.* 1917 Hagerstown, Md. 

(Mollis, J. R.'' 1915 Broadway, Va. 

Courtney, W. M.* 1917 Sleepy Creek, W. Va. 

Crimm, H. M 1915 Tiama, Africa (missionary). 

Crowell, C. H.* 1878 Great Cacapon, W. Va. 

Cupp, N. F. A.* 1885 Martinsburg, W. Va., R. F. D. 5. 

Dawson, S. D 1894 Ridgeley, W. Va. 

Dyche, C. P.* 1881 Elkton, Va., R. F. D. 

Fadeley, G. B.* 1880 Harrisonburg, Va. 

Ford. J. H.* 1910 Roanoke, Va. 

Ferguson, .1. B. 1901 Roanoke, Va. 

Fries. J. N.* 1874 Berkeley Springs, W. Va. 

(teacher in high school). 

Glovier, D. F.* 1916 Rolla, Va. 

Gregory, D. T.* 1915 Dayton, O. (assistant secretary 

Board of Administration). 

Grove, Hermon* 1921 Antioch, W. Va. 

Gruver, W. F.* 1887 Harrisonburg, Va. 

Hammack, A. S.* 1886 Dayton, Va. 

Hiser, C. W.* 1917 Annville, Pa. (student L. V. C.) 

Horn, A. M 1880 Mt. Solon, Va. 

Hovermale, V. P 1921 Dayton, O. (Bonebrake Semi- 
nary). 
.Tudy, Ida M.* 1900 Dayton, Va. (teacher S. C. L) 



CHURCH HISTORY 



311 



» 



McNeil, W. G.* 1915 Petersburg, W. Va. 

Maiden, A. L.* 1907 Dayton, 0. (Bonebrake Semi- 
nary). 

Maiden, J. \V.* 1892 Bridgewater, Va. 

Maiden, W. M.* 1904 Maysville, W. Va. 

Mann, A. B.* 1911 Staunton, Va. 

Messick, L. C* 1910 Jones Springs, W. Va. 

Miller, E. E 1920 Annville, Va. (student L. V. C.) 

Mitchell, W. D.* 1912 Akron, Ohio. 

Myers, J. C. S.* 1889 Lacey Springs, Va. 

Nelson, M. W 1916 Circleville, W. Va. 

Obaugh, W. B. 1916 Dayton, ()., (student in Bone- 
brake Seminary). 

Oliver, ,T. E., Jr 1917 Dayton, O. (Bonebrake Semi- 
nary). 

Phillips, V. L 1916 Westerville, O. (Field Secre- 
tary, Otterbein College). 

Racey, C. J.* 1905 Westernport, Md. 

Racey, L. A.* 1897 Inwood, \V. Va. 

Rau, W. S.* 1900 Shenandoah, Va. 

Richardson, H. E.* 1909 Martinsburg, W. Va. 

Ridenour, J. R 1875 Middletown, Md. 

Ruppenthal, H. P.* 1920 Shenandoah, Va. 

Ryan, C. A.* 1921 Keyser, W. Va., R. F. D. 

Sampsell, W. H.* 1881 Winchester, Va. 

Schadd, C. H.^= 1921 Sleepy Creek, W. Va. 

Secrist, A. J.* 1895 Martinsburg, W. Va. 

Skelton, S. D.* 1885 Dayton, Va. 

Smith, W. H.* 1917 Dayton, Va. 

Stover, G. W.* 1894 Winchester, Va. 

Stearn', J. W.* 1897 Mt. Clinton, Va. 

Swank, W. R.* 1916 Westerville, O. (student Otter- 
bein College). 
Tinsman, C. W.* 1921 Dayton, Va. (student S. C. I.) 

Welch, C. K.* 1921 Winchester, Va. 

Wilt, W. A.* 1917 Keyser, W. Va. 

Wright, J. W 1914 Westerville, Ohio. 

Young, R. N.* 1912 Churchville, Va. 

Local: J. H. Arnold, J. R. Beale, W. A. Black, L. G. Bridgers, 
George Burgess, T. ,J. ColTman, W. M. Courtney, S. D. Dawson, 
J. N. Fries, J. B. Ferguson, Herman Grove, C. W. Hiser, A. M. Horn, 
U. P. Hovermale, Ida M. Judy, E. B. Caplinger, E. E. Miller, M. W. 



312 



UNITED BRETHREN 



CHURCH HISTORY 



313 



Nelson, W. B. Obaugh. J. E. Oliver, Jr., V. L. Phillips, H. P. Ruppen- 
thal, C. A. Ryan, W. R. Swank, C. W. Tinsman, C. K. Welch, J. 
\V. Wright. 

Licentiates: J. H. Arnold, L. (1. Bridgers, ,1. R. Collis, W. M. 
Courtney, I). F. (ilovier, Herman (irove, C. W. Hiser, U. P. Hover- 
jnale, E. R. Caplinger, E. E. Miller, M. W. Nelson, W. B. Obaugh, 
J. E. Oliver, Jr., V. L. Phillips, H. P. Ruppenthal, C. A. Ryan, C. H. 
Schadd, W. H. Smith, W. R. Swank, C. W. Tinsman, C. K. Welch, 
W. A. Wilt. 

Retired: C. P. Dvche, J. W. Maiden, J. R. Ridenour. 



vi^ 






G E N P: R A L INDEX 



Page 

Ambrose, W 155 

Bachtel, J 72 

Baugher, S. L 155 

Beale, J. R 155 

Berry, W. R 156 

Boehm, M 17 

BoAcy, H. A 150 

Bovey, J. A 190 

Brane, C. I. B 156 

Brashear, T. F 157 

Bridgers, L. C 157 

Brill, J. W 157 

Briink, J 158 

Brunk, J. H 158 

Burgess, G 158 

Burtner, H 71, 158 

Burtner, L. 159 

Burtner, O. W 159 

Burtner, W. H 159 

Byrd, R 159 

Charges, 1921 List 309 

Childress, W. L 160 

Church, Apostolic 1, 6 

Church Dedications 193-202 

Church Papers 100 

Church Union 109, 209 

Civil War 94 

Circuits. 1848 80 

Clary, W. H 160 

CliJlord, T. K 160 

Collis, J. R 161 

Conference Divisions 42, 45 

Conf. Minutes Digest 224-309 

Conferences, First 38, 41 

Conference Roll, 1921 310 

Corbin, A 153 

Coursey, W. R 73, 86, 161 

Crabill, S. A 161 



Page 

Crowell, C. H 161 

Cupp, N. F. A 162 

Dawson, S. D 162 

Day, A 162 

Dayton 220 

Deneal, G. E 84 

Division in Church 103 

Donovan, J. D. 162 

Early Brethren in Virginia 44 

Education 214 

Evangelical Movement 32 

Evangelical Reformed Church 36 

Evers, A. M 163 

Evers, S 191 

Ewing, W. 163, 191 

Fadeley, G. B 163 

Feaster, T. J 163 

Ford, J. H 164 

Font, Henry H 151 

Fout, .lulius E 152 

Freed, A. D 164 

Fries, W. 164 

Fries, Jay N 222 

Fulkerson, J. W 81, 153 

Funk, Kingsley 192 

Funkhouser, A. P 203 

(ieeting. G. A 43 

German, Immigration 21 

German Language 90, 107 

German Reformed Church 8 

Gibbons, J 190 

(ilossbrenner, J. J 72, 96, 147 

Glovier, D. F 165 

Great Meeting, The 66 

Gregory, D. T.* 165 

Grinmi, J. L. 165 



314 



UNITED BRETHREN 



Page 

Grimm, J. W 165 

Grove, H. J 166 

Gruver, W. F 166 

Hammack, A. S 166 

Harman, G 166 

Haney, J 87, 167 

Harp, J. 167 

Hensley, J. L 167 

Hershey, J. M 86 

Hicks, J. W 168 

Hiestand, S 152 

Hiser, C. W 168 

Hisey, F 87 

Hoenshel, E. U 222 

Hoover, A 168 

Hott, C. M 191 

Hott, G. P 169 

Hott, J. F 168 

Hott, J. H 169 

Hott, J. W 150 

Howe, G. W 170 

Howe, J. W ...170 

Huffman, G 76, 172 

Huffman, S. J 173 

Hussites 3 

Hutzler, C. W 173 

Intoxicants 115 

Jones, H 173 

.Tones, W. 173 

Judy, I. M 173 

Ketterman, J. G 173 

Kiracofe, J. W 174 

Kiracofe, N. A 174 

Lawrence, P, J 174 

Ludwig, S. R 174 

Lutz, L. W 174 

McNamar, J. C 154 

McMullen, E. W 175 

McNeil, W. G 176 



Page 

Maiden, A. L 175 

Maiden, J. W 175 

Mann, A. B. 175 

Markwood, J 71, 96, 150 

Martin, W. L 175 

Mennonites 17, 29 

Messick, L. H 176 

Methodists 106 

Miles, J. W 176 

Miller, C 176 

Mitchell, W. D 176 

Missions, Foreign 102 

Moravians 5, 105 

Music 102 

Negley, J. A 177 

Newcomer, C. 49, 52 

Newcomer's Journal 45-65 

Nihiser, J. W 177 

Nihiser, R 190 

Obaugh, W. R 177 

Otterbein, W 9-16, 107, 215 

Paid Ministry, The 99 

Perry, J. E. 77 

Perry, J. W 178 

Preachers, Alphabetical List. .133 
Preachers, Chronological List. 124 
Preachers, Early 68, 70, 85, 87 

Racey, C. J 178 

Racey, L. A 178 

Rau, W. S 178 

Religion in Early America 33 

Rexroad, G. W 178 

Rhinehart, W. R 85 

Richardson, H. E. 179 

Ridenour, J. R. 179 

Rimel, G. R 78, 86 

Roderick. L 179 

Roudabush, G. J 180 

Ruebush, J 73, 180 

Ruebush, J. H 222 

Ruppenthal, H. P 182 



CHURCH HISTORY 



315 



Page 

Salt, M. C 182 

Sampsell, W. H 182 

Schlatter, Michael 11 

Scott, J. D 183 

Scott, S 182 

Secret Societies 119 

Secrist, A. J 183 

Sellars, A. S 154 

Senseny, P. 183 

Shen. Collegiate Institute 220 

Shuey, Christian 115, 148 

Shuey, G. A 184 

Skelton, S. D 184 

Slavery 113 

Smith, W. C 154 

Smith, W. H 184 

Snyder, J. F 184 

Spener, P. J 9 

Statton, J. F 83 

Statton, G. W 77 

Statton, L K 185 

Stickley, B 74, 84 

Stover, G. W 186 

Tabb, T. B 186 



Pago 

Tallhelm H 187 

Thomas, P. H : 187 

Tobacco 117 

Umstott, Z 187 

Underwood, I. M 187 

United Ministers, The 35 

Waldensees 2 

Walters, J. W 188 

Walton, A. P 188 

Warner, Z 152 

"We Are Brethren" 34 

Weller, P. W 188, 191 

WTiitesel, P 190 

Whitesel, J. E. 191 

Widmyer, J. E 188, 191 

Wilt, W. A 189 

Wine, S. K 189 

Young, R. N 189 

Zahn, J H4, 189 

Zehrung, S 189 

Zinzendorf, Count 5 



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